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Encyclopedia > Battle of the Baltic (1944)
Battle of the Baltic (1944)
Part of Soviet-German War, World War II

Advance of the Red Army 1943 - 1944
Date September to November 1944
Location Baltic States, East Prussia, Poland
Result Soviet Victory
Combatants
Red Army Wehrmacht
Commanders
Soviet STAVKA German OKW
Strength
Unknown Unknown
Casualties
260,000 all causes Unknown
Axis-Soviet War
BarbarossaFinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Belorussia – Lvov-Sandomierz – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPragueManchuria
Leningrad and Baltics 1941 - 1944
Toropets-Kholm – Demyansk PocketSparkPolar StarKrasny BorLenino– Leningrad Approaches – NarvaVilniusBaltic

Contents

Download high resolution version (1201x921, 283 KB)Soviet advances on the Eastern Front (WWII), 1943-08-01 to 1944-12-31 Drawn by User:Gdr File links The following pages link to this file: Siege of Leningrad Operation Bagration Eastern Front (World War II) Talk:Eastern Front (World War II... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Supreme commander: Adolf Hitler Supreme commander: Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Günther von Kluge, Walther Model Georgy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Nikolai Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men 8,800 guns 500 tanks 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men 20,640 guns 1,430 tanks 1,100 planes[2] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. ... The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Germans from Ukraine. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Weidling Helmuth Reymann Wilhelm Mohnke Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Koniev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Strength 1 million men (including 250,000 soldiers, the rest were Volkssturm and Hitler Youth units), 700 AFVs 500 aircraft 2. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Combatants Axis Powers, Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда) was the German... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Colonel General Ernst Busch General Kurochkin Strength Unknown 122,100 Casualties Unknown 29,200 The Toropets-Kholm Operation was a military operation ~conducted by the Red Army during the Soviet-German War, from 9th January to 6th February 1942 south of Lake Ilmen. ... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... Operation Spark (1943) was a military operation by the Red Army during January 1943 which intended to create a land connection to break the siege of Leningrad, which was conducted by the German Wehrmacht. ... Operation Polar Star was an operation conceived by the Stavka of the Red Army in early 1943, during the Soviet-German War. ... Combatants Germany (Spain) Soviet Union Commanders Emilio Esteban Infantes Vladimir P. Sviridov Strength 5,900 44,000 Casualties 3,945 dead, wounded, missing, or captured 11,000 dead, wounded, missing or captured The Battle of Krasny Bor was fought between the German Wehrmachts 250th Infantry Division, composed of Spanish... Battle of Lenino took place from 12th October to 13th October 1943 near Trigubovo village (later renamed Lenino, today on Belarus) between Soviet Union 33rd Western Front Army and Nazi German forces. ... Battle of Narva Conflict {{{conflict}}} Date {{{date}}} Place {{{place}}} Result {{{result}}} The Battle of Narva took place in the first half of 1944. ... Combatants Red Army, Polish Home Army Wehrmacht Commanders Rainer Stahel The Battle of Vilnius occurred as part of Operation Bagration, the great summer offensive by the Red Army against the Wehrmacht, in June, and July, 1944. ...

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Overview

The Battle of the Baltic, called the Baltic Operation by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes combat operations between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in the Baltic region during late summer and autumn of 1944. The Red Army's 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Baltic Fronts engaged German Army Group Centre and Army Group North. The result of the series of battles was a permanent loss of contact between Army Groups North and Centre, and the creation of the Courland Pocket in Latvia. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Campaign of 1939 Wehrmacht (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Baltic Sea The Baltic region (sometimes briefly The Baltics) is an ambiguous term used to denominate an arbitrary region connected to the Baltic Sea (also called The Baltics). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Army Group Courland (German: Heeresgruppe Kurland) On the 25 January 1945 Hitler renamed three army groups. ...

[edit]

Setting the stage

During 1944, the Wehrmacht was pressed back along its entire frontline in the east. In February 1944 it had to retreat from the approaches to Leningrad to the prepared Panther Line in Estonia. In June and July, Army Group Centre was thrown back into Poland by Operation Bagration. This created the opportunity for the Red Army to attack towards the Baltic Sea, thereby splitting the land connection between the German Army Groups. The Panther Line was a line of fortifications constructed by the German Army in Russia during World War II to defend against advancing Soviet forces. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ...


By 5 July 1944, the Šiauliai Operation commenced, as a follow-on from Operation Bagration. Soviet Forty-Third, Fifty-First, and Second Guards Armies attacked towards Riga on the Baltic coast with Third Guards Mechanized Corps in the van. By 31 July 1944 the coast on the Gulf of Riga had been reached. Sixth Guards Army covered Riga and the extended flank of the penetration towards the north. The German reaction was rapid, and initially successful. With some independent armoured formations it was possible to cut off the Soviet troops on the coast, and re-establish a tenous 30-km wide corridor connecting Army Groups Centre and North. A second attack, code-named Operation Doppelkopf, was attempted from 16 August 1944 by XXXX. and XXXIX. Panzerkorps under the command of 3. Panzerarmee. This attack was to re-take the key road-junction of Šiauliai/Schaulen. This attack ran head-on into an in-depth defensive by the 1st Baltic Front, and by 20 August 1944 the attack had stalled with heavy losses. A follow-on attack code-named Operation Cäsar failed in the same manner. After a brief period of respite, the STAVKA ordered to conduct the Baltic Operation, which lasted from 14 September to 24 November 1944. Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Å iauliai County Municipality Å iauliai city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 2 Coordinates General information Capital of Å iauliai County Å iauliai city municipality Å iauliai district municipality Population (rank) 129,075 in 2005 (4th) First mentioned 1236 Granted city rights 1589 Å iauliai ( (help· info), approximate English transcription: , is... // Background A Panzerkorps was a military formation type in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. The name was introduced in 1942, when the motorised Armeekorps (AK (mot. ... Stavka is an abbreviation for Shtab vierhovnogo komandovania, or General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ...

[edit]

Multiple Battles

The Battle of the Baltic covers a number of smaller battles. These include the battle for the Panther Line, a line of German fortifications extending south from Lake Peipus, the campaign for Narva, including the Battle for the Narva Bridgehead (1944), and the Battle of the Tannenbergstellung (1944), as well as the German Panzeroperationen Doppelkopf and Cäsar in September/October 1944, which were aiming at the restoration of contact between Army Groups Centre and North. A further notable operation was the amphibious attack on the Estonian islands of Dagö, Ösel, and Moon (German spelling), which block access to the Gulf of Riga. The Panther Line was a line of fortifications constructed by the German Army in Russia during World War II to defend against advancing Soviet forces. ... Lake Peipsi - Landsat satellite photo Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi järv, Russian: Чудское озеро (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Eastern Europe. ... Combatants Germany (Large numbers of Foreign Volunteers) Soviet Union Commanders Georg von Küchler/Walter Model (Army Group North) Georg Lindemann (18. ... Combatants Germany (Large numbers of Foreign Volunteers) Soviet Union Commanders Walter Model (Army Group North) Johannes Frießner (Armee-Abteilung Narwa) , Felix Steiner (III SS (Germanic) Panzer Corps), Leonid Govorov (Leningrad Front), Kirill Meretskov (Volkhov Front), Strength 45,000 60 tanks / assault guns 200,000 450 tanks Casualties 20,000...

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Consequences

The Soviet fronts involved in the battle lost a total of ca. 260,000 men to all causes (killed, missing, wounded, sick). As a result of the battle the Germans were driven out of Estonia and Lithuania taken over by Soviet forces. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x956, 203 KB) [edit] Info Originally uploaded by en:User:Andreas1968 [edit] Licensing Webpage: World War II File is under US Government Copyright File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are...


German Army Group North was permanently cut off from its land-based connections to the remainder of the Eastern Front, and occupied a bridge-head in Latvia. It was eventually renamed Heeresgruppe Kurland. This left the Red Army free to disregard it as a major threat and to focus on operations on its northern flank that were now aiming at East Prussia. Nevertheless, offensive action by the Red Army against the Courland Pocket continued until the surrender of the Army Group on 9 May 1945, when close to 200,000 Germans went into Soviet captivity. Army Group Courland (German: Heeresgruppe Kurland) On the 25 January 1945 Hitler renamed three army groups. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Some German soldiers, and many soldiers of the Estonian and Latvian Waffen-SS divisions evaded capture and joined the "Forest Brothers" resistance that waged unsuccessful guerilla warfare against Soviet occupation for several years after the war. The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian guerillas who fought against the Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic nations during, and after, World War II. At the...

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Formations and units involved

[edit]

Soviet

  • 1st Baltic Front commanded by General Hovhannes (Ivan) Baghramian
    • Fifth Guards Tank Army commanded by General Volsky
    • Sixth Guards Army commanded by Lieutenant-General I.M. Chistyakov
    • Fourth Shock Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Malyshev
    • Forty-Third Army commanded by Lieutenant-General A.P. Beloborodov
    • Fifty-First Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Ia. G. Kreizer
    • Thirty-Third Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Tsvetaev
  • 2nd Baltic Front commanded by Army-General A.I. Yeremenko
    • Third Shock Army commanded by Lieutenant-General N.P. Simonyak
    • Twenty-Second Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Vostrukhov
  • 3rd Baltic Front commanded by Colonel-General I.I. Maslennikov
  • 3rd Belorussian Front (parts) commanded by Army General I.D.Chernyakovsky
    • Second Shock Army commanded first by Lieutenant-General P.G. Chanchibadze, then by Lieutenant-General I.I. Feduninsky
      • Third Guards Mechanized Corps commanded by Lieutenant-General V.T. Obukhov
    • Sixty-First Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Belov
    • Sixty-Seventh Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Sviridov
  • Leningrad Front commanded by Marshal L.A. Govorov (parts)
    • Eight Army commanded by Lieutenant-General Starikov
[edit]

Hovhannes Baghramian (Armenian Armenian: ; December 2 [O.S. November 20] 1897 — September 21, 1982), was a Soviet military commander. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union... The 3rd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 3rd Belarusian Front) was one of the Soviet Army fronts during the World War II. At various times, it was commanded by Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky and General Ivan Chernyakhovsky. ... General Ivan Chernyakhovsky Ivan Danilovich Chernyakhovsky, (also Cherniakhovsky; Russian: ); Uman, current Cherkasy Oblast, Ukraine, 29 June 1906 [O.S. 16 June] - Mehlsack, current Pieniężno, Poland, 18 February 1945) was a Soviet General of the Army (the youngest ever to have this rank), twice Hero of the Soviet Union, brilliant... Marshal of the Soviet Union Leonid Govorov Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov (Russian Леонид Александрович Говоров) (February 22, 1897 - March 19, 1955), Soviet military commander, was born in the...

German

  • Army Group North commanded by Generaloberst Ferdinand Schörner
    • 18. Armee commanded by Generaloberst Loch
      • 132. Infanteriedivision
    • 16. Armee commanded by Generaloberst Hansen
  • Army Group Centre commanded by Generaloberst Reinhardt
[edit]

Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Wachregiment Berlin Kommando der Wachtruppe Wachtruppe Berlin Wach-Regiment Berlin Infanterie-Regiment Großdeutschland (mot) Infanterie-Division Großdeutschland (mot) Panzergrenadier-Division Großdeutschland Panzer-Korps Großdeutschland The Großdeutschland Division (lit. ...

Sources

  • Melzer, W. 'Der Kampf um die baltischen Inseln'
  • Niepold, G. 'Panzeroperationen Doppelkopf und Cäsar'
  • Ziemke, E.F. 'Stalingrad to Berlin'
  • Bagramyan 'So schritten wir zum Sieg'
  • http://kurlandkessel.cybton.com/
  • Axishistory Forum Discussion
  • Link to external map of Eastern Front

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