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Encyclopedia > Battle of Yarmuk
Battle of Yarmuk
Part of the Byzantine-Arab wars

Date: August 20, 636
Location: Near the Yarmouk River
Result: Decisive Muslim Arab victory
Casus belli: {{{casus}}}
Territory changes: {{{territory}}}
Combatants
Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs
Commanders
Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid
Strength
About 200,000 About 24,000
Casualties
Very Heavy,About 50,000 Unknown,Relativly low
The Muslim Conquests: 622-750
BadrUhudThe TrenchKhaybarMut'ahMeccaHunaynTaifTabouk – Dathin – AjnadaynYarmukSyllaeum – That Al-Sawari – Qādisiyyah – BassorahSiffinKarbalaConstantinople – The Nobles – GuadaleteCovadongaToulouseTours – Ain al Jurr – Zab

The Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in 636. It is considered by some historians to have been one of the most significant battles in the history of the world, since it marked the first great wave of Muslim conquests outside Arabia, and heralded the rapid advance of Islam into Christian Palestine, Syria and Mesopotamia. August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... the Yarmouk River , The Yarmouk River (Arabic:nahr al-yarmuk; Hebrew:נהר הירמוך, nehar hayarmukh; Greek:Hieromax) is one of the two main tributaries which enter the Jordan River between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea (the other being the Jabbok). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ... Age of the Caliphs The initial Islamic conquests (632-732) began with the death of Muhammad, were followed by a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion, and ended with the Battle of Tours—resulting in a vast Islamic empire and area of influence that stretched from India, across the... The Battle of Badr on Friday, 17th Ramadhan 2 AH or January 13th 624 AD, was a seminal event in the formative days of Islam. ... The victory of Badr alerted to Islam all the hostile forces in Arabia. ... The Battle of the Trench (also Battle of the Ditch) was an attack by the city of Mecca on the city Medina in 627 AD. Although Mecca fielded a larger army it was not successful. ... The Battle of khaybar was a Battle involing the Muslims and the Jewish tribe of Banu Quraiza. ... A battle in early Muslim history. ... According to Muslim history, ten thousand Muslims led by Muhammad surrounded the city of Mecca. ... The Battle of Hunayn is the name of a battle where the prophet Muhammad participiated in the year 630 CE. Categories: Military stubs | Islam-related stubs ... The Siege of Taif is the name of a battle where the prophet Muhammad participiated in the year 630 CE. See also Islam Muhammad Categories: | | | ... The Battle of Tabouk (also called the Battle of Tabuk) took place in October 630 AD, during the month of Ramadan. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Arabs Commanders Theodorus Khalid ibn al-Walid, Shurahbil, Yazid, Amr Ibn al As Strength About 10,000 15-18,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Campaignbox Muslim Conquest. ... The Battle of Syllaeum was a naval battle between the Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in 677, in coordination with a series of land battles in Anatolia and Syria. ... The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (in Arabic: معارك القادسيّة, alternate spellings: Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A battle between Ali and Muawiya Is forces. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, Bulgarians Commanders Maslama Leo III Strength 160,000-200,000 men, 2,000 ships Unkown Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, 2,000 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was a combined land and sea effort by the Arabs to take... Combatants Visigoths Muslim forces of the Ummayad Commanders Roderic Tariq ibn Ziyad Strength 24-30,000 7,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Guadalete took place July 19, 711, at the Guadalete River (or La Janda Lake) in the southern extreme of the Iberian peninsula. ... The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Islamic Moors conquest of that country in 711. ... Al-Samh ibn Malik al-Khawlani, the governor (or wali) of Muslim Spain (al-Andalus), built up a strong army from North Africa, Yemen, and Syria to conquer Aquitaine, a large duchy in the southwest of modern-day France, formally under Frankish sovereignty, but in practice almost independent in the... Combatants Franks Moors Commanders Charles Martel Abd er Rahman Strength 15,000-75,000 60,000-400,000 Casualties about 1500 unknown, but reported massive, most notable-Abd er Rahman The Battle of Tours (often called the Battle of Poitiers, but not to be confused with the Battle of Poitiers... The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogenous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ...


Battle

The battle took place only four years after the prophet Muhammad died in 632. He was succeeded by the first Caliph, Abu Bakr, who sought to bring all the Arabic-speaking peoples under Muslim control. In 633 Muslim armies invaded Syria, and after raids and skirmishing quickly captured Damascus in 635. The Byzantine emperor Heraclius organized a force of about 100 000 troops on learning of the loss of Damascus and Emesa. The advance of this large Byzantine army, caused the Muslims under Khalid ibn Walid to abandon the cities, and retreat southward towards the River Yarmuk, a tributary of the River Jordan. This article is about the prophet. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Events Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Emesa was an ancient city on the Orontes River in Syria. ... Khalid bin Walid (AKA:Syaifullah/Sword of Allah);(584 - 642) was a Muslim Arab soldier and general. ... This article is about the Jordan River in western Asia. ...


Part of the Byzantine force under Theodore the Sacellarius was defeated outside Emesa. The Muslims under Khalid ibn Walid met the other Byzantine commander, Baänes in the valley of the Yarmuk River in late July. Baänes had only infantry forces to fight against Arab light cavalry, as Theodore had taken most of the cavalry with him. After a month of skirmishes, with no decisive action, the two armies finally confronted each other on August 20. According to Muslim accounts, a strong south wind blew clouds of dust into the Christians' faces, and the soldiers wilted under the heat of the August sun. Despite this, Khalid was at first pushed back, but although his army was only about half the size of the Byzantine force, it was more unified than the multinational Imperial Army which contained Armenians, Slavs and Ghassanids as well as regular Byzantine troops. According to Byzantine accounts, the Muslims successfully bribed elements in the Byzantine army to defect, this task being made easier by the fact that the Arab Christians, Ghassanids, had not been paid for several months and whose Monophysite Christianity was persecuted by the Orthodox Byzantines. Some 12,000 Ghassanid Arabs switched sides. The Christian advance on the right flank, towards one of the camps containing the Arab women and families, was finally repulsed with the aid of some of the Arab women. Eventually renewed Muslim counter-attacks broke through the Byzantine lines, and a rout ensued. Most of Baänes men were either encircled and massacred, or driven to their deaths over a steep ravine. As a result of this, all of Syria lay open to the Muslim Arabs. Damascus was recaptured by the Muslims within a month, and Jerusalem fell shortly after. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Ghassanids were Arab Christians that emigrated in 250 CE from Yemen to the Hauran, in southern Syria. ... The Ghassanids were Arab Christians that emigrated in A.D. 250 from Yemen to the Hauran, in southern Syria. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... ... Emblem of the Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem and the Old City. ...


Aftermath

When news of the disaster reached Heraclius at Antioch, it is said that he bade a last farewell to Syria, saying, "Farewell Syria, my fair province. Thou art an enemy's now"; and left Antioch for Constantinople. Heraclius began to concentrate his remaining forces on a defense of Egypt instead. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


External links

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of Yarmuk
  • Sword of Allah - Battle of Yarmuk. Detailed day-by-day account from an Islamic perspective, includes battle maps, formations etc.

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