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Encyclopedia > Battle of Yamen
Battle of Yamen
Part of the Song-Yuan Wars
Date: March 19, 1279
Location: Yamen, China
Result: Decisive Yuan victory, Song Dynasty ends.
Combatants
Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty
Commanders
Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan
Strength
200,000
1000+ warships
20,000
50+ warships
Casualties
unknown, though almost all perished unknown
The Mongol Invasions
Kalka RiverSit River – Köse Dag – LegnicaMuhiBaghdadAin JalutXiangyangBun'eiNgasaunggyanYamenKouanPaganUgra River

The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. Naval Battle of Mt. Ya) of 1279 was the Song Dynasty's last stand against the Yuan Dynasty. Though outnumbered, the Yuan navy delivered a crushing tactical victory, annihilating the exile dynasty. March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Chang Shih-chieh [Zhang Shijie] (d. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: Mongol invasion of Europe Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria from 1223 to 1236. ... Combatants Mongols Kiev Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength estimated between 18,000-20,000 80,000 Casualties minimal Unknown {{{notes}}} Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the East Slavic warriors. ... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kay Khusrau II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Köse Dag was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the place Köse Dag on Sivas-Erzincan road (now... Combatants Mongols Poland Teutonic Knights Commanders Kaidu Henry II the Pious Strength 20,000 28,000 Casualties Unknown 10,000-40,000 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Legnica (also Battle of Liegnitz) took place in 1241 in Legnickie Pole near the city of Legnica between the invading Mongols and the Poles... The Battle of Muhi was fought on April 11, 1241 between Hungary and the Mongols. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Combatants Mameluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa Strength About 20 000 About 20 000 Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260 between the Mameluks and the Mongols... The Battle of Xiangyang was a six-year battle consisting of skirmishes, ground assault, and the siege of the twin fortified cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang in modern-day Hubei, China, starting in AD 1268. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Myanmar) led by Narathihapate. ... The Battle of Kouan (弘安の役, kouan no eki), also known as the Second battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... The Battle of Pagan was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire. ... Miniature in russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra)) was a bloodless standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Golden Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ...


Today, Yamen is located in Xinhui County, Guangdong Province, China. A yamen (衙門, yámén) is any local bureaucrats, or mandarins, office and residence of the Chinese Empire from the Qing Dynasty (and possibly earlier Chinese dynasties). ... Xinhui is a city in Guangdong province, in southern China. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents


Background

In 1276 the Southern Song court fled from the Mongol invaders by boat to Guangdong, leaving Emperor Gong of Song China behind. Any hope of resistance was centred on two young princes, Emperor Gong's brothers. For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Emperor Gongdi 宋恭帝(1271-1323) was the 16th Emperor of Song China. ...


The older boy, Zhao Shi, who was nine years old, was declared emperor, and in 1277 the imperial court sought refuge in Lantau Island's Mui Wo, and later in what is today Kowloon City, Hong Kong. The older brother became ill and died, and was succeeded by the younger, Zhao Bing, aged seven. Zhang Shijie, the Grand General at the time, brought the boy Emperor Bing to Yamen and prepared the defense against Yuan there. Emperor Duānzōng (端宗, 1268-May 8, 1278) was the penultimate emperor of Southern Song Dynasty of China who died a boy. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... Lantau Island, Hong Kong 22° 16′ 14″ N, 113° 57′ 10″ E Lantau Island (based on the local old name of Lantau Peak 爛頭 Làntóu, Ragged Head; 大嶼山 pinyin: DàyÇ” shān, Cantonese: Tai yue shan, Big Island Mountain), also Lantao, is the largest island in Hong Kong, located... Mui Wo (梅窩, lit. ... Kowloon City (九龍城, Pinyin: Jiu3long2cheng2) is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. ... Emperor Bing (宋帝昺) (1271-March 19, 1279) was the last emperor of Southern Song Dynasty of China who died a boy. ... Chang Shih-chieh [Zhang Shijie] (d. ... Conjectural insignia for Grand General Grand General is a fictional military rank of the Star Wars Expanded Universe that is is considered the highest possible Imperial Army rank. ...


Later, Wen Tianxiang, who fought against Yuan in Guangdong and Jiangxi at the time, was captured by Wang Weiyi in Haifeng County, eliminating all Song forces on land. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Postal System Pinyin: Kwangtung or Canton Province, Jyutping: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... Haifeng (海豐) is a city in southeastern China, located northeast of Hong Kong. ...


The battle

In 1279, Zhang Hongfan of Yuan attacked the Song navy in Yamen. Li Heng, who previously captured Guangzhou, reinforced Zhang Honghan. Some within the Song forces suggested that the navy should first claim the bay exit, so as to protect their way to retreat to the west. Zhang Shijie turned this suggestion down to prevent his soldiers from fleeing the battle. Further, he ordered the burning of all palaces, houses, and forts on land for the same reason. Location within China Canton, China redirects here. ...


Zhang ordered about a thousand warships to chain together to form a long string within the bay, and put Emperor Bing's boat in the centre of the navy. The Yuan forces attempted to burn down the Song formation via small boats loaded with wax and hay, but the Song ships were prepared for such an attack - all Song ships were painted with fire-resistant mud. The Yuan navy then blockaded the bay, while the Yuan army cut off Song's fresh water and wood sources on land. The Song soldiers were forced to eat dry foods and drink sea water, causing nausea and vomiting. Zhang Hongfan even kidnapped Zhang Shijie's nephew, asking Zhang Shijie to surrender on three occasions, to no avail. For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


In the afternoon on March 18, Zhang Hongfan prepared for a massive assault. The employment of cannons was turned down because Hongfan felt that cannons could break the chains of formation too effectively, making it easy for the Song ships to retreat. On March 19, the next day, Zhang Hongfan split his naval forces into four: one on each of the Song's east, north, and south side, while Hongfan led the remaining faction to about a li away from the Song forces. March 18 is the 77th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (78th in leap years). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Li or li may refer to: Lee or Li is a transliteration of several Chinese and Korean family names, see Li (Chinese name) and Lee (Korean name). ...


First, the north flank engaged the Song forces but failed. The Yuan then began playing festive music, leading the Song to think that the Yuan forces were having a banquet and lowering their guard. At noon, Zhang Hongfan attacked from the front, hiding additional soldiers under large pieces of cloth. Once Zhang Hongfan's boats neared the Song fleet, the Yuan sounded the horn of battle, revealing Yuan soldiers under the cloths. Caught off guard, the Song fleet lost seven ships. Seeing that the battle was a lost cause, Zhang Shijie picked out his finest soldiers, cut about a dozen ships from the formation and broke out, in a tardy attempt to save the emperor.


The Yuan forces advanced to the center, to Emperor Bing. There, Left Minister Lu Xiufu saw no hope of breaking free, and jumped into the sea with the boy emperor, killing them both. Many officials and concubines followed suit. The History of Song records that, seven days later, hundreds of thousands of corpses floated to the surface of the sea.


Zhang Shijie, having escaped the battle, hoped to have Dowager Yang appoint the next Song emperor, and from there continue to resist the Yuan dynasty. But after hearing of Emperor Bing's death, Dowager Yang also commited suicide at sea. Zhang Shijie buried her at the shore. Zhang Shijie and his remaining soldiers drowned at sea due to a tropical storm soon afterward. This article is about weather phenomena. ...


Aftermath

As Emperor Bing is the last Song emperor, his death effectively ended the Song Dynasty. The Yuan dynasty, under Kublai Khan, now had all of China under its control. Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan or the last of the great Khans (1215–1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260–1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279–1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ...


Many temples were built in the surrounding area in memory of the brave souls in Song's dying years, most notably: Wen Tianxiang, Lu Xiufu, and Zhang Shijie.


References

  • 《宋史》History of Song, compiled under Toktoghan 脫脫 in 1344.
  • 《元史》History of Yuan, compiled under Song Lian 宋濂 in 1370.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Yamen - Wikinfo (167 words)
The Battle of Yamen was a battle between the Yuan Dynasty and the Song Dynasty in China in the year 1279.
In 1279, Chinese general Zhang Hongfan of the Yuan Dynasty anniliated the last fleet of the Southern Song Dynasty at Yamen, (today Xinhui County, Guangdong Province).
Zhang Shijie, commander of the Song fleet, escaped from the scene but was later drowned when his ship was brought down in a storm.
yamen: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (494 words)
Yamens varied greatly in size depending on the level of government they administered, and the seniority of the bureaucrat's office.
However, yamens at a local level typically had similar features: a front gate, a coutyard and a hall (typically serving as a court of law); offices, prison cells and store rooms; and residences for the bureaucrat, his family and his staff.
The Zongli Yamen acted as an office of foreign affairs in the late Qing dynasty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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