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Encyclopedia > Battle of Xiangyang
Battle of Xiangyang
Part of the Song-Yuan Wars
Date 1267 - 1273
Location Xiangfan, Hubei
Result Yuan victory
Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty
Lü Wenhuan
Li Tingzhi
Liu Zheng,
Shi Tianzhe,
Guo Kan
unknown 100,000+ Cavalry
5,000 ships
100+ trebuchet
20+ counterweight trebuchet
unknown unknown
The Mongol Invasions
Central AsiaGeorgia and ArmeniaKalka RiverVolga BulgariaRyazanRus'Sit River – Köse Dag – LegnicaMohiBaghdadAin JalutKoreaJapan (Bun'ei – Kōan) – VietnamXiangyangNgasaunggyanYamenPaganBach DangSyriaKulikovoVorsklaUgra River

The Battle of Xiangyang (襄陽之戰) was a six-year battle between invading Mongol armies and Southern Song Chinese forces between AD 1267 and 1273. After the battle, the victorious Mongols pushed farther into the Song heartland. For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Xiangfan (Simplified Chinese: 襄樊; Pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in Hubei province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 Ukhaatu Khan History  - establishing the Yuan Dynasty 1271  - Fall of Dadu September 14, 1368 Population  - 1330 est. ... Guo Kan (郭侃) was a famous general of Chinese descent that served the Mongolian Khans in their Western conquests and the conquest of China itself. ... Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... Combatants Mongol Empire Khwarezmia Commanders Genghis Khan, Jochi, Chaghatai, Ogodei, Tolui Ala ad-Din Muhammad, Jalal Al-Din Strength 90,000 - 250,000 men 400,000 men Casualties Unknown At least 150,000 killed The Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia lasted from 1219 to 1221. ... The medieval kingdom of Georgia first clashed with the advancing Mongol armies in 1220. ... // Combatants Mongols Kievan Rus, Cumans Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength 40,000 Over 80,000 Casualties MInimal Heavy Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the Rus warriors. ... The Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria lasted from 1223 to 1236. ... Ryazan was the first Russian city to be besieged by the Mongols of Batu Khan. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... The Battle of the Sit River was fought in the northern part of the present-day Yaroslavl Oblast of Russia on March 4, 1238 between the Mongol Hordes of Batu Khan and the Russians under Yuri II of Vladimir-Suzdal during the Mongol invasion of Russia. ... Combatants Mongols Sultanate of Rüm, Georgian and Trapezuntine auxiliaries Commanders Bayju Kay Khusrau II Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Köse Dag was fought between the Seljuk Turks of Rum and the Mongols on June 26, 1243 at the place Köse Dag on Sivas-Erzincan road (now... Combatants Mongol Empire Diversionary force Alliance Polish states Knights Templars Knights Hospitaller Teutonic Knights (disputed) Commanders Baidar and Kadan Henry II the Pious† Strength Estimated between 8,000-20,000 (max of two tumen)[1] Unknown, estimates have ranged from 2,000-40,000[1] Casualties Unknown, but supposedly heavier... Combatants Kingdom of Hungary Golden Horde (Mongol Empire) Commanders King Béla IV Batu Khan, Subotai Strength 15,000 Unknown (mostly cavalry) Casualties 10,000 unknown The Battle of Mohi, or Battle of the Sajó River, (on April 11, 1241) was the main battle between the Mongols and the Kingdom... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... // Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa † Strength About 120,000 10-30,000 Casualties light all the force died or was captured The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Battle of Bunei Conflict Mongol Invasions of Japan Date November 20, 1274 Place Hakata Bay, near present-day Fukuoka, Kyushu Result Invasion fails. ... Combatants Kamakura shogunate Mongols Commanders Hōjō Tokimune Mongol-Chinese Joint Command Strength 100,000? 142,000 men in 4400 ships? Casualties Unknown 120,000+ The battle of Kōan ), also known as the Second Battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... The Battle of Ngasaunggyan was fought in 1277 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan Dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire (in present-day Myanmar) led by Narathihapate. ... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... Combatants Pagan Empire Mongol Empire Commanders Thihathu Temür Strength Unknown Unknown, but considerable Casualties Unknown Unknown Im really tired of people changing what i write i think that is almost as bad as vandalism. ... Combatants Dai Viet Yuan Mongol Army Yuan Mongol Navy Commanders Tran Hung Dao Tran Khanh Du General Omar Strength 200 000 500 000 Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Bach Dang took place near Halong Bay in present-day Vietnam, it was part of the Third Yuan Mongol Invasion (1287... Combatants Combined Russian armies The Golden Horde Commanders Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow Mamai Strength About 80,000 About 125,000 Casualties About 40,000 able body men left Unknown The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: ), also called Battle on the Snipes Field (Кулик means snipe), was fought by the Tartaro-Mongols (the... The Battle of the Vorskla River was one of the greatest and bloodiest in the medieval history of Eastern Europe. ... Miniature in Russian chronicle, XVI century The Great standing on the Ugra river (Великое cтояние на реке Угре in Russian, also Угорщина (Ugorschina in English, derived from Ugra) was a standoff between Akhmat Khan, Khan of the Great Horde, and Grand Duke Ivan III of Russia in 1480, which resulted in the retreat of the... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...


Character of the battle

The battle consisted of skirmishes, ground assault, and the siege of the twin fortified cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang in modern-day Hubei, China. Lü Wenhuan, commander-in-chief of the Southern Song Dynasty, surrendered to Kublai Khan in 1273. The conventional use of Mongolian cavalry was restricted by the woody terrain and numerous military outposts of the Southern Song Dynasty. Chinese firearms and cannons were employed by the Mongols in the victorious siege of Fancheng after capturing the outposts and relieving Chinese forces from Sichuan and Yuezhou, which broke through the siege but was eventually defeated.. Especially effective proved the use of the counterweight trebuchet by the Mongols, which had been previously unknown in China. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... The Battle of Fancheng was fought between the Shu and Wei kingdoms during the Three Kingdoms period of ancient China. ... Xiangyang (Traditional Chinese: 襄陽, Simplified Chinese: 襄阳, pinyin: Xiāngyáng) was a Chinese city famous for the Siege of Xiangyang (1267-1273) by Mongol invaders. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Kublai Khan, Khubilai Khan or the last of the Great Khans (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), was a Mongol military leader. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Outpost may mean: a trading post is a place for trading goods, typically in a remote wilderness area Outpost (computer game) outpost (chess) Outpost. ... Not to be confused with Canon. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


The Mongolian Yuan army, at this period, had conquered territory as far as Eastern Europe. But they had a hard time conquering the Song Dynasty. One of the reason was Xiangyang. The city was vital for the Mongol conquest of the Southern Song because of its location. The city guarded the waterways of Southern China because the Han River was a major tributary into the Yangtze River. Once the city fell, the Mongols obtained easy access into important Southern cities in China and the Southern Song would collapse shortly after. Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The Han River (漢江; pinyin: Han Jiang) in China, was often referred to as Hanshui (漢水) in antiquity. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབྲི་ཆུ་; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ...

However, taking Xiangyang was not easy. Southern Song knows the importance of this vital spot, and treated the defence of Xiangyang as important as defence of their capital. The city was surrounded by mountains in three sides, and a river on one side. Song stored massive amount of supplies inside the fortress, as preparation for long sieges. They also built high walls and towers on all four sides of the fortress. Each entrance of the fortress had at least two layers of walls, used to trap enemy sieging forces inside.

In 1133, the famous Song general Yue Fei lead many successful compaigns agains the Jin Dynasty, in the Xiangyang area. From there, he pushed the Jin army back north as far as Kaifeng. In 1234, Jin was conquared by Yuan, who then set their eyes on Song. Statue of Yue Fei, from the Yue Fei Mausoleum in Hangzhou. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American... Kaifeng (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Kāifēng; Wade-Giles: Kai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (汴梁; Wade-Giles: Pien-liang), is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ...

In 1267, the Yuan army sieged against Xiangyang, and Yuan suffered a major defeat. The famous Mongolian cavalry were powerful on open field battles, but in Xiangyang they were slaughtered by the Song defenders. Every time, Yuan forces would seemed to have won, and enter the entrance of the fortress. But once inside, the Yuan forces would be slaughtered to the last man, while trapped between 4 walls. It took the Yuan forces a while to realize what was going on, and they retreated.

However, the defeat does not change the situation. Yuan must take Xiangyang in order to conquer the rest of Song. And the humiliation of the unstoppable Mongolian army at Xiangyang only strengthens their determination to conquer it. In 1268, the Yuan army returned to siege Xiangyang, a siege that they will stay in until Xiangyang falls.

Failure of the old trebuchet

Yuan learned from their mistake, and this time brought along with them about a hundred trebuchets. These trebuchets had a shooting range of around 100 meters, and could use projectiles of around 50kg. During Yuan 's campaign against Jin, Yuan used about 5,000 trebuchets, and they were very successful in destorying the Jin fortresses.

However, Song had expected a trebuchet siege, and made preparations before hand. They had expanded the river in this area, to a width of over 150 meters. And in addition to reinforcing their walls, they made nettings, which they used to cover the walls during a trebuchet siege. As a result, the Yuan trebuchets had a hard time hitting the fortress, and the few lucky shots that did hit the wall bounced off harmlessly.

Yuan entrapment

Yuan then started to block Xiangyang off from the rest of Song. A Yuan fleet of 5,000 ships was established, to stop any Song supplies from the river. Yuan also send forces to go around the fortress, and set up camps at the key roads, to stop Song supplies from land. Eventually, Yuan built their own forts at these key locations.

From late 1267 to 1271, Song reinforcements from the south tried, many times, to attack the Yuan positions, in order to supply Xiangyang. Unfortunately, outside of Xiangyang, the Song forces are no match for the Mongolian cavalry. And once the Yuan forts were completed, the situation became hopless. As a result, the Song forces inside Xiangyang had to depend on themselves.

But Song had stored years of supplies within Xiangyang. That said, by 1271, the fortress finally ran low on their supplies. Still, the Song troops hanged on.

Finally, in 1272, a small Song force of 3,000 men was able to break though the Yuan naval blockade, and supplied Xiangyang from the river. This was a major morale boost to the defenders. However, no one could not get back out. The Song emperior, considered that reinforcement lost and Xiangyang doomed to fall from the lack of supplies, did not send more Song reinforcements afterward.

Mongol 's new toy

The dream of Song defending Xiangyang forever came to a crashing end on 1273, with the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet.

Yuan, in their conquest of Persia and middle east, found out about their counterweight trebuchet. These counterweight trebuchet had a shooting range of 500 meters, and could use projectiles over 300kg. On top of their power, these new trebuchet were much more accurate than the old ones. This made them powerful enough to break the strong walls of Xiangyang. Yuan forces in the middle east sent the design to Xiangyang. Yuan forces built about 20 of them, and used them to assist the siege. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...

Yuan started the siege with Fancheng in earily 1273. Song soldiers in Xiangyang watched in horror as giant rock fall flew right over the gigantic walls of Fancheng, and hit the houses inside. The walls, with netting on them, crippled as if the walls were made of sand. And as soon as the walls fell, Mongolian cavalry stormed the fortress. Fancheng, after holding up for years, suddenly fell within a few days.

Yuan then turned their attention to Xiangyang. However, Lü Wenhuan did not give up, because he knew Xiangyang must not fall. He sent a messenger to the Song emperior, to request immediate reinforcements. The messenger successfully got by the Yuan forts and reached the emperior. But upon hearing the power of these new trebuchets, the emperior considered Xiangyang lost and did not send reinforcements.

For the next few days, Song soldiers looked to the south for reinforcements, but all they saw were Yuan counterweight trebuchets and more than 100,000 Mongolian cavalry waiting to end their lives. For years, the Song soldiers had hoped that the situation will eventually get better for them, but it only got worst.

In Febrary, one testing shot was fired into the city, and the shot happened to hit a stone bridge inside. When the stone landed, it sounded like thunder. Song soldiers went to check the damage, and to their horror the stone had sunk a few feet into the solid ground.

Massive chaos accured right after the testing shot. Many soldiers and civilians tried to open the gate and escape. Yuan told Lü Wenhuan that, if Song dod not surrender, everyone inside, including all civilians, would be slaughtered. Lü Wenhuan, with no chance of defending the fortress any longer, and no reinforcements in sight, surrendered his forces, hence ending this long six year siege.


Xiangyang, the strongest fortress of the Song Dynasty, had fallen. As a result, Yuan forces were free to conquer the rest of southern China. Everywhere else Yuan went, Song fortresses fell like sand castle, thanks to the counterweight trebuchets and later, cannons. An elaborate sand sculpture. ...

Many people agree that the fall of Xiangyang marked the end of the Song Dynasty. For the six years that Yuan sieged Xiangyang, Song were unable to regroup and strike back at Yuan with their resources in the south. In fact, they could even get much reinforcements and supplies to Xiangyang, to support the hard working defence there. In a way, Song Dynasty 's end was well deserved.

Role of the counterweight trebuchet

The sieges of Fancheng and Xiangyang were also noteworthy for the introduction of the counterweight trebuchet in China by the Mongol invaders as these new weapons proved to be decisive in forcing the surrenders of the two cities in 1273. Within a few days after the Mongols took up the bombardment of Fancheng by the counterweight trebuchet in March 1273, the city had been ripe for attack and successfully assaulted. Shortly afterwards, the Chinese commander of Xiangyang, realising that the city could not withstand a similar attack, accepted the Mongol surrender terms.

The counterweight trebuchet was a relatively new type of ballistic siege engine which was much more powerful than the earlier traction trebuchets, which had existed in China for centuries. The origin of the counterweight trebuchet is obscure, but it appears to have been invented somewhere in the Mediterranean basin in the twelfth century. Many possible inventors have been hypothesized, including Emperor Alexios I Komnenos of Byzantium[1] and the Muslim engineers of Saladin.[2] Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Emperor Alexios I Komnenos depicted in a mosaic in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ) (1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I... The statue of Saladin at the entrance of the citadel in Damascus. ...

The design of the trebuchets deployed at Xiangyang

Since the Mongols employed Muslim engineers for the designing of the counterweight trebuchets, they were designated in Chinese historiography as the "Muslim" trebuchet (hui-hui pao). However, regarding the exact nature of the trebuchets used by the Mongol armies, recent research by Paul E. Chevedden indicates that the hui-hui pao was actually a European design, a double-counterweight engine that as Cheveddens shows had been introduced to the Levant by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (1210-1250) only shortly before.[3] The Muslim historian Rashid al-Din (1247?–1318) refers in his universal history to the Mongol trebuchets used at the Song cities as "Frankish" or "European trebuchets" ("manjaniq ifranji" or "manjaniq firanji"): There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ...

Before that there had not been any large Frankish catapult in Cathay [i.e. China], but Talib, a catapult-maker from this land, had gone to Baalbek and Damascus, and his sons Abubakr, Ibrahim, and Muhammad, and his employees made seven large catapults and set out to conquer the city [Sayan Fu or Hsiang-yang fu = modern Xiangfan].[4]

The Chinese scholar Zheng Sixiao (1206–83) indicates that, "in the case of the largest ones, the wooden framework stood above a hole in the ground".[5] Chevedden considers this to be clearly a description of the double-counterweight bricola, since, according to him, that was the only counterweight piece of artillery that had a framework capable of being mounted in a hole in the ground and was commonly set up in this fashion. Thus, the fall of the Song cities was testimony to the wide diffusion of military technology which the Mongol conquests brought along.

Another version is given by Marco Polo in his book Il Milione where he claims having been responsible for teaching the Mongols how to build and use catapults during the siege of Xiangyang. However, the names of the Muslim engineers were given by Muslim sources as Talib and his sons Abubakr, Ibrahim, and Muhammad,[6] respectively by Chinese sources as Ala-ud-Din and Isma'il.[7] Moreover, the siege had already ended before Marco Polo's arrival in China.[8] Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ...

Cultural references

In the wuxia novel The Return of the Condor Heroes by Jinyong, a battle at Xiangyang is the climax of the story, with the protagonists such as Yang Guo and Guo Jing participating in the defense of the city. Wǔxiá (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , Mandarin IPA: , Cantonese Pinyin: mou5 hap6), literally meaning martial (arts) heroes, is a distinct quasi-fantasy sub-genre of the martial arts genre in literature, television and cinema. ... The Return of the Condor Heroes (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a classic wuxia novel written by Jinyong, first published on May 20, 1959 in the first issue of Ming Pao and ran for about three years. ... Louis Cha or Zha Liangyong (sometimes Cha Leung Yung), OBE (born June 6, 1924), known to most by his penname Jinyong (Jin Yong) or Kam-yung (Cantonese), is one of the most influential modern Chinese-language novelists who is also the co-founder of the Hong Kong daily Ming Pao. ... The fictional character Yang Guo (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the protagonist in the 1959 Chinese wuxia novel The Return of the Condor Heroes by Jinyong. ... Guo Jing (Chinese: ; pinyin: , died January 31, 1273) is the fictional main character in The Legend of the Condor Heroes, a novel written by Chinese author Jinyong. ...


  1. ^ "Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army", Mamluk Studies Review Vol. 8/1, 2004, p. 231
  2. ^ Liang, Jieming (2006). Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery & Siege Weapons of Antiquity, p. 30
  3. ^ "Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army", Mamluk Studies Review Vol. 8/1, 2004, pp.227-277 (232f.)
  4. ^ Rashiduddin Fazlullah’s Jamiʻuʾt-tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles), English translation & annotation by W.M. Thackston, 3 vols., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1998-99, 2: 450
  5. ^ Quoted in Needham and Yates, Science and Civilisation in China, 5:6:221)
  6. ^ Rashiduddin Fazlullah’s Jamiʻuʾt-tawarikh (Compendium of Chronicles), English translation & annotation by W.M. Thackston, 3 vols., Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, Dept. of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, 1998-99, 2: 450
  7. ^ Liang, Jieming (2006). Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery & Siege Weapons of Antiquity, p. 30
  8. ^ Wood, Frances (1995). Did Marco Polo go to China?, London: Secker & Warburg, pp. 107-108.

External links

  • Paul E. Chevedden, “Black Camels and Blazing Bolts: The Bolt-Projecting Trebuchet in the Mamluk Army
  • Chinese Siege Warfare: Mechanical Artillery and Siege Weapons of Antiquity - An Illustrated History
  • History of Battle of Xiangyang: (Chinese)
  • Xiangyang really that hard to conquer?: (Chinese)

  Results from FactBites:
The Battle of Xiangyang (1100 words)
The Battle of Xiangyang was a 6 year battle consisting of skirmishes, ground assault, and the siege of the twin fortified cities of Fancheng and Xiangyang in modern-day Hubei, China, starting in AD 1268.
The use of the counterweight trebuchet by the Mongol invaders proved to be decisive in forcing the surrenders of Fancheng and Xiangyang in 1273.
In the wuxia novel The Return of the Condor Heroes by Jinyong, a battle at Xiangyang is the climax of the story, with the protagonists such as Yang Guo and Guo Jing participating in the defence of the city,
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