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Encyclopedia > Battle of Wauhatchie
Map of the engagement at Wauhatchie, Tenn.
by Julius Bien & Co.
Battle of Wauhatchie
Conflict American Civil War
Date October 28-29, 1863
Place Hamilton County, Tennessee
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
William F. Smith
Joseph Hooker
James Longstreet
Micah Jenkins
Strength
XI Corps & XII Corps Jenkin's Brigade, Longstreet's Corps
Casualties
420 408
Reopening of the Tennessee River
Wauhatchie

The Battle of Wauhatchie, also known as Brown's Ferry, was fought October 2829, 1863, in Hamilton County, Marion County, and Dade County, Tennessee, in the American Civil War. The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Hamilton County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... National Motto Deo Vindice ( Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionallyweeeeeeeeeeeeeeee Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861– May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861– April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3– April 10, 1865fo realllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Largest city New... William Farrar Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 - February 28, 1903), American general, was born at St Albans, Vermont, and graduated from West Point in 1845, being assigned to the engineer branch of the army. ... This article is about Joseph Hooker, the U.S. Civil War Major General. ... James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... XII Corps (ACW) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Hamilton County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... Marion County is a county located in the state of Tennessee. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ...


After their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga, Union forces under Major General William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate General Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee beseiged the city, threatening to starve the Union forces into surrender. Bragg's troops occupied Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain, both of which had excellent views of the city, the river, and the Union's supply lines. Confederate troops launched raids on all supply wagons heading toward Chattanooga, which made it necessary for the Union to find another way to feed their men. Rosecrans was relieved of his command and replaced with Major General Ulysses S. Grant. Grant's first priority upon reaching Chattanooga was to resupply his army. Battle of Chickamauga Conflict American Civil War Date September 18-20, 1863 Place Catoosa County and Walker County, Georgia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Chickamauga marked the end of a Union offensive in the American Civil War in Catoosa County and Walker County, Georgia from September 18, 1863 to... The Union Army refers to the United States Army during the American Civil War. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Chattanooga, Tennessee Chattanooga is the 4th largest city in Tennesseee, and the seat of Hamilton County 6, Tennessee in the United States of America. ... For other meanings of confederate and confederacy, see confederacy (disambiguation) National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Largest... General Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817_ September 27, 1876) was a general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Tennessee was formed in November 1862. ... Missionary Ridge is a geographic feature in Chattanooga, Tennessee, site of the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a battle in the American Civil War, fought on November 25, 1863. ... See also: Lookout Mountain, Georgia and Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. ... Ulysses Simpson Grant ( April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American Civil War general and the 18th ( 1869– 1877) president of the United States. ...


Grant and Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas initiated the “Cracker Line Operation” on October 26, 1863. It was designed to open the road to Chattanooga from Brown’s Ferry on the Tennessee River with a simultaneous advance up Lookout Valley, securing the Kelley’s Ferry Road. Brig. Gen. William F. “Baldy” Smith, Chief Engineer of the Military Division of the Mississippi, who conceived the overall Cracker Line plan, was assigned the task of establishing the Brown’s Ferry bridgehead. He was assigned two infantry brigades from the 3rd Division, IV Corps, to accomplish this: the 1st Brigade under Brig. Gen. John B. Turchin and the 2nd under Brig. Gen. William B. Hazen. General George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 - March 28, 1870), Northern general during the American Civil War, was born in Southampton County, Virginia. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1863 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. ... William Farrar Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 - February 28, 1903), American general, was born at St Albans, Vermont, and graduated from West Point in 1845, being assigned to the engineer branch of the army. ...


Meanwhile, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker marched with three divisions from Bridgeport through Lookout Valley towards Brown’s Ferry from the south. At 3:00 a.m. on October 27, portions of Hazen’s brigade embarked upon pontoons and floated around Moccasin Bend to Brown’s Ferry. Turchin’s brigade took a position on Moccasin Bend across from Brown’s Ferry. Upon landing, Hazen secured the bridgehead and then positioned a pontoon bridge across the river, allowing Turchin to cross and take position on his right. Hooker, while his force passed through Lookout Valley on October 28, detached Brig. Gen. John W. Geary’s division at Wauhatchie Station, a stop on the Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad, to protect the line of communications to the south as well as the road west to Kelley’s Ferry. This article is about Joseph Hooker, the U.S. Civil War Major General. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... John White Geary (30 December 1819–8 February 1873) was governor of Pennsylvania from 1867 to 1873. ...


Observing the Union movements on the 27th and 28th, Confederate Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and Gen. Braxton Bragg ordered Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins' brigade of South Carolinians to mount a night attack on Wauhatchie Station. Although the attack was scheduled for 10:00 p.m. on the night of October 28, confusion delayed it until midnight. Surprised by the attack, Geary’s division formed into a V-shaped battle line. Geary's son, an artillerist, was killed in the battle, dying in his father's arms. James Longstreet James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and administrator. ... General Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817_ September 27, 1876) was a general in the Confederate army during the American Civil War. ...


Hearing the sounds of battle, Hooker, at Brown’s Ferry, sent Maj. Gen. Oliver Otis Howard with two XI Corps divisions to Wauhatchie Station as reinforcements. The lead division, commanded by Maj. Gen. Carl Schurz, took the wrong road and got mired in the swamp. Geary's men continued to hold fast. Schurz's troops eventually extricated themselves and marched on toward Wauhatchie, only to run into the Confederate brigade of Maj. Gen. Evander M. Law, which was positioned on a small hill that dominated the road from Brown's Ferry. Law's men were greatly outnumbered and almost encircled by Schurz's division, but the hilltop position was naturally strong, and several vigorous Union assaults were repulsed with great slaughter. Then Maj. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr's division reinforced Schurz, and together they drove the Confederates off the hill with a furious bayonet charge. Portrait of Oliver O. Howard by Mathew Brady, ca. ... Carl Schurz Carl Schurz (March 2, 1829–May 14, 1906) was a German revolutionist and American statesman and reformer. ...


As the Union reinforcements began arriving at Wauhatchie, Jenkins realized that the attempt to capture Wauhatchie was failing and, at about 3:30 a.m., ordered his troops to withdraw back to Lookout Mountain. A rumor circulated through the Yankee camps that Union mules that were stampeded by the fight had made the Rebels believe they were being attacked by cavalry, causing the Southern retreat. Union losses in the battle were 78 killed, 327 wounded, and 15 missing. Confederate losses were 34 killed, 305 wounded, and 69 missing. As more and more Union troops arrived, the Confederates fell. See also: Lookout Mountain, Georgia and Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. ...


The Union army now had its window to the outside and could receive supplies, weapons, ammunition, and reinforcements via the Cracker Line. The way was clear for the start of the Battle of Chattanooga on November 23. The third battle at Chattanooga, aka the Battle of Chattanooga III took place in the last days of September through October 1863 in the Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign of the American Civil War, Gen. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ...


Relatively few night engagements occurred during the Civil War; Wauhatchie is one of the most significant.


Sources

  • U.S. National Park Service CWSAC Battle Summaries (http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/bycampgn.htm)

 
 

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