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Encyclopedia > Battle of Washita River
Battle of Washita River
Part of the Indian Wars

Battle of Washita from Harper's Weekly, Dec. 19, 1868
Date November 27, 1868
Location Roger Mills County, Oklahoma
Result U.S. victory, 2 to 3 white captives freed [1]
Combatants
United States Cheyenne
Commanders
George A. Custer Black Kettle†, Little Rock †
Strength
7th Cavalry Regiment ~250 warriors and civilians (150 warriors, 100 civilians) [2]. The children were moved by Black Kettle in an other village downstream prior to the battle. [3]
Casualties
21 killed and 13 wounded 13 headmen and warchiefs [4], + 100 warriors, 20 civilians [5], 4 to 6 white captives killed by the Cheyennes[6]. Other sources: US army center command, 50 killed [7], Captain Alvord from Fort Cobb +80 warriors killed[8], official National Park Service count of casualties whose name is known: 13 warchiefs, 27 warriors, three women and six children killed[9].

The Battle of Washita River (or Battle of the Washita) occurred on November 27, 1868 when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River (near present day Cheyenne, Oklahoma) at dawn, just after the village was awoken by Double Wolf to warn of the impending attack.[10] Combatants Indian Nationss Colonial America/United States of America Indian Wars is the name generally used in the United States to describe a series of conflicts between the Americans and the Indian Nations. ... Image File history File links X-33802. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:Example. ... Roger Mills County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... “Custer” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The United States 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment, whose lineage traces back to the mid-19th century. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:Example. ... “Custer” redirects here. ... The 7th United States Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry unit, whose lineage traces back to the late 19th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... The Washita River forms in eastern Roberts County, Texas (35°38 N, 100°36 W) near the town of Miami, Texas in the Texas Panhandle. ... Cheyenne is a town located in Roger Mills County, Oklahoma, United States. ...


The evidence used to depict the Battle of Washita is derived from Custer’s own account of the battle while the evidence used in describing the events prior to the battle revolves heavily around General Phillip Sheridan’s annual report of 1868. Other evidences come from accounts by Cheyennes involved in the encounter and modern analysis for the Washita Battlefield National Historic Site (Historian Jerome Greene for the National Park Service)[11]. Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ...

Contents

The Solomon massacres

After the signing of the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the Cheyennes and Arapahoes moved to Indian Territory (modern Oklahoma) to be in their new reservation.[12] But on August 10, 1868, after months of fragile peace (with wars between Kaw Indians and Cheyennes), war broke out on the Saline River (Kansas). Here is an account of the clashes: Signing of the Medicine Lodge Treaty The Medicine Lodge Treaty was a treaty that the United States of America signed with the Kiowa, Comanche, Plains Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho at Medicine Lodge, Kansas in 1867. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ... The Kaw (or Kanza ) are an American Indian people of the central Midwestern United States. ...

On the 10th of August, 1868, they struck the settlements on the Saline River. On the 12th they reached the Solomon and wiped out a settlement where the city of Minneapolis is now situated. In this raid fifteen persons were killed, two wounded, and five women carried off. On the same day they attacked Wright’s bay camp near Ft. Dodge, raided the Pawnee, and killed two settlers on the Republican. On the 8th of September they captured a train at the Cimarron crossing of the Arkansas River, securing possession of seventeen men, whom burned; and the day following they murdered six men between Sheridan and Ft. Wallace. On the first of September, 1868, the Indians killed four men at Spanish Fork, in Texas, and outraged three women. One of those women was outraged by thirteen Indians and afterward killed and scalped. They left her with the hatchet still sticking in her head. Before leaving, they murdered her four little children. Of the children carried off by the Indians from Texas in 1868, fourteen were frozen to death in captivity. The total of losses from September 12, 1868, to Febuary 9, 1869, exclusive of casualties incident to military operations, was 158 men murdered, sixteen wounded and forty-one scalped. 3 scouts were killed, 14 women outraged, 1 man was captured, 4 women and 24 children were carried off."[13]

Little Rock's interview

On August 19, 1868, Colonel Edward Wynkoop, Indian Agent, interviewed Chief Little Rock, who was a member and second-in-command of Black Kettle's Cheyenne village. Little Rock related the massacre and admitted that almost all of Black Kettle's warriors were involved in the killings:[14] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Question by Colonel Wynkoop:

Six nights ago, I spoke to you in regard to depredations committed on the Saline. I told you to go and find out by whom these depredations were committed and to bring me straight news. What news do you bring?
Little Rock:
I took your advice and went there. I am now here to tell you all I know. This war party of Cheyennes which left the camp of these tribes above the forks of Walnut Creek about the 2d or 3d of August, went out against the Pawnees.... The Cheyennes numbered about 200; nearly all the young men in the village went.... When the party reached the Saline they turned down the stream, with the exception of twenty, who, being fearful of depredations being committed against the whites by the party going in the direction of the settlements, kept on north toward the Pawnees. The main party continued down the Saline until they came in sight of the settlement; they then camped there. A Cheyenne named Oh-e-ah-mo-he-a, a brother of White Antelope, who was killed at Sand Creek, and another named Red Nose, proceeded to the first house; they afterwards returned to the camp with a woman captive. The main party was surprised at this action, and forcibly took possession of her, and returned her to her house. The two Indians had outraged the woman before they brought her to the camp.... [Later, at another location,] they came upon a white man alone on the prairie. Big Head’s son rode at him and knocked him down with a club. The Indian who had committed the outrage upon the white woman...then fired upon the white man without effect, while the third Indian rode up and killed him. Soon after they killed a white man, and close by, a woman—all in the same settlement. At the time these people were killed, the party was divided in feeling, the majority being opposed to any outrages being committed; but finding it useless to contend against these outrages being committed without bringing on a strife among themselves, they gave way and all went in together. They then went to another house in the same settlement, and there killed two men and took two little girls prisoners; this on the same day. After committing this last outrage the party turned south toward the Saline, where they came upon a a body of mounted troops; the troops immediately charged the Indians, and the pursuit was continued a long time. The Indians having the two children, their horses becoming fatigued, dropped the children without hurting them.... After they had proceeded some distance up the Saline, the party divided, the majority going north toward the settlements on the Solomon.... Another small party returned to Black Kettle’s village, from which party I got this information. I am fearful that before this time the party that started north had committed a great many depredations....
Question by Colonel Wynkoop:
Your told me your nations want peace; will you, in accordance with your treaty stipulations, deliver up the men whom you have named as being the leaders of the party who committed the outrages named?
Little Rock:
I think that the only men who ought to suffer and be responsible for these outrages are White Antelope's brother and Red Nose, the men who ravished the woman; and when I return to the Cheyenne camp and assemble the chiefs and head men, I think those two men will be delivered up to you.
Question by Colonel Wynkoop:
I consider the whole party guilty; but being impossible to punish all of them, I hold the principal men, whom you questioned, responsible for all. they had not right to be led and governed by two men. If no depredations had been committed after the outrage on the woman, the two men whom you have mentioned alone would have been guilty.
Little Rock:
After your explanation, I think your demand for the men is right. I am willing to deliver them up, and will go back to the tribe and use my best endeavors to have them surrendered. I am but one man, and cannot answer for the entire nation.[14]

October to November, 1868

In October 1868, Cheyennes attacked a wagon train along the Arkansas River in eastern Colorado Territory and captured Clara Blinn, 19 years old, and her son Willie, two years old.[15] The raiders took their captives to Black Kettle's camp on the Washita River.[16] The Cheyennes were already detaining 4 to 6 hostages (two boys, a woman...) .[17] Here is a letter Clara wote on November 7, 1868:

Kind Friends, whoever you may be: I thank you for your kindness to me and my children. You want me to let you know my wishes. If you could only buy us of the Indians with ponies or anything let me come and stay with you until I can get word to my friends, they would pay you, and I would work and do all I could for you. If it is not far from their camp, and you are not afraid to come, I pray that you will try. They tell me as near as I can understand, they expect traders to come and they will sell us to them. Can you find out by this man and let me know if it is white men? If it is Mexicans, I am afraid they would sell us into slavery in Mexico. If you can do nothing for me, write to W. F. Harington, Ottawa, Franklin County, Kansas, my father. Tell him we are with the Cheyennes, and they say when the white man makes peace we can go home. Tell him to write to the Governor of Kansas about it, and for them to make peace. Send this to him. We were taken on the ninth of October, on the Arkansas, below Fort Lyon. I can not tell whether they killed my husband or not. My name is Mrs. Clara Blinn. My little boy, Willie Blinn, is two years old. For our sakes do all you can, let me hear from you again; let me know what you think about it. Write to my father; send him this. Goodbye, Mrs. R. F. Blinn. I am as well as can be expected, but my baby is very weak.[18]

The Indians believed they had good bargaining chips with which to deal for peace, much as they had attempted to do with their captives in the late summer of 1864. Blinn wrote a letter pleading for someone to rescue them, and it reached Colonel William B. Hazen, in charge at Fort Cobb. On November 20, Black Kettle, Big Mouth and a number of chiefs representing the Cheyennes and Arapahos, came to see Hazen to discuss peace and talk about ransoming the white captives. Since these tribes were currently at war with the United States, Hazen, unlike Major Wynkoop in 1864, knew he could not make a separate peace with them. Although Black Kettle was ostensibly at Fort Cobb to discuss peace, he did say, as Hazen recorded it, "that many of his men were then on the war path, and that their people did not want peace with the people above the Arkansas." Hazen directed them to go back to their villages and deal directly with General Sheridan.[19] William Babcock Hazen William Babcock Hazen (September 27, 1830 – January 16, 1887) was a career U.S. Army officer who served in the Indian Wars, as a Union general in the American Civil War, and as Chief Signal Officer of the U.S. Army. ...


General Sheridan was at work for a winter campaign against these Cheyenne raiders. While a winter campaign presented serious logistical problems, it offered opportunities for decisive results. If the Indians’ shelter, food, and livestock could be destroyed or captured, not only the warriors but their women and children were at the mercy of the Army and the elements, and there was little left but surrender. Sheridan devised a plan whereby three columns would converge on the Indian wintering grounds just east of the Texas Panhandle: one from Fort Lyon in Colorado, one from Fort Bascom in New Mexico, and one from Fort Supply in the Indian Territory later to be called Oklahoma. The 7th Cavalry under Lt. Col. George A. Custer found the Indians on the Washita River. Sheridan's orders to George Custer were to kill the warriors and to bring back with him the women and children. [20] Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Look up surrender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Texas Panhandle is a region of the state of Texas consisting of the northernmost 26 counties in the state. ... Fort Lyon aka Fort Wise existed on the Colorado eastern plains until 1867, when a new fort was erected near the present-day town of Las Animas. ... Fort Bascom is located in New Mexico on the Canadian River slightly west of the Texas border. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Fort Supply is a town in Woodward County, Oklahoma, United States. ... Indian Territory in 1836 Indian Country redirects here. ...


The battle

Map of the battle.

On November 27, 1868 Custer’s Osage Nation scouts located the trail of an Indian war party. Custer followed this trail all day without break until nightfall. Upon nightfall there was a short period of rest until there was sufficient moonlight to continue. Eventually they reached Black Kettle’s village. Custer divided his force into four parts, each moving into position so that at first daylight they could all simultaneously converge on the village. At daybreak the four columns attacked. The Indian warriors quickly left their lodges to take cover behind trees and in deep ravines. Custer was able to take control of the village quickly, but it took longer to quell all remaining resistance.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:Example. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Washita prisoners (53 women and children) gave the name of 13 warchiefs and headmen that were killed that day (names: Buffalo Tongue, Tall White Man, Tall Owl, Poor Black Elk, Big Horse, White Beaver, Bear Tail, Running Water, Wolf Ear, The Man That Hears the Wolf, Medicine Walker, Black Kettle, Little Rock)[22]. Custer wrote on December 22, 1868: "The Indians admit a loss of 140 killed, besides a heavy loss of wounded." .[23] According to the modern official account by the U.S. Army Center of Military History, the 7th Cavalry lost 21 officers and men killed and 13 wounded in the Battle of the Washita.[24] USACMH Logo The U.S. Army Center of Military History: A Brief History Terrence J. Gough From: ARMY HISTORY, PB-20-96-2 (No. ...


The official National Park Service count of known Cheyenne fatalities is as follow: 27 warriors , 13 warchiefs, three women, six children killed. [25]


Between 19 and 25 civilians had been killed according to Washita prisoners and Kiowa witnesses. Osage scouts left Washita with Black Kettle's scalp,[citation needed] after he and his wife, Medicine Woman Later were shot in the back.[26][27]


4 to 6 white captives, including Clara Blinn and her son, were killed (Clara was shot in the neck, Willie smashed against a tree [28]) by the fleeing Cheyennes.[29]


Following the capture of Black Kettle's village Custer was soon to find himself in a precarious position. As the fighting was beginning to subside Custer began to notice large groups of mounted Indians gathering on nearby hilltops. He quickly learned that Black Kettle's village was only one of the many Indian villages encamped along the river. Fearing an attack he ordered some of his men to take defensive positions while the others were to gather the Indian belongings and horses. What the Americans did not want or could not carry, they destroyed (including about 675 ponies and horses, 200 horses being given to the prisoners).[30]


Custer feared the outlying Indians would find and attack his supply train so near nightfall he began marching toward the other Indian encampments. Seeing that Custer was approaching their villages the surrounding Indians retreated to protect their families from a fate similar to that of Black Kettle's village. At this point Custer turned around and began heading back towards his supply train, which he eventually reached.[31] Thus the Battle of Washita was concluded.


The accounts of the battle

Historical accounts make no mention of Black Kettle’s request to camp as a friendly tribe or of the free fire zone enacted in Kansas.[32] However, some civilians and Indian agent, including the ones who had interviewed Little Rock and thus knew that Black Kettle was guilty, began to say that the battle was a massacre, and that the tribe was friendly.[33]


Custer certainly did not consider Washita a massacre. He does mention that some women took weapons and were subsequently killed. He did leave Washita with women and children prisoners; he did not simply kill every Indian in the village, though he admittedly couldn't avoid killing few women in the middle of the hard fight.[34]


Historian Jerome Greene wrote a book about the encounter in 2004, for the National Park Service. He concluded: "Soldiers evidently took measures to protect the women and children."[35]


Historian Paul Hutton : "Although the fight on the Washita was most assuredly one-sided, it was not a massacre. Black Kettle's Cheyennes were not unarmed innocents living under the impression that they were not at war. Several of Black Kettle's warriors had recently fought the soldiers, and the chief had been informed by Hazen that there could be no peace until he surrendered to Sheridan. The soldiers were not under orders to kill everyone, for Custer personally stopped the slaying of noncombatants, and fifty-three prisoners were taken by the troops."[36]


Another area of comparison between modern and historic accounts is the story of Major Elliot. Elliot, who died in the battle, commanded one of the four columns that attacked the village.[37] Neither the modern nor historic account of the battle can precisely describe the circumstances of his death. One version is that he ventured too far east and was killed while encountering other tribes of Indians.[citation needed] Historic accounts of Elliot's story are similar, as Custer briefly describes in his autobiography.[citation needed] Apparently one of Custer's scouts saw Elliot chase some of the Cheyenne Indians west that were escaping from Black Kettle's village.[citation needed] A difference between the two accounts of the battle is whether Custer searched for Elliot after his disappearance. Custer says he did. "Parties were sent in the direction indicated by the scout, he accompanying them; but after a search extending nearly two miles all the parties returned, reporting their efforts to discover some trace of Elliot and his men fruitless."[citation needed] Sergeant John Ryan wrote in his Memoirs that Custer immediately began to search Elliott with Captain Myer's unit.[citation needed]


The last common point of interest was the loss of the cavalry's great coats. Custer had his men set their coats aside prior to the battle, which allowed the Indians to capture them. Custer admits to this in his account.[citation needed] He had ordered the men to take off their coats so they would have greater maneuverability. Not mentioned in the modern accounts was that Custer's men also had left their rations behind. Custer left a small guard with the coats and rations but the Indian attackers were too numerous and the guard fled.[citation needed]


Depiction in fiction

In the television series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, this battle is portrayed as a massacre in the double-episode titled Washita, aired on April 29, 1995. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the film The Last Samurai, Tom Cruise's character Captain Nathan Algren had nightmares from his participation at the battle. The Last Samurai is an action/drama film written by John Logan and Edward Zwick & Marshall Herskovitz based on a story by Logan. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ...


In the film Little Big Man the battle has a significant role. It is depicted as a massacre. Little Big Man is a 1964 novel and a 1970 movie. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Miss Crockers, disputed. See Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, page 213. For the white boys freed, see Hoig, page 212, quoting General Miles' report about one of the boy: “I have the honor to report that I have had taken from the Indian prisoners at this Post and placed in the Post Hospital one white child apparently about two years of age. Said child is, in my opinion, the son of white parents. (…) I judge he must have been one of their captives or a child of some settler. His health is much impaired, owing to this improper treatment. (…) While he remained with the Indians he was placed in the most exposed part of their quarters and his food and clothing taken from him and thrown away.” (Colonel Miles, commander of Fort Hays, April 30, 1869)
  2. ^ Greene, page 111
  3. ^ Greene, Washita, page 109
  4. ^ Hoig, 1980, pp. 140, 242 (note for page 140). (names: Buffalo Tongue, Tall White Man, Tall Owl, Poor Black Elk, Big Horse, White Beaver, Bear Tail, Running Water, Wolf Ear, The Man That Hears the Wolf, Medicine Walker, Black Kettle, Little Rock)
  5. ^ Hoig, page 140, 201: "Realistically, large (Indian) casualties must be accepted in view of the surprise nature of the attack."
  6. ^ Clara Harrington Blinn, Willie Blinn, a young boy (disputed) and other captives. Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, page 212; Michno, Encyclopedia of Indian wars, page 226
  7. ^ http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/amh/AMH-14.htm
  8. ^ Captain Alvord's report, Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, pages 200-201
  9. ^ Greene, Washita, pages 211-214
  10. ^ http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/ok/washita_1
  11. ^ Greene, Washita.
  12. ^ Medicine Lodge Treaty, 1867
  13. ^ Chronicles of Oklahoma, Volume 2, No. 4, December, 1924.
  14. ^ a b "Report of an interview between E. W. Wynkoop, US Indian Agent, and Little Rock, a Cheyenne Chief Held at Fort Larned, Kansas, August 19, 1868, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians." Available in Hoig, 1970, pp. 49-51; Custer, 1874, pp. 105-107; Greene, 2004, pp. 52-53; Brill, 1938, pp. 289-290.
  15. ^ Blinn's diary, 1868.
  16. ^ Michno, Black Kettle, Wild West, 2005
  17. ^ Kansas Daily Tribune and the Hays City Advance (August 1868):“A band of Cheyennes under command of Black Kettle, a noted chief, was in town (HaysCity) on Thursday. They had a white child with them (…) Some think that (the child) was stolen by Kiowas or Comanches in Kansas or Texas and sold to the Cheyennes.” Hoig, page 212
  18. ^ Roenigk, 1933, p. 152.
  19. ^ Michno, 2005.
  20. ^ Hoig, The Battle of the Washita page 82
  21. ^ Greene, Washita, pages 116-120
  22. ^ Hoig, 1980, pp. 140, 242 (note for page 140).
  23. ^ Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, page 200
  24. ^ Army Center of Military History
  25. ^ Appendix C in Greene, Washita, pages 212-214
  26. ^ Lewis, 2004, p. 231.
  27. ^ National Park Service, 1999. Custer's My Life on the Plains (Washita chapter)
  28. ^ Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, page 213
  29. ^ Michno, 2003, pp. 226-227. "During the battle, the Cheyennes killed two of four white captives. It is uncertain whether Custer was able to rescue the other two."
  30. ^ Greene, Washita, page 126
  31. ^ Greene, page 128
  32. ^ Greene, Washita, page 189
  33. ^ "Report of an interview between E. W. Wynkoop, US Indian Agent, and Little Rock... (see above)." Wynkoop later said that Black Kettle was friendly in the Eastern newspapers, a claim that infuriated people from Kansas who defended Custer. Black Kettle himself admitted the killings. see Black Kettle’s Last Raid, by Wilson, pages 110-117. See also Frost, "The Custer Album", page 94.
  34. ^ Greene, page 189
  35. ^ Greene, Washita, p. 189.
  36. ^ The Custer Reader, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 102
  37. ^ Hoig, The Battle of the Washita, page 146

The University of Oklahoma Press is a university press that is part of the University of Oklahoma. ...

References

  • Brill, Charles J. (1938). Conquest of the Southern Plains; Uncensored Narrative of the Battle of the Washita and Custer's Southern Campaign. Oklahoma City, OK: Golden Saga Publishers.
  • Blinn, Richard. (1868). Richard Blinn Diary: Transcript. MMS 1646 mf. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University, Center for Archival Collections.
  • Custer, George Armstrong. (1874). My Life on the Plains: Or Personal Experiences With the Indians. New York: Sheldon and Company. Also available online from Kansas Collection Books.
  • Frost, Dr. Lawrence, "The Custer Album, a Pictorial Biography of General George A. Custer", Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1964
  • Garlington, E. A. (1896). "The Seventh Regiment of Cavalry." In Theophilus F. Rodenboguh and William L. Haskin, eds. The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief. New York: Maynard, Merrill, & Co., pp. 251-257. Online version dated 2002-10-30 through the U.S. Army Center of Military History, retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  • Greene, Jerome A. (2004). Washita, The Southern Cheyenne and the U.S. Army. Campaigns and Commanders Series, vol. 3. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Hoig, Stan. (1980). The Battle of the Washita: The Sheridan-Custer Indian Campaign of 1867-69. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Lewis, Jon E., ed. (2004). The Mammoth Book of Native Americans. New York: Carroll & Graf.
  • Michno, Gregory F. (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes 1850-1890. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company.
  • Michno, Gregory F. (2005-12). "Cheyenne Chief Black Kettle." Wild West (magazine). Retrieved through Historynet.com on 2007-06-28.
  • National Park Service. (1999-11). "The Story of the Battle of the Washita", Washita Battlefield National Historic Site, National Park Service.
  • National Park Service. (2006-08-10). "Frequently Asked Questions", Washita Battlefield National Historic Site, National Park Service.
  • New York Times, 27 November8 December 1868.
  • Roenigk, Adolph. (1933). Pioneer History of Kansas. (Lincoln, KS:) A. Roenigk. Through Kansas Collection Books.
  • Senate, Letter to the Secretary of the Interior, Communicating in Compliance with the Resolutions of the Senate of the 14th ultimo, Information in Relation to the Late Battle of the Washita, 40th Congress, 3d Session, 1869. Sen Ex. Doc. 13.
  • White, Richard. (1991). "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Wilson, Hill P. "Black Kettle’s Last Raid." Transactions of Kansas State Historical Society, VIII.

is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:Example. ... Front cover of Its Your Misfortune and None of My Own, 1993 edition. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Andrew Jackson, general of the Battle of Horseshoe Bend at the end of the Creek War, was a major figure in Indian removal.
Battle of Beecher Island (1868) — Northern Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, Arapaho, and Brulé and Oglala Sioux, all under the leadership of Chief Roman Nose, fight scouts of the 9th U.S. Cavalry in a nine-day battle.
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Cheyenne - Academic Kids (831 words)
In the early morning on November 27, 1868 the Battle of Washita River started when United States Army Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer led the 7th U.S. Cavalry in an attack on a band of peaceful Cheyenne legally living on reservation land with Chief Black Kettle.
It is estimated that population of the encampment of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho along the Little Bighorn River was around 10,000; which would make it one of the largest gathering of Native Americans in North America in pre-reservation times.
This reservation was expanded in 1890, the current western border is the Crow Indian Reservation and the eastern border is the Tongue River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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