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Encyclopedia > Battle of Wagram
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Battle of Wagram
A bivouac of Polish Uhlans at Wagram painted by January Suchodolski
A bivouac of Polish Uhlans at Wagram painted by January Suchodolski
Conflict: Napoleonic Wars
Date: June 5-6, 1809
Place: North-east of Vienna, Austria
Outcome: French victory
Combatants
France Austria
Commanders
Napoleon Bonaparte Archduke Charles
Strength
180,000 155,000
Casualties
32,500 37,146
War of the Fifth Coalition
Sacile – Teugen-Hausen – RaszynAbensbergEckmühlLandshut – Regensberg – Ebersberg – Aspern-Essling – Raab – Wagram

The Battle of Wagram, around the isle of Lobau on the Danube and on the plain of the Marchfeld around the town of Deutsch-Wagram, 15 km north-east of Vienna, Austria, took place on July 5 and 6, 1809 and resulted in the decisive victory of French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte over the Austrians under Archduke Charles. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Uhlan dressed in the characteristic czapka. ... January Suchodolski (September 19, 1797 in Grodno – March 20, 1875 in Boimie near Siedlce) was a Polish painter and Army officer. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars fought during Napoleon Bonapartes rule of France. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... Jump to: navigation, search Napoleon I of France, by Jacques-Louis David Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution, and the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from 11 November 1799 to 18 May 1804, then... Archduke Charles Erzherzog Karl von Österreich (en: Archduke Charles of Austria) (September 5, 1771 – April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747 – 1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745 – 1792). ... The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between Austria and Great Britain formed in 1809 to fight Napoleon Bonapartes French Empire. ... The Battle of Sacile took place on April 3, Austrians under the Archduke John, and 36,000 French and Italians under Eugene de Beauharnais, Regent of Italy. ... Battle of Raszyn Conflict Napoleonic Wars Date April 19, 1809 Place Raszyn, Poland Result Austrian defeat The first Battle of Raszyn was fought on April 19, 1809 between armies of Austria and the Duchy of Warsaw as a part of the War of the Fifth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars. ... The Battle of Abensberg took place on April 20, 1809, between the French and Bavarians under Napoleon which numbered about 90,000 strong, and 80,000 Austrians under the Archduke Charles. ... The Battle of Eckmühl was fought on April 22, 1809, and resulted in a French victory under Marshal Davout and Napoleon Bonaparte against the Austrians under the Archduke Charles. ... The Battle of Landesschut or Battle of Landshut was an engagement fought on June 23, 1760 during the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 22, 1809), was fought between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles. ... This article is about a floodplain in Vienna. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Danube (Donau in German; Dunaj in Slovak; Donava in Slovene; Duna in Hungarian; Dunav in Croatian and Serbian; Dunav or Дунав in Bulgarian; Dunăre in Romanian; Дунай (Dunay) in Ukrainian; Danuvius in Latin) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Archduke Charles Erzherzog Karl von Österreich (en: Archduke Charles of Austria) (September 5, 1771 – April 30, 1847) was a son of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (1747 – 1792) and his wife Maria Luisa of Spain (1745 – 1792). ...


Artillery was a major factor where 300,000 men clashed in the largest battle yet in the Napoleonic Wars. Of those, 80,000 men lay killed or wounded, half of them under the Banner of Napoleon, the other half Austrians.


It brought to an end the war of the Fifth Coalition. Jump to: navigation, search The Fifth Coalition was an alliance between Austria and the United Kingdom formed in 1809 to fight Napoleon Bonapartes French Empire. ...

Contents


Prelude

After the strategic disaster at the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon reinforced his main army with a Bavarian division under General Wrede and stocked up on supplies at Lobau Island just north of Vienna. Marmont, Prince Eugene and Józef Antoni Poniatowski were causing problems on all fronts for the Austrian army. However, a major revolt in Tyrol led by Andreas Hofer saw to the fact that Napoleon could not call in any more Bavarian troops. At the same time Britain was preparing to invade northern Europe, meaning extra troops from France would not be forthcoming. However, Napoleon recalled his Army of Italy under Eugene and MacDonald and those troops had joined him by the time of the battle. Napoleon prepared himself and by July, 1809 he was ready to take another shot at Archduke Charles' army. The Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 22, 1809), was fought between the French and their allies under Napoleon and the Austrians commanded by the archduke Charles. ... Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, Marshal of France Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, duke of Ragusa (July 20, 1774 - July 22, 1852), marshal of France, was born at Châtillon-sur-Seine. ... Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (September 3, 1781 - February 21, 1824) was the first child and only son of Joséphine de Tascher de la Pagerie and Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms CioÅ‚ek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia SitaÅ„ska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia SitaÅ„ska: Józef SzczÄ™sny Poniatowski; with Zofia Potocka: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... This article is about the Tyrol, the region in the eastern Alps. ... Andreas Hofer in an Austrian stamp Andreas Hofer (November 22, 1767 - February 20, 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and patriot. ...


The Battle

By the day of the battle, Lobau Island was a massive warehouse and Napoleon was ready to move out. Using a fortified bridgehead, Napoleon started a full scale crossing of the island with his 190,000 men. On the other side of the Marchfeld, Archduke Charles was busy maneuvering 140,000 men on the Heights of Russbach. Marshal Berthier, Napoleon's chief of staff, when giving orders to the various corps, accidentally assigned the same bridge to 2 corps. Although a very long delay ensued, Davout, Massena and Oudinot and their corps were across. Bernadotte and his Saxons joined them, and on the 5th of July, Napoleon began his deployment near Aspern and Essling. Artillery smashed up the area around the two towns whilst the French army deployed. A few outpost divisions under generals Nordmann and Klenau were sent reeling back, battered to a pulp, and by noon all of the area around Aspern and Essling was in the hands of the French. By late afternoon, the French army formed a semicircle with Masséna on the extreme left, then centre with Bernadotte, Eugène and Oudinot, Davout formed the right flank. By nightfall, in an attempt to decide the battle in a single day and to prevent the Austrian reserves under Archduke John coming up, Napoleon ordered a final attack. The attack by MacDonald's troops was poorly coordinated and although it carried the high ground beyong Wagram, the attack failed under the heavy Austrian fire. Jump to: navigation, search The Marshal of France (maréchal de France) was one of the Great Officers of the Crown of France. ... Louis Alexandre Berthier, Marshal of France Louis Alexandre Berthier, prince de Neuchâtel (February 20, 1753 – June 1, 1815), marshal of France, Vice-Constable of France beginning in 1808, and chief of staff under Napoleon, was born at Versailles. ... Davout, Marshal of France Louis Nicolas dAvout (May 10, 1770 – June 1, 1823), better known as Davout, duc dAuerstädt, prince dEckmühl, and a marshal of France. ... André Masséna, Marshal of France André Masséna (May 6, 1758 - April 4, 1817), Duke of Rivoli, Prince of Essling, was a French soldier in the armies of Napoleon and a Marshal of France. ... Nicolas Charles Oudinot (April 25, 1767 - September 13, 1847), duke of Reggio, was a marshal of France. ... Charles XIV John (Karl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Charles III John (Karl III Johan)) from 1818 until his death. ... Nicolas Charles Oudinot (April 25, 1767 - September 13, 1847), duke of Reggio, was a marshal of France. ...


At dawn of the following day, the Austrians first counterattacked the French right flank. This move was designed as a feignt in order to draw French reserves away. The real attack was aimed at the French left around the village of Aderklaa where the Austrians succeeded in throwing back Bernadotte's Saxons. To stem the Austrian attack, Napoleon created a Grand Battery of 112 cannon which poured shot into the advancing Austrian formations. Masséna's Corps was then called upon the stabilize the Saxon front and in cooperation with the cavalry was able to hold the river line. Meanwhile on the French right flank things were going better, with Oudinot and Davout advancing.


The decisive attack of the battle was launched against the Austrian advancing centre by General Macdonald, for which he was granted the Marshal's baton on the field of battle. MacDonald made his troops form a wedge about 8,000 strong and utilizing this formation, after ferocious fighting at bayonet point, he broke through the Austrian center, splitting the army and winning the day for the Emperor. Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald (November 17, 1765 - September 7, 1840), duke of Taranto and marshal of France, was born at Sedan, France. ...


Charles had also sent for his brother, Archduke John's, help but John only got his troops (13,000) on the road by the next morning, far too late to help Charles. Five days after the battle, Charles had to bow to the inevitable and sued for peace. Johann, Archduke of Austria, b. ...


After the battle MacDonald, Oudinot and Marmont were given the Marshal's baton and the army had soon a new chant about the three men: La France a nommé MacDonald, L'armée a nommé Oudinot, L'amitié a nommé Marmont


Present Day

Avenue de Wagram, one of the avenues leading up to the Arc de Triomphe on the Place de l'Etoile in Paris, France, is named after this battle. Jump to: navigation, search Arc de Triomphe The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place de lÉtoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. ... The Place de lÉtoile is a large Place in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve avenues (hence the name Star Square) including the Champs-Élysées which continues to the east. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ...


External Links

References

  • David Chandler, Napoleon's Marshals, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1998, p 247-251.

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