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Encyclopedia > Battle of Tuchola Forest
Polish September Campaign
WesterplatteKrojanty • Lasy Królewskie • Mokra • Gdańsk Bay • Pszczyna • Mława • Tuchola Forest • Jordanów • Borowa Góra • Mikołów • Węgierska Górka • Tomaszów Mazowiecki • Wizna • Łódź • Piotrków • Różan • Radom • Łomża • Wola CyrusowaWarsawGdyniaHelBzura • Jarosław • Kałuszyn • Węgrów • LwówModlin • Kobryń • Brześć • Kępa Oksywska • Tomaszów Lubelski • Wólka Węglowa • Kampinos Forest • Janów Lubelski, Wereszyca, and Hołosko • Krasnystaw • Grodno • Cześniki • Krasnobród • Władypol • SzackWytyczno • Parczew • Kock

The Battle of Bory Tucholskie refers to one of the first battles of the Polish September Campaign, 1939. The battle started on 1 September and ended on 5 September with a major German victory. Due to lack of coordination and poor command of Polish forces and German numerical and tactical superiority, Germans managed to cripple Polish Armia Pomorze and connect mainland Germany with Prussia, breaking through the Polish Corridor[1] Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 4 brigades... Westerplatte Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 1 to September 7, 1939 Place Westerplatte peninsula in Gdańsk Result ? Westerplatte is a peninsula in Gdańsk, at an estuary of the Dead Vistula (one of the Vistula delta estuaries), in the Gdańsk harbour channel. ... The Battle of Krojanty was part of the Polish September Campaign of the Second World War. ... Battle of Lasy Królewskie (Polish: Bitwa w Lasach Królewskich, Battle of Royal Forests) refers to the battle on 1 September 1939 near Janowo and KrzynowoÅ‚ga MaÅ‚a during the battle of the border of the Polish September Campaign. ... Combatants Germany Poland Commanders Georg-Hans Reinhardt, Friedrich Kirchner Julian Filipowicz Strength 2 panzer divisions, infantry division cavalry brigade, elements of one infantry division Casualties ca. ... Battle of the GdaÅ„sk Bay took place on September 1, 1939, shortly after the outbreak of the Polish Defensive War. ... Battle of Pszczyna (Polish: Bitwa PszczyÅ„ska) refers to the series of battles on 1 and 2 September 1939 near the town of Pszczyna during the Polish September Campaign. ... The Battle of MÅ‚awa, otherwise known as the Defence of the MÅ‚awa position, took place to the north of the town of MÅ‚awa in northern Poland between September 1 and September 3, 1939. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders StanisÅ‚aw Maczek Ewald von Kleist Strength 1 motorized brigade reinforced with infantry 2 Panzer divisions, 1 infantry division Casualties {{{notes}}} The Battle of Jordanów took place on September 2, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War and the opening stages of World War II. It... Battle of Borowa Góra (Polish: ) refers to the series of battles from 2nd to 5th of September of 1939 that took place near the hills of Góry Borowskie, south west from Piotrków Trybunalski and east of BeÅ‚chatów. ... Battle of Tomaszów Mazowiecki (Polish: Bitwa pod Tomaszowem Mazowieckim) refers to the battle on 6 September 1939 near the town of Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Second Polish Republic, during the Polish September Campaign. ... Battle of Wizna Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 7-September 10, 1939 Place Wizna near Poland Result unconcluded Battle of Wizna (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was fought between September 6 and September 10, 1939, between the forces of Poland and Germany during the initial... The Battle of Łódź was fought on September 8, 1939, between Poland and Germany. ... The Battle of Różan, otherwise known as defence of Różan bridgehead, took place between September 4 and September 6, 1939, in the fields before the town of Różan on the Narew River. ... Battle of Radom. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ... German battleship Schleswig-Holstein stationed at Danzig harbor is shelling nearby Polish positions at Gdynia. ... Hel Peninsula as seen from Landsat satellite in 2000 Battle of Hel was one of the longest battles of the Polish Defence War of 1939 in 1939. ... Battle of Bzura (also known as Battle of Kutno) took place during the Second World War, Polish September Campaign between 9 September 1939 and 19 September1, 1939 and was fought between Polish and German Nazi forces. ... The Battle of KaÅ‚uszyn, took place between September 11 and September 12, 1939, in the fields before the town of KaÅ‚uszyn near MiÅ„sk Mazowiecki. ... Combatants Germany, Soviet Union Poland Commanders Ferdinand Schörner, Filip Golikov WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Langner, StanisÅ‚aw Sikorski Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Lwów (sometimes called the Siege of Lwów) was a battle for the control over the Polish city of Lwów between the Polish Army... Battle of Modlin Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 13 to September 29, 1939 Place Modlin village, Modlin Fortress Result Polish capitulation During the Polish September Campaign at the beginning of the Second World War, Modlin Fortress was a headquarters of the Modlin Army until it retreated eastwards. ... Battle of KobryÅ„ was one of the battles of the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... Battle of Brześć Litewski (otherwise known as the Siege of Brześć, Battle of Brest-Litovsk or simply Battle of Brześć) was a World War II battle that took place between September 14 and September 17, 1939, near the town of Brześć Litewski (now Brest, Belarus). ... The battle of KÄ™pa Oksywska took place in the Oksywie Heights outside of the city of Gdynia between September 10 and September 19, 1939. ... Battle of Tomaszów Lubelski took place from 17th September to 26th September 1939 near the town of Tomaszów Lubelski. ... The Battle of Grodno took place between September 21 and September 24, 1939, during the Polish Defensive War. ... The Battle of Krasnobród took place on September 23, 1939 near the town of Krasnobród. ... Battle of Szack Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date September 28, 1939 Place Szack, Poland Result Polish victory Battle of Szack was one of the major battles between the Polish Army and the Red Army fought during the Polish Defence War of 1939. ... The battle of Wytyczno took place on October 1, 1939 near the village of Wytyczno near WÅ‚odawa in Poland. ... The Battle of Kock was the final battle of the Polish September Campaign at the beginning of World War II. It took place from October 2nd through October 5th, 1939, near the town of Kock, Poland. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 4 brigades... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa, German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ...

Contents


Before the battle

Bory Tucholskie, or Tuchola's Forest, is a large forest complex in north-west Poland. Because of it's difficult terrain it was viewed by Polish side as a good terrain for defence. The Tuchola Forest (Polish Bory Tucholskie) is a large heath area in the proximity of the town of Tuchola in Poland, between the Brda and Gwda rivers. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ...


Polish forces in the theater were composed of elements of Armia Pomorze: 9th under colonel Józef Werobej and 27th infantry divisions under general Juliusz Drapella, and Operational Group Czersk under gen. Stanisław Grzmot-Skotnicki. StanisÅ‚aw Grzmot-Skotnicki (1894-1939) was a Polish military commander and a general of the Polish Army. ...


German forces in the theater were composed on the elements of the 4th German Army under general Gunther von Kluge, specifically 19th Panzer Corps (commanded by general Heinz Guderian), and 2nd Army Corps under general Adolf Strauβ. Those units were based in Western Pomerania (west of the corridor). Günther von Kluge (Hans Günther von Kluge) (1882 - 1944), was a German military leader. ... Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 - 14 May 1954) was a military theorist and innovative General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Historic Western Pomerania (outlined in yellow) Western Pomerania (also West Pomerania, Polish: , German: ), is a geographical and historical region in the west of Pomerania in northern Poland and Germany. ...


19th Panzer Corps consisted of 2nd Motorized Division under general Paul Bader, 20th Motorized Division under general Mauritz von Wiktor and 3rd Panzer Division under general Leo Freiherr Geyr von Schweppenburg. 2nd Army Corps was composed of two infantry divisions: 3rd Infantry Division under general Walter Lichel and 32nd Infantry Division under general Franz Böhme. The German 3rd Panzer Division () was established in 1938. ... Franz Böhme Born in Austria on April 15, 1885 Franz Friedrich Böhme rose to the rank of General in the German Army, serving as Commander of the Twentieth Mountain Army and Commander-in-Chief of Norway. ...


The battle

Despite several tactical Polish victories, including the Battle of Krojanty of 1 September, a famous Polish cavalry charge, and the destruction of German armored train near Chojnice, German forces were able to advance quickly. The Battle of Krojanty was part of the Polish September Campaign of the Second World War. ... Volunteer Representative Squadron of City of Poznan in uniforms of 15th Poznan Uhlans Regiment Polish Cavalry (Polish kawaleria) can trace its origins back to the days of Mediæval mounted knights. ... Armoured train is a train protected with armour. ... Chojnice is a town in northern Poland with 40,600 inhabitants (2000), near famous Tuchola Forests, Lake Charzykowskie and many other water reservoirs. ...


Not all of Polish forces were in position by the 1 September. In addition, German advance managed to saw confusion into Polish forces, and communication problems meant that Polish forces did not act cohesivly from the first day of the campaign. Poles were forced to abandon plans for a counterattack and forced to retreat, pursuded by more mobilie German motorized and armored troops. As German forces had significant amount of armor support, including over 300 tanks commanded by famous panzer expert, general Guderian. Polish forces, faced with new German blitzkrieg tactics, found themself fighting an opponent that was hard to hurt and moved very quickly. Blitzkrieg relies on close co-operation between infantry and panzers (tanks). ...


Most of Polish forces were surrounded by 3 September. Some were destroyed, while others managed to break through towards Bydgoszcz. By the 5 September Germans controlled most of the combat theatre. Bydgoszcz (Polish pronunciation: (?), German: Bromberg, Latin: Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ...


Aftermath

Most of Polish forces were destroyed by 5 September. Germans were able to break through the Polish Corridor. Some German forces were ordered to erase the pockets of Polish restistance in fortified areas on Baltic Sea coast, while others continued their push south-east, deeper into Polish territory. A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


On 6 September Adolf Hitler visited Guderian on that day and congratulated him on his quick progress.[2] (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ...


References

  1. ^ Christer Jorgensen, Chris Mann, Strategy and Tactics: Strategy and Tactics, Zenith Imprint, 2001, ISBN 0760310165, Google Print, p.35.
  2. ^ Martin Gilbert, The Second World War: A Complete History, Owl Books, 2004, ISBN 0805076239 Google Print, p.6
  • ((Polish)) Bitwa w Borach Tucholskich (Battle of Bory Tucholskie)

Sir Martin Gilbert (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and biographer and author of over seventy books on a range of historical subjects. ...

Further reading

  • Steven J. Zaloga, Polish Army, 1939-1945, Osprey Publishing, 1982, ISBN 0850454174

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Krojanty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (724 words)
The battle took place near the village of Krojanty in Pomerania (7 kilometres from the town of Chojnice) on September 1, 1939.
Polish units were engaged in battle from around 5 o'clock in the morning against elements of German 76th Infantry Regiment of 20th Motorised Division under Lt.Gen. Mauritz von Wiktorin, which operated on the left (northern) flank of XIX Panzer Corps under Gen. Heinz Guderian.
However, the sounds of the battle notified the crews of the APCs stationed nearby, and soon the Polish unit came under heavy machine gun fire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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