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Encyclopedia > Battle of Tsushima
Battle of Tsushima
Part of the Russo-Japanese War
Admiral Togo on the bridge of Mikasa
Admiral Togo on the bridge of Mikasa, at the beginning of the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. The signal flag being hoisted is the letter "Z", which was a special instruction to the Fleet.
Date May 27-28, 1905
Location Straits of Tsushima
Result Decisive Japanese victory
Combatants
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan Flag of Russia Russian Empire
Commanders
Heihachiro Togo Zinovi Rozhdestvenski #
Nikolai Nebogatov
Strength
4 battleships
27 cruisers
destroyers and auxiliary vessels
8 battleships
3 coastal battleships
8 cruisers
Casualties
117 dead
583 injured
3 torpedo boats sunk
4,380 dead
5,917 captured
21 ships sunk
7 captured
6 disarmed
Russo-Japanese War
1st Port ArthurChemulpo BayYalu RiverNanshan – Telissu – Yellow SeaUlsan2nd Port ArthurMotien Pass – Tashihchiao– HsimuchengLiaoyangShahoSandepuMukdenTsushima

The Battle of Tsushima (Japanese: 対馬海戦, tsushima-kaisen, Russian: Цусимское сражение, Tsusimskoye srazheniye), commonly known as the “Sea of Japan Naval Battle” (Japanese: 日本海海戦, nihonkai-kaisen) in Japan and the “Battle of Tsushima Strait” elsewhere, was the last and most decisive sea battle of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. It was fought on May 27-28, 1905 (May 14-15 in the Julian calendar then in use in Russia) in the Tsushima Strait. In this battle the Japanese fleet under Admiral Heihachiro Togo destroyed two-thirds of the Russian fleet under Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. In Theodore Rex (ISBN 0-394-55509-0), historian Edmund Morris calls it the greatest battle since Trafalgar. It was the biggest naval battle of the pre-dreadnought battleship era. Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in 1900. ... The Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡) is a strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu, the furthest west of the four largest islands in Japan. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military (a. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Russia. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS... Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Zinovi Petrovich Rozhdestvenski1 (1848-1909) was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, who was involved in the Russo-Japanese War. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Nebogatov (Russian: ,1849-1922) was a Russian Rear-Admiral. ... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Oskar Victorovich Stark Strength 15 battleships and cruisers with escorts 12 battleships and cruisers with escorts Casualties 90 men and slight damage 150 men and seven ships damaged The Battle of Port Arthur (Japanese: 旅順港閉塞作戦, Ryojunkō Heisoku... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Uryu Sotokichi Vsevolod Rudnev Strength 4 cruisers 1 cruiser, 1 gunboat Casualties no casualties reported by japanese, about 30 by russian sources 37 killed, 73 wounded; both ships scuttled after the battle The Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Japanese: 仁川沖海戦, Jinsenoki kaisen, Russian: Битва в заливе Чемульпо) was... The Battle of Yalu River took place from April 30 to May 1, 1904, and was the first major land battle during the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Nanshan was one of many vicious land battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Te-li-Ssu was fought on June 14 and June 15 of 1904 between Russian and Japanese forces. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo, Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft Strength 4 battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 8 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 30 torpedo boats 6 battleships, 4 cruisers, 14 destroyers Casualties 226 killed and wounded 343 killed and wounded Location within China The Battle... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Vice Admiral Hikonojo Kamimura Rear Admiral Nikolai Essen Strength 4 armored cruisers, 2 protected cruisers 3 armored cruisers Casualties minimal casualties with 1 armored cruiser suffering slight damage heavy casualties and 1 cruiser destroyed with two cruisers suffering heavy damage The naval Battle off Ulsan, also... The Siege of Port Arthur (1 August 1904-2 January 1905), the Russian deepwater port and naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula (See Map below the Battlebox) in Manchuria was one of the longest and most vicious battles during the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders General Kuroki Tamemoto General Count Fedor Keller Strength 25,000 General Count Fedor Keller had assumed command of the Russian Eastern Force from General Zasulich after the Battle of Yalu River. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders General Yasukata Oku Lieutenant General Georgii Stakelberg Lieutenant General Nikolai Zarubaev Strength 20,000 Casualties 1,000 (estimated) 1,000 (estimated) The Battle of Tashihchiao (Jpn. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders General Nozu Michitsura Lieutenant General Mikhail Zasulich Casualties 836 1550 The Battle of Hsimucheng was a minor land engagement of the Russo-Japanese War. ... The Battle of Liaoyang (August 24, 1904 - September 4, 1904) was one of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Oyama Iwao Alexei Kuropatkin Strength 150,000 210,000 Casualties 20,345 killed, wounded or captured 44,351 killed, wounded or captured The Battle of Shaho was a land battle of the Russo-Japanese War fought along a 37-mile front centered at the Sha River... Battle of Sandepu Conflict Russo-Japanese War Date January 25 and January 26, 1905 Place Near Mukden in Manchuria Result Draw The Battle of Sandepu, (also known as the Battle of Heikoutai) was a major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Empire of Russia Commanders Field Marshal Oyama Iwao General Alexei Kuropatkin Strength About 207,300 About 291,000 Casualties 15,892 killed; 59,612 wounded 20,000 killed; 49,000 wounded; 20,000 captured The Battle of Mukden, the last major land battle of the Russo... Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Tsushima Strait is the eastern channel of the Korea Strait Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡, also known in Western historical reference works as the Tsu Shima Strait or Tsu-Shima Strait) is that part of the Korea Strait located east and south of the Tsushima Islands. ... Admiral Togo at the age of 58, at the time of the Russo-Japanese War. ... Admiral Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky1 (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1848 - January 14, 1909) was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, who was in command of the Second Pacific Squadron in the Battle of Tsushima, during the Russo-Japanese War. ... Edmund Morris during a CNN interview in 1999 Edmund Morris (born May 27, 1940 in Nairobi, Kenya) is a writer best known for his biographies of United States presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan. ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line France: 18 ships of the line and 8 others. ... USS Massachusetts, a pre-dreadnought battleship launched in 1893 The term pre-dreadnought refers to the last type of battleship before the British Royal Navys HMS Dreadnought (1906). ...


The Battle of Tsushima was the only sea battle in history in which steel, engined-powered battleships fought a decisive fleet action. In addition, much to the Russian Navy's credit, Admiral Rozhestvensky's battleship fleet conducted a voyage of over 18,000 nautical miles (33 000 km) to reach their Far Eastern station. A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ...


Prior to the Russo-Japanese War, countries constructed their battleships with mixed batteries of mainly 150 mm (6-inch), 203 mm (8-inch), 254 mm (10-inch) and 305 mm (12-inch) guns, with the intent that these battleships fight on the battle line in a close-quarter, decisive fleet action. The battle demonstrated that the big guns with longer ranges were more advantageous and favourable during naval battles, not mixed batteries of different sizes. As early as 1904, the Imperial Japanese Navy developed the Satsuma (laid down a few days before the Battle of Tsushima, on May 15th, 1905), the first ship to be developed and laid down as an all-big-gun battleship. Great Britain would soon follow suit, laying down the keel of HMS Dreadnought in October 1905, and becoming the first to complete an "all big gunned" battleship (305 mm cannons). HMS Dreadnought was launched in 1906, and created the separating date between "Pre-Dreadnoughts" prior to 1906 and "Dreadnoughts" from 1906 afterward. Combatants Russian Empire Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War , February 10, 1904 – September 5, 1905) was a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Japanese Empire over... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Satsuma ) was a dreadnought type battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy , designed and built in Japan by the Yokosuka Naval Yards. ... The sixth HMS Dreadnought of the Royal Navy was a revolutionary battleship which entered service in 1906. ... Look up dreadnought in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Prologue and Overview

Conflict in the Far East

On February 8, 1904 destoyers of the Imperial Japanese Navy lanuched a suprise attack on the Russian Far East Fleet anchored in Port Arthur, 3 ships including 2 battleships and a crusier were damaged in the attack. The Russo-Japanese war had began. Japan's first objective was to secure it's sea lines of communication and supply to the Asian mainland thereby enabling it to conduct a ground war in Manchuria. To achieve this it needed to neutralise Russian naval power in the East. At first, Russian naval forces lay dormant and did not engage the Japanese, resulting in unopposed Japanese troop landings in Korea, but the Russians were revitalised by the arrival of Admiral Stepan Makarov and they were able to achieve some degree of success against the Japanese. However, Admiral Makarov's flagship battleship Petropavlovsk stuck a mine which resulted in the death of the Admiral and Makarov's successors failed to challenge the Japanese Navy, as a consequence the Russians were effectively bottled up in Port Arthur. By May the Japanese had landed forces on the Liaodong Peninsula and in August began the siege of the naval station. In August, the Russian leadership finally decided to sortie the First Pacific Squadron and link up with the Vladivostok Squadron and then challenge the Japanese. However, both squadrons of the Russian Pacific Fleet were dispersed at the battles of the Yellow Sea and Uslan(on 10 August and 14 August 1904 respectively) what remained of Russian naval power would eventually be sunk in Port Arthur. is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) (: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍   or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun), officially Navy of Empire of Greater Japan, also known as the Japanese Navy or Combined Fleet was the Navy of Empire of Japan from 1869 until 1947, when it was dissolved following Japans constitutional renunciation of the use of force... Port Arthur is the name of some places: Port Arthur, Tasmania, Australia Old Western name for Lushun, China Port Arthur, Texas, United States of America Port Arthur, Ontario, a city in Ontario, Canada, became part of Thunder Bay in 1970. ... Stepan Osipovich Makarov (Russian: Степа́н О́сипович Мака́ров) (January 8, 1848/1849 — March 31, 1904) was a famous Russian vice-admiral, a highly accomplished and decorated commander of the... Petropavlovsk may refer to: Petropavl, also known as Petropavlovsk, a city in Kazakhstan, and Petropavlovsk Airport Battleship Petropavlovsk (1897) (эскадренный броненосец Петропавловск), Imperial Russia (1897-1904) Battleship Petropavlovsk (1914) (линейный корабль Петропавловск), a Gangut class battleship in the Baltic Fleet (1914-1953) Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, a city in Russia Petropavlovsk, name of several rural settlements in Russia... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Siege of Port Arthur (1 August 1904-2 January 1905), the Russian deepwater port and naval base at the tip of the Liaotung Peninsula (See Map below the Battlebox) in Manchuria was one of the longest and most vicious battles during the Russo-Japanese War. ... Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот in Russian, or Tikhookeanskiy flot), a part of the Soviet Navy stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which secured the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. The fleet headquarters was located at... Combatants Empire of Japan Russian Empire Commanders Admiral Heihachiro Togo, Vice Admiral Shigeto Dewa Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft Strength 4 battleships, 2 armored cruisers, 8 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 30 torpedo boats 6 battleships, 4 cruisers, 14 destroyers Casualties 226 killed and wounded 343 killed and wounded Location within China The Battle... Combatants Japan Russia Commanders Vice Admiral Hikonojo Kamimura Rear Admiral Nikolai Essen Strength 4 armored cruisers, 2 protected cruisers 3 armored cruisers Casualties minimal casualties with 1 armored cruiser suffering slight damage heavy casualties and 1 cruiser destroyed with two cruisers suffering heavy damage The naval Battle off Ulsan, also... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; Pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The Second Pacific Squadron

With the inactivity of the First Pacific Squadron after the death of Makarov and the Japanese tightning the noose around Port Arthur, the Russians were considering sending part of their Baltic to the Far East. The Russian plan was to relieve Port Arthur by sea, link up with the First Pacific Squadron, overwhelm the Imperial Japanese Navy and then delay the Japanese advance into Manchuria until Russian reinforcements arrived via the Trans-Siberian railroad, thereby overwhelming Japanese land forces in Manchuria. With the situation in the Far East deteriorating, the Tsar finally agreed to the formation of the Second Pacific Squadron which would consist of five divisions of the Baltic Fleet including 11 of it's 13 battleships. The Squadron departed on 15 October 1904 under the command of Zinovy Rozhestvensky. Trans-Siberian line in red; Baikal Amur Mainline in green. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Admiral Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky1 (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1848 - January 14, 1909) was an admiral of the Imperial Russian Navy, who was in command of the Second Pacific Squadron in the Battle of Tsushima, during the Russo-Japanese War. ...


The Second Pacific Squadron sailed through the North Sea. With rumours of Japanese torpedo boats in the North Sea, several Russian ships fired upon British fishing trawlers off Dogger Bank, this later caused a diplomatic incident. The Russian then proceeded around Africa and by April/May, 1905 had anchored in Indochina. The voyage was long and arduous, and the morale of the crew began to plummet. The Russians were ordered to break the blockade of Port Arthur, but the settlement had already fallen on 2 January 1905 so Russian port of Vladivostok would have to be the objective. Location of the Dogger Bank Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. ... The Dogger Bank incident (also known as incident of Hull) was the assault on British trawlers at the Dogger Bank by the Russian Baltic Fleet in the night of October 21 to October 22, 1904. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ...


Tsushima Strait

Korea and Tsushima Straits and Tsushima Islands.
Korea and Tsushima Straits and Tsushima Islands.

The Russians could have sailed through one of three possible straits to reach Vladivostok: La Perouse, Tsugaru, and Tsushima. Admiral Rozhestvensky chose Tsushima in an effort to simplify his route. Admiral Togo, based at Pusan, Korea also believed Tsushima would be the preferred Russian course. The Tsushima Strait is the body of water eastwards of the Tsushima Island group located midway between the Japanese island of Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula, the shortest and most direct route from Indochina. The other two routes would have required the fleet to sail to the east of Japan. The Japanese Combined Fleet and the Russian Second and Third Pacific Squadrons, sent over from Europe, fought in the straits between Korea and Japan near the Tsushima Islands. Origination This Map is derivative via processing by paintshop pro due to a dispute with Mr Tan, who kept deleting this source file: http://upload. ... Origination This Map is derivative via processing by paintshop pro due to a dispute with Mr Tan, who kept deleting this source file: http://upload. ... La Pérouse Strait (Japanese: Sōya Strait 宗谷海峡) is a strait dividing the southern part of the Russian island of Sakhalin from the northern part of the Japanese island of Hokkaido, and connecting the Sea of Japan on the west with the Sea of Okhotsk on the east. ... Tsugaru Peninsula and Tsugaru Strait Tsugaru Strait (津軽海峡 Tsugaru Kaikyō) is a channel between HonshÅ« and Hokkaidō in northern Japan connecting the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Tsushima Island (対馬 Tsushima) is an island in Japan, situated in the Tsushima Strait at 34°25N and 129°20E.[1] It is the largest island of the Nagasaki Prefecture. ...


Opposing Fleets

The Japanese fleets had practiced gunnery continually since the beginning of the war, using sub-caliber adapters for their cannon. The Japanese had superior gunners, and hit their targets more often. Furthermore, the Japanese used mostly high explosive shells with shimose (melinite), which was designed to explode on contact and wreck the upper works of ships. The Russians used armor-piercing rounds with small guncotton bursting charge and unreliable fuses. Japanese hits caused more damage to Russian ships in proportion to Russian hits on Japanese ships, setting the superstructures, the paintwork and the large quantities of coal stored on the decks on fire. (The Russian fleet had had to coal from mechant vessels on most of their long voyage due to the lack of friendly fueling ports and countries on the journey). Japanese fire was also more accurate because they had more and more modern rangefinders on their ships than most of the Russian vessels. A Kinetic energy penetrator, an example of a Sub-caliber round. ...


The Russian fleet was in poor shape for a naval battle. Apart from the four newest Borodino class battleships, the ships were older designs and ill-maintained. The long voyage and the lack of opportunity for maintenance meant their bottoms were heavily fouled, significantly reducing their speed. The Japanese ships could reach 16 knots (30 km/h), but the Russian fleet could reach only 9 knots (17 km/h). Togo was able to use the better maneuverability of his fleet to advantage, "crossing the T" twice. The Russian battleship Orel, which became the Japanese Iwami after the Battle of Tsushima. ... A knot is a non SI unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour. ... In the illustration, the blue ships are crossing the T of the red ships. ...


Battle

First Contact

The Russians desired to slip undetected to Vladivostok and as they approached Japanese waters they steered outside regular shipping channels to prevent their whereabouts being known. On the night of 26/27 May, 1905, the Russian Fleet approached Tsushima Strait. It was a dark, misty night and there was a thick fog which blanketed the straits, which was an advantage to the Russians. At 2.45am, however, the Japanese auxiliary cruiser Shinano Maru observed three lights on what appeared to be a vessel in the distant horizon and closed in to investigate. These were navigation lights onboard the hospital ship Orel(Not the Battleship Orel). At 4.30am, Shinano Maru approached the vessel, noting that the vessel contained no guns and appeared to be an auxiliary. The Orel mistook the Shinano Maru for another Russian vessel and did not attempt to notify the fleet, instead signaling and informing to the Japanese ship that there were other Russian vessels nearby. The Shinano Maru then sighted the shapes of ten other vessels in the mist, the Russian fleet had been discovered and any chance of reaching Vladivostok undetected had gone. Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Tsushima Strait is the eastern channel of the Korea Strait Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡, also known in Western historical reference works as the Tsu Shima Strait or Tsu-Shima Strait) is that part of the Korea Strait located east and south of the Tsushima Islands. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Shinano Maru The Shinano Maru ) was a 6,388 gt merchantman operated by the Nippon Yusen K.K Shipping Company. ... IJN Iwami (石見) was one of eight Russian pre-dreadnought battleships captured by the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. ...


At 4.55am, Captain Narukawa on board the Shinano Maru, by using wireless communication signaled Admiral Togo in Masampo that "Enemy is in square 203". By 5am, the Russians, from intercepting wireless chatter knew that they had been discovered and that Japanese scouting cruisers were closing in. Also at 5.05, Admiral Togo received the message and the immediately prepared his battle fleet for a sortie.


Battle Commences

The Russian fleet at Tsushima.

At 6.34am, before departing with the Combined Fleet, Admiral Togo wired a message to the Navy minister in Tokyo: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x667, 126 KB) Summary The Battle of Tsushima. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (453x667, 126 KB) Summary The Battle of Tsushima. ... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ...

I have just recieved news that that the enemy fleet has been sighted. Our fleet will proceed forthwith to sea to attack the enemy and destroy him.[1]

At the same time the entire Japanese fleet was put to sea, with Admiral Togo from his flagship Mikasa leading over fourty vessels to meet the Russians. Meanwhile, the shadowing Japanese scouting vessels, sent in reports every few minutes as to the formation and course of the Russian fleet. There was still mist which reduced visibility and the weather was poor. At round 1.40pm the both fleets sighted each other and prepared to engage each other. Also at 1.55pm, Admiral Togo ordered the hoisting of the Z flag: Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in 1900. ...

The Empire's fate depends on the result of this battle, let every man do his utmost duty.[2]

Daylight Battle

The Russians sailed from south-south-west to north-north-east; the Japanese fleet from west to north-east. Admiral Togo ordered the fleet to turn in sequence, which enabled his ships to take the same course as the Russians, though risking each battleship in turn. This U-turn was successful. The two lines of battleships stabilized their distance at 6200 metres and exchanged gunfire. This marked the beginning of modern naval gunnery. Traditionally, ships were to begin their engagements at considerably closer range. Togo immediately gained the advantage of surprise.


Admiral Rozhestvensky was knocked out of action by a shell fragment in his skull. The Russian fleet lost the battleships Knyaz' Suvorov, Oslyabya, Emperor Alexander III and Borodino on May 27. Japanese ships only suffered light damage, mostly to Mikasa. In the evening, Rear Admiral Nebogatov took the command on the Russian side. The firepower of a battleship demonstrated by USS Iowa A battleship is a large, heavily-armored warship with a main battery consisting of the largest caliber of guns. ... Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in 1900. ...


Night Attacks

Japanese torpedo boats move in for the kill.
Japanese destroyers launch a night attack.

At night, around 8pm, 37 Japanese torpedo boats and 21 destroyers were thrown against the Russians. The destroyers attacked from the vanguard while the torpedo boats from the east and south of the Russian fleet. The attacks continued for three hours almost without intermission, the Japanese were aggressive and as a result during the night there were a number of collisions between the small craft and Russian warships. The Russians were now dispersed in small groups trying to break northwards. At 11pm, it appeared that the Russians had vanished but a number of ships then turned on their searchlights betraying their positions, ironically they had been turned on to spot the attackers. The old battleship Navarin had struck a mine and was compelled to stopped, although the damage wasn't that sevre the Navarin was caught, torpedoed four times and sunk. Of a crew of 622 only 3 survived, being rescued by the Japanese. The battleship Sisoy Veliki was torpedoed in the stern and was heavily damaged, was scuttled the next day. Two old armoured cruisers the Admiral Nakhimov and the Vladimir Monomakh were heavily damaged, the former by a torpedo hit to the bow and the latter by colliding with a Japanese destroyer. They were both scuttled by their crews the next morning, the Admiral Nakhimoff off Tsushima Island where she headed while taking on water. The night attacks had put great strain on the crews of the Russian warships, they had lost two battleships and two armoured cruisers while the Japanese only lost three torpedo boats Nos 34, Nos 35 and Nos 69. Image File history File links Battle_of_Tsushima. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Tsushima. ... Image File history File links Tsushima_Japanese_MTBs. ... Image File history File links Tsushima_Japanese_MTBs. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Navarin (Наварин - after the battle of Navarino) was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy. ... The Sissoi Veliky ( Сисой Великий ) was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy. ... The armored cruiser was a naval cruiser protected by armor on its sides as well as on the decks and gun positions. ... Admiral Nakhimov (Адмирал Нахимов) was an Imperial Russian armoured cruiser of the Russo-Japanese war. ... German battlecruiser Derfflinger scuttled at Scapa Flow. ... Tsushima Island (対馬 Tsushima) is an island in Japan, situated in the Tsushima Strait at 34°25N and 129°20E.[1] It is the largest island of the Nagasaki Prefecture. ...


XGE

During the night action Admiral Togo was able to rest his main fleet of armoured ships. At 9.30am, what remained of the Russian fleet was sighted heading northwards. At 10.34, realising that his situation was hopeless, Admiral Negobatov ordered the fleet to surrender. The XGE, an international signal of surrender was hoisted up, it was only at 10.53 that the Japanese agreed to the surrender. Nikolai Ivanovich Nebogatov (Russian: ,1849-1922) was a Russian Rear-Admiral. ...


Time line

May 27, 1905 (JST)

  • 04:45 Shinanomaru (Japan) finds The Russian Baltic Fleet, and sends a telegram.
  • 05:05 The Japanese Combined Fleet leaves port, and sends a telegram to Imperial Headquarters: "Today's weather is fine but waves are high. (Japanese: 本日天気晴朗なれども波高し)".
  • 13:39 The Japanese Combined Fleet finds The Russian Baltic Fleet by the eye, and puts up the battle flag.
  • 13:55 Distance: 12,000 meter. The Mikasa puts up Z flag.
  • 14:05 Distance: 8,000 meter. The Japanese Combined Fleet starts to helm aport (i.e. start U-turn).
  • 14:07 Distance: 7,000 meter. The Mikasa completes its turn. The Russian Baltic Fleet begins firing their guns.
  • 14:10 Distance: 6,400 meter. All Japanese ships finish their turns.
  • 14:12 Distance: 5,500 meter. The Mikasa is hit first.
  • 14:16 Distance: 4,600 meter. The Japanese Combined Fleet begins focus firing their guns at the Knyaz' Suvorov, which is the flagship of The Russian Baltic Fleet.
  • 14:43 The Oslyabya and Knyaz' Suvorov are set ablaze and break off the battle line.
  • 14:50 The Emperor Alexander III starts turning to the north and attempts to leave the battle line.
  • 15:10 The Oslyabya is sunk, and the Knyaz' Suvorov attempts to flee.
  • 18:00 The two fleets re-approach (distance: 6,300 m), and begin exchanging fire again.
  • 19:03 The Emperor Alexander III is sunk.
  • 19:20 The Knyaz' Suvorov, Borodino, and Sisoy Veliki are sunk.

May 28, 1905 (JST) The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... Mikasa (三笠市; -shi) is a city located in Sorachi, Hokkaido, Japan. ... Mikasa (三笠市; -shi) is a city located in Sorachi, Hokkaido, Japan. ... The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... Mikasa (三笠市; -shi) is a city located in Sorachi, Hokkaido, Japan. ... The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... The Sissoi Veliky ( Сисой Великий ) was a pre-dreadnought battleship built for the Imperial Russian Navy. ...

The Baltic Fleet, located at the Baltic Sea. ... The International Code of Signals (INTERCO) is a signal code to be used by merchant and naval vessels to communicate important messages about the state of a vessel and the intent of its master or commander when there are language barriers. ...

Aftermath

A Russian battleship sinks.
Battle damage to cruiser Zemtchug. Note shell hole in stack.
Battle damage to cruiser Zemtchug. Note shell hole in stack.
Battle damage to cruiser Oleg, in Manila bay.

Nearly the entire Russian Baltic fleet was lost in the battle in the Tsushima Straits. The Japanese lost only 3 torpedo boats (Nos. 34, 35 and 69). The prestige of Russia in the eyes of the world was badly damaged and it was a severe blow to the Romanov dynasty. Image File history File links Tsushima_battleships. ... Image File history File links Tsushima_battleships. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1881 × 1345 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle damage to stack of Russian Armoured cruiser Zemtchug after battle of Tuschima strait. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixel Image in higher resolution (1881 × 1345 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Battle damage to stack of Russian Armoured cruiser Zemtchug after battle of Tuschima strait. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixel Image in higher resolution (1897 × 1342 pixel, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Russian protected cruiser Oleg, showing battle damage after the Battle of Tsushima. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 566 pixel Image in higher resolution (1897 × 1342 pixel, file size: 1,021 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Russian protected cruiser Oleg, showing battle damage after the Battle of Tsushima. ... The Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡) is a strait between the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu, the furthest west of the four largest islands in Japan. ...

The battleship Mikasa, Admiral Togo's flagship at the battle of Tsushima, preserved as a memorial in Yokosuka, Japan.
The battleship Mikasa, Admiral Togo's flagship at the battle of Tsushima, preserved as a memorial in Yokosuka, Japan.

This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in 1900. ...

Naval tactics

Battleships, cruisers, and other vessels were arranged into divisions, each division being commanded by a Flag officer (i.e. Admiral). At the battle of Tsushima Admiral Togo was the officer commanding in Mikasa (the other divisions being commanded by Vice Admirals, Rear Admirals, Commodores and Captains and Commanders for the destroyer divisions). Next in line after Mikasa came the battleships Shikishima, Fuji and Asahi. Following them were two armored cruisers. Mikasa (三笠) is a pre-Dreadnought battleship, formerly of the Imperial Japanese Navy, launched in 1900. ... Shikishima (敷島) was the lead ship in the Shikishima-class of pre-dreadnought battleships in the Imperial Japanese Navy, and one of the six battleships (Fuji, Yashima, Hatsuse, Shikishima, Asahi, and Mikasa) that formed the main Japanese battle line in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. ... Constructed by the Thames Iron Works and Armstrong Whitworth the Fuji and Yamashima were constructed between 1894-1896 and were commissioned in 1897. ... The IJN Asahi was the second of the Shikishima-class of battleships. ...


When Admiral Togo decided to execute a turn to port "in sequence" he did so in order to preserve the sequence of his battleline, i.e. with the flagship Mikasa still in the lead (obviously Togo wanted his more powerful units to enter action first). Turning in sequence meant that each ship would turn one after the other whilst still following the ship in front, effectively each ship would turn over the same piece of sea (this being the danger in the manoeuvre as it gives the enemy fleet the opportunity to target that area). Togo could have ordered his ships to turn "together" i.e. each ship would have made the turn at the same time and reversed course, this manoeuvre, the same which was effected by the French-Spanish fleet in Trafalgar, would be quicker but would have disrupted the sequence of the battleline and caused confusion by altering the battle plans, placing the cruisers in the lead, and this was something Togo wanted to avoid. Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line France: 18 ships of the line and 8 others. ...


References

  • Koenig, William (1977, 2004 revised edition). Epic Sea Battles. London: Octopus Publishing Group Ltd. 2004. ISBN 0-7537-1062-5. 
  • Busch, Noel F. (1969). The Emperor's Sword: Japan vs. Russia in the Battle of Tsushima. New York: Funk & Wagnall’s. 
  • Corbett, Julian (1994). Maritime Operations In The Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. ISBN 1557501297. 
  • Grant, R. (1907). Before Port Arthur in a Destroyer. London: John Murray. 
  • Hailey, Foster; Milton Lancelot (1964). Clear for Action: The Photographic Story of Modern Naval Combat, 1898-1964. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pierce. 
  • Hough, Richard Alexander (1960). The Fleet That Had to Die. New York: Ballantine Paperbacks. 
  • Novikoff-Priboy, A (1936). Tsushima. London: George Allen & Unwin. 
  • Seager, Robert (1977). Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Man And His Letters. ISBN 0870213598. 
  • Semenoff, Vladimir (1910). Rasplata (The Reckoning). London: John Murray. 
  • Semenoff, Vladimir (1912). The Battle of Tsushima. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co.. 
  • Tomitch, V. M. (1968). Warships of the Imperial Russian Navy. Battleships. 
  • Warner, Denis and Peggy (1975). The Tide at Sunrise. A History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905. ISBN 0-7146-5256-3. 
  • Woodward, David (1966). The Russians at Sea: A History of the Russian Navy. New York: Praeger Publishers. 
  • Wilson, H. W. (1969, 1999 revised edition). Battleships in Action. Scholarly Press. ISBN 0-8517-7642-6. 

Notes

  1. ^ Koenig, William Epic Sea Battles p140
  2. ^ Koenig, William Epic Sea Battles p141

See also

The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

External links

  • Russojapanesewar.com — Contains a complete order of battle of both fleets. It also contains Admiral Togo's post-battle report and the account of Russian ensign Sememov.
  • Battlefleet 1900 — Free naval wargame rules covering the predreadnought era, including the Russo-Japanese War.
  • 1969 Film Battle of the Japan Sea — directed by Seiji Maruyama
    • Part 1Film Battle of the Japan Sea
    • Part 2Film Battle of the Japan Sea

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Tsushima - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1659 words)
The Battle of Tsushima (Japanese: 対馬海戦, tsushima-kaisen, Russian: Цусимское сражение), commonly known as the "Sea of Japan Naval Battle" (Japanese: 日本海海戦, nihonkai-kaisen) in Japan, was the last and most decisive sea battle of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905.
The Tsushima Strait is the body of water eastwards of the Tsushima Island group located midway between the Japanese island of Kyushu and the Korean Peninsula, the shortest and most direct route from Indochina.
At the battle of Tsushima Admiral Togo was the officer commanding in Mikasa (the other divisions being commanded by Vice Admirals, Rear Admirals, Commodores and Captains and Commanders for the destroyer divisions).
Tsushima Strait - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (854 words)
The Tsushima Strait lies between Korea and Japan, connecting the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea.
The Tsushima Strait is the broader eastern channel to the east and southeast of Tsushima Island, with the Japanese islands of Honshu to the east and northeast, and Kyushu and the Goto Islands to the south and southeast.
It is narrowest south-east of Shimono-shima, the south end of Tsushima Island proper, constricted there by nearby Iki Island, which lies wholly in the strait near the tip of Honshu.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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