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Encyclopedia > Battle of Tsingtao

The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. Qingdao ▶ (help· info) (Simplified: 青岛; Traditional: 青島; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world...


It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. It was the first encounter between Japanese and German forces and the first British-Japanese operation in WWI. August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Background

German map of Tsingtao, 1912
Enlarge
German map of Tsingtao, 1912

Throughout the late 19th Century the German Empire became increasingly imperialist and sought to expand its influence across the world, acquiring a number of territories in the process. In China, like many world powers, the Germans began to interfere in Chinese affairs. After two German missionaries were killed in 1897, the Chinese were forced to transfer Kiaochow in Shandong to Germany in 1898 on a 99-year lease. The Germans then began to assert their influence across the rest of the province of Shandong and built the port of Tsingtao. The port became the home base of the Kaiserliche Marine's East Asiatic Squadron, which primarily operated in support of German territories in the Pacific Ocean. Download high resolution version (1007x790, 162 KB)qingdaoqingdao-city-map-1912-in-german-from-madrolles-guidebook-to-northern-china. ... Download high resolution version (1007x790, 162 KB)qingdaoqingdao-city-map-1912-in-german-from-madrolles-guidebook-to-northern-china. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires, either through direct territorial conquest or through indirect methods of exerting control on the politics and/or economy of other countries. ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Jiaozhou Bay is located in northeastern China, on the southern coast of the Shandong peninsula. ... Shandong (Simplified Chinese: 山东; Traditional Chinese: 山東; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-tung) is a coastal province of eastern Peoples Republic of China. ... 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial Navy was the German Navy created by the formation of the German Empire and existed between 1871 and 1919; it grew out of the Prussian Navy and the Norddeutsche Bundesmarine. ... The German East Asia squadron was a German Kaiserliche Marine (naval) cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the 1870s and 1914. ...


The United Kingdom perceived the German presence in China as a threat to British interests and leased Weihaiwei in Shandong in response, while Russia and France leased their own at Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou) and Kwang-Chou-Wan respectively. The British also began to forge close ties with the Japanese. Weihai (威海; pinyin: wēihǎi, also Weihaiwei) is a seaport city on the Bohai Gulf in north-east Shandong province, China. ... Location within China Lüshun city or Lüshunkou or (literally) Lüshun Port (Simplified Chinese: 旅顺口; Traditional Chinese: 旅順口; pinyin: , formerly in historic references both Port Arthur and Ryojun, is a town in the southernmost administrative district of Dalian of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Kwang-Chou-Wan was a small enclave of France on the south coast of China. ...


Japan's developments in the late 19th Century also mirrored that of Germany, acquiring colonial possessions, including on the Asian mainland. Unlike Germany, however, Japan and Britain relations became closer and the Anglo-Japanese treaty was signed on 30 January 1902 to form an alliance between the two nations. This was seen as a necessity by both powers, especially by Japan who saw it as a further step to being recognized as a world power. Japan demonstrated its potential of being a rival to the British Empire after its victory in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, though the alliance was further strengthened and remained strong into World War I. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The first Anglo-Japanese Alliance was signed in London on January 30, 1902 by Lord Lansdowne (British foreign secretary) and Hayashi Tadasu (Japanese minister in London). ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 125,000 Killed or Wounded 85,000 Killed or Wounded {{{notes}}} Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea The... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


The First World War began in early August 1914. Britain soon requested Japanese assistance. The Japanese civil government, led by Prime Minister Okuma Shigenobu, feared growing military power, which was an even greater role in Japanese politics. The Government believed that maintaining a strong alliance with Britain would help maintain control over the military. Pressure also came from the competing Imperial Japanese Navy (whose structure was closely based on the British Royal Navy) and Imperial Japanese Army (which felt that it had lost prestige during the Russo-Japanese War) and growing desires to expand the Japanese Empire. Okuma Shigenobu (大隈重信 Okuma Shigenobu 16 February 1838–10 January 1922) was a Japanese politician and the 8th (June 30, 1898–November 8, 1898) and 17th (April 16, 1914–October 9, 1916) Prime Minister of Japan. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The Imperial Japanese Army ((: 大日本帝國陸軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


The Japanese Government decided to side with Britain in the war. On 15 August, Japan issued an ultimatum to Germany, stating that Germany needed to withdraw all their warships from Chinese and Japanese waters and transfer control of Tsingtao to Japan. The following day, Major-General Mitsuomi Kamio, commanding officer (CO) of the 18th Infantry Division, was told to begin preparations for an invasion of Tsingtao. When the ultimatum expired on 23 August, Japan declared war on Germany. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... In military organizations, the commanding officer (CO) is the officer in command of a military unit. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ...


By this time, the East Asiatic Squadron, under the command of Maximilian von Spee, had left Tsingtao for the friendly base of Pagan in the Marianas. From there Von Spee's squadron, with the exception of SMS Emden which headed for the Indian Ocean, made their way to the west coast of South America. There, the squadron destroyed a mostly obsolete Royal Navy squadron at the Battle of Coronel before itself being destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands. Maximilian von Spee Count (Graf) Maximilian Johannes Maria Hubert von Spee (22 June 1861 - 8 December 1914) was a German naval officer, born in Copenhagen, Denmark, who joined the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial German Navy) in 1878. ... The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas; up to the early 20th century sometimes called Islas de los Ladrones meaning Islands of Thieves) are a group of islands made up by the summits of 15 volcanic mountains in the western Pacific Ocean. ... The cruise of the German light cruiser SMS Emden was among the most romanticised and notable incidents of World War I. In the latter half of 1914 Emden raided Allied shipping in the Indian Ocean, sinking or capturing thirty Allied merchant vessels and warships before being run aground by its... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... German squadron leaving Valparaiso 3 Nov. ... The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a naval engagement of the First World War, fought between units of the Royal Navy and the Kaiserliche Marine on 8 December 1914. ...


Build-up

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) first sent ships under Vice-Admiral Sadakichi Kato, flying his flag in the pre-dreadnought Suwo, to blockade the coast of German-controlled Kiaochow, beginning on 27 August. During the course of the naval operations off Tsingtao, the British Royal Navy (RN) attached the China Station's pre-dreadnought HMS Triumph and the destroyer HMS Usk to the IJN. The British warships were integrated into the Second Squadron with few problems. The Japanese squadron consisted of mostly obsolete warships, though did briefly possess a number of more modern vessels. These included the seaplane carrier Wakamiya. dreadnoughts Kawachi and Settsu, and the battlecruiser Kongo. Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... HMS Triumph was a Swiftsure-class pre-Dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... Dreadnought may refer to HMS Dreadnought, the name of several warships of the Royal Navy A generic term for early 20th century battleships following the launch of the revolutionary HMS Dreadnought in 1906 A popular term for any large, impressive mechanical device, particularly British or Australian trams from the early... The Kawachi was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Settsu was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... HMS Hood (left) and HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... Kongo (金剛) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first superdreadnought class battle cruiser, and the name-ship of its class. ...


The 18th Infantry Division was the primary Japanese Army formation that took part in the initial landings, numbering 23,000 soldiers with support from 142 artillery pieces. They began to land on 2 September at Lungkow, Shandong, which was experiencing heavy floods at the time, and later at Laoshan Bay on 18 September, about 18 miles east of Tsingtao. The German garrison, commanded by Governor Alfred Meyer-Waldeck, consisted of 4,000 troops and a small complement of vessels, such as the obsolete Austro-Hungarian protected cruiser Kaiserin Elizabeth, whose crew would fight as part of the German land forces. For the thrash metal band, see Artillery (band) Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (246th in leap years). ... One of the mountains at the Laoshan scenic area. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Protected cruiser armour scheme — a cross-section (armour in red) Protected cruisers were a type of naval cruiser of the late 19th century. ...


The British Government — and the international community as a whole — were concerned about Japanese intentions in the region and decided to send a small symbolic British contingent from Tientsin in an effort to allay their fears. The 1,500 contingent was commanded by Brigadier-General Nathaniel Walter Barnardiston and consisted of 1,000 soldiers of the 2nd Battalion, The South Wales Borderers later followed by 500 soldiers of the 36th Sikhs. Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... The South Wales Borderers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ...



World War I
European Theatre
Balkans | Western Front | Eastern Front | Italian Front
Middle East
Caucasus | Mesopotamia | Sinai and Palestine | Gallipoli | Aden and Persia
Africa
South-West Africa | West Africa | East Africa
Asian and Pacific Theatres
German Samoa and German New Guinea | Tsingtao
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Mediterranean Sea | Naval battles
Air battles
Contemporary conflicts
Maritz Rebellion | North-West Frontier, India | Easter Rising | Russian Revolution

Combatants Entente Powers Central Powers Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties > 5 million military deaths > 3 million military deaths {{{notes}}} World War I, also known as the First World War and (before 1939) the Great War, the War of the Nations, War to End All Wars was a world... For most of World War I, Allied and German Forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front. ... A German trench in the swamp area near the Mazuric Lakes on the Eastern Front. ... The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Italy and Austria Hungary along with their allies in northern Italy between 1915 and 1918. ... The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between Allied Powers, mostly of the British and Russian Empires, and Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Caucasus Campaign was fought from 1914 until 1918 in the Caucasus during World War I between the Russian Empire a member of the Allied Powers and the Ottoman Empire a member of the Central Powers. ... The Mesopotamian Campaign was a theater of the First World War fought between Allied forces represented by British and Anglo-Indian troops, and Central forces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Sinai and Palestine Campaign during World War I: Sinai campaign Battle of Romani Battle of Magdhaba Battle of Rafa Palestine campaign First Battle of Gaza Second Battle of Gaza Third Battle of Gaza Battle of Beersheba Battle of Megiddo Categories: Battles of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign ... Combatants United Kingdom France India Australia New Zealand Newfoundland Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000 (205,000 British, 47,000 French) dead 97,000 wounded 145,000+ sick 253,000... This article describes the conquest and occupation of German held South-West Africa, now called Namibia, by forces from the Union of South Africa acting on behalf of the British Imperial Government at the start of World War I. The outbreak of hostilities in Europe in August 1914 had long... The Pacific Campaign of World War One saw limited action by the forces of Australia and Japan. ... British battleship HMS Irresistible abandoned and sinking, 18 March 1915, during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Nieuport Fighter Aisne, France 1917 // Up to 1914: The Early Years of War The Dawn of Air Combat Early in the war, canvas-and-wood aircraft were used primarily as mobile observation vehicles. ... The Maritz Rebellion or the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion1, occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I, in which men who supported the recreation of the old Boer republics rose up against the government of the Union of South Africa. ... Easter Proclamation, read by Pádraig Pearse outside the GPO at the start of the Easter Rising, 1916. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a political movement in Russia which reached its peak in 1917 with the overthrow of the Provisional Government that had replaced the Russian Czarist system, and led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its collapse in 1991. ...

See also


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