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Encyclopedia > Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar
Part of the Napoleonic Wars

The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizzen starboard shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806 to 1808)
Date 21 October 1805
Location Cape Trafalgar, Spain
Result Memorable British Victory
Combatants
United Kingdom First French Empire
Kingdom of Spain
Commanders
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve
Strength
27 ships of the line and 6 others. France: 18 ships of the line and 8 others.

Spain: 15 ships of the line Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizzen starboard shrouds of the Victory by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1806–1808) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Cape Trafalgar (Spanish: Cabo Trafalgar) is a headland in Cadiz Province in the South-West of Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve (1763 in Valensole, 1806 in Rennes), French admiral, directed the French-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. ...

Casualties
449 dead,
1,246 wounded
7,000 captured,
21 ships captured,
1 ship destroyed

France: 2,218 dead,
1,155 wounded


Spain: 1,025 dead,
1,383 wounded

The Battle of Trafalgar saw the British decisively defeat a combined French and Spanish fleet on 21 October 1805 in the most significant naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars. A Royal Navy fleet of 27 ships of the line destroyed an allied French and Spanish fleet of 33 ships of the line west of Cape Trafalgar in south-west Spain. The French and Spanish lost 22 ships, while the British lost none. The British commander Admiral Lord Nelson died late in the battle, by which time he had ensured his place as Britain's greatest naval hero. Combatants Holy Roman Empire Austria Russia United Kingdom Naples Portugal Sicily Sweden France Batavia Italy Etruria Spain Bavaria Württemberg Commanders Francis II Karl Mack von Leiberich Archduke Charles Alexander I Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Horatio Nelson† Napoleon I André Masséna Pierre-Charles Villeneuve French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars First... The battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle of the War of the Third Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 22 July 1805 off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a British fleet commanded by Vice Admiral Robert Calder and a French fleet commanded by Admiral Pierre Charles... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Joachim Murat, Jean Lannes Franz Xavier Auffenberg Strength 12,000 5,500 Casualties >200 killed or wounded 400 killed or wounded 3,000 captured The Battle of Wertingen, fought on October 8, 1805, was part of the War of the 3rd Coalition, which... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Pierre Dupont de lEtang Karl Mack von Lieberich Strength <6,000 25,000 Casualties 1,000 killed or wounded 400 killed, 1,100 wounded, 4,000 captured The Battle of Haslach-Jungingen, fought on October 11, 1805, was part of the War... The Battle of Elchingen was fought on October 14, 1805, between French forces and a small Austrian force. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mack von Liebereich # Strength 150,000 72,000 Casualties 5,980 dead or wounded 12,000 dead or wounded, 30,000 captured The Ulm Campaign September-October 1805. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders André Masséna Archduke Charles of Austria Strength 37,000 50,000 Casualties about 4,000 killed or wounded about 3,000 killed or wounded, 8,000 captured The Battle of Caldiero took place on October 30, 1805. ... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Commanders Marshal Murat Jean Lannes Kienmayer Pyotr Bagration Strength Around 10,000 soldiers 6,700 soldiers Casualties Under 1,000 total Russian Empire: 300 K.I.A. or W.I.A. <700 P.O.W. Austrian Empire: 1,000 K.I.A... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire Commanders Sir Richard Strachan Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley Strength 4 ships of the line, 2 frigates 4 ships of the line The Battle of Cape Ortegal was fought on 3 November 1805 between a British squadron and a French... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Russian Empire Commanders Édouard Mortier Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov Strength about 8,000 about 24,000 The Battle of Dürenstein (also known as the Battle of Dürrenstein or Battle of Dürnstein) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of... Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire, Russian Empire Commanders Joachim Murat Petr Bagration Strength about 20,600 about 7,300 Casualties about 1,200 2,402 The Battle of Schöngrabern (also known as the Battle of Hollabrunn) was an engagement in the Napoleonic Wars during the War of the... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] War... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... // Look up fleet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ships of the line were 1st, 2nd, or 3rd-rated ships in the rating system of the Royal Navy. ... Cape Trafalgar (Spanish: Cabo Trafalgar) is a headland in Cadiz Province in the South-West of Spain. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ...


It was part of the War of the Third Coalition, and a pivotal naval battle of the 19th century. The British victory spectacularly confirmed the naval supremacy that Britain had established during the 18th century. However, by the time it was fought, Napoleon had abandoned his plans to invade southern England and instead was defeating Britain's allies in Germany. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Generally, a battle is an instance of combat in warfare between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 &#8211; 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des...


The 200th anniversary of the battle was marked by Trafalgar 200 celebrations in the United Kingdom. The mayor of Penzance taking part in the re-enactment of the announcement of the death of Nelson from the Union Hotel. ...

Contents

Origins

In 1805, the First French Empire, under Napoleon, was the dominant military land power on the European continent, while the British Royal Navy controlled the seas. During the course of the war, the British imposed a naval blockade on France, which affected trade and kept the French from fully mobilising their own naval resources. Despite several successful evasions of the blockade by the French navy, it failed to inflict a major defeat upon the British. The British were able to attack French interests at home and abroad with relative ease. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... A blockade is an effort usually (but not always, see below) at sea, to prevent supplies from reaching the enemy. ...


When the Third Coalition declared war on France after the short-lived Peace of Amiens, Napoleon Bonaparte was determined to invade Britain. To do so, he had to ensure that the Royal Navy would be unable to disrupt the invasion flotilla, which would require control of the English Channel. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... The Treaty of Amiens was signed on March 25, 1802 (Germinal 4, year X in the French Revolutionary Calendar) by Joseph Bonaparte and the Marquis Cornwallis as a Definitive Treaty of Peace between France and Britain. ... A flotilla (from Spanish, meaning a flota of small ships, and this from French flotte), or naval flotilla, is a formation of small warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ...


The main French fleets were at Brest in Brittany and at Toulon on the Mediterranean coast. Other ports on the French Atlantic coast contained smaller squadrons. France and Spain were allied, so the Spanish fleet based in Cádiz and Ferrol was also available. A rare occurance of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Brest (lol) is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... A squadron, or naval squadron, is a small formation of large warships that may be part of a larger fleet. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Ferrol can refer to: EUROPE Ferrol, Spain City and Naval Station in North Western Spain, European Union Note: Place of birth of both Francisco Franco (1892) the Spanish dictator and Pablo Iglesias (1850) founder of PSOE and UGT. ASIA Ferrol, Romblon Small Town in the Philippines Note: The Philippines got...


The British possessed an experienced and well-trained corps of naval officers. By contrast, most of the best officers in the French navy had either been executed or dismissed from the service during the early part of the French Revolution. As a result, Vice-Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve was the most competent senior officer available to command Napoleon's Mediterranean fleet. However, Villeneuve had shown a distinct lack of enthusiasm to face Nelson and the Royal Navy after the defeat at the Battle of the Nile. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (31 December 1763 – 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Combatants Britain France Commanders Horatio Nelson François-Paul Brueys DAigalliers† Strength 14 ships of the line: * 13 x 74-gun, * 1 x 50-gun, 1 sloop 13 ships of the line: * 1 x 120-gun, * 3 x 80-gun, * 9 x 74gun, 4 frigates, some smaller Casualties 218...


Napoleon's naval plan in 1805 was for the French and Spanish fleets in the Mediterranean and Cádiz to break through the blockade and join forces in the West Indies. They would then return, assist the fleet in Brest to emerge from the blockade, and together clear the English Channel of Royal Navy ships, ensuring a safe passage for the invasion barges. The plan seemed good on paper but as the war wore on, Napoleon's unfamiliarity with naval strategy and ill-advised naval commanders continued to haunt the French. Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel (French: , the sleeve) is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic. ...


West Indies

Early in 1805, Admiral Lord Nelson commanded the British fleet blockading Toulon. Unlike William Cornwallis, who maintained a tight blockade of Brest with the Channel Fleet, Nelson adopted a loose blockade in hopes of luring the French out for a major battle. However, Villeneuve's fleet successfully evaded Nelson's when his forces were blown off station by storms. While Nelson was searching the Mediterranean for him, Villeneuve passed through the Straits of Gibraltar, rendezvoused with the Spanish fleet, and sailed as planned to the West Indies. Once Nelson realized that the French had crossed the Atlantic Ocean, he set off in pursuit.[1] This article needs to be wikified. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


Cádiz

Villeneuve returned from the West Indies to Europe, intending to break the blockade at Brest, but after two of his Spanish ships were captured during the Battle of Cape Finisterre by a squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Calder, Villeneuve abandoned this plan and sailed back to Ferrol. The battle of Cape Finisterre was a naval battle of the War of the Third Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars, fought on 22 July 1805 off Cape Finisterre in northwest Spain between a British fleet commanded by Vice Admiral Robert Calder and a French fleet commanded by Admiral Pierre Charles... Portrait of Robert Calder by Lemuel Francis Abbott, painted 1797 Admiral Robert Calder ( 1745&#8211; 1 September 1818) was a British naval officer who served in the Seven Years War, the American Revolutionary War, the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Napoleon's invasion plans for England depended entirely on having a sufficiently large number of ships of the line before Boulogne, France. This would require Villeneuve's force of 32 ships to join Vice-Admiral Ganteaume's force of 21 ships at Brest, along with a squadron of 5 ships under Captain Allemand, which would have given him a combined force of 58 ships of the line. Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Count Honoré Joseph Antoine Ganteaume(La Ciotat, 13 April 1755 - Aubagne, 28 July 1818) was a French admiral. ...


When Villeneuve set sail from Ferrol on 10 August, he was under strict orders from Napoleon to sail northward toward Brest. Instead, he worried that the British were observing his maneuvers, so on 11 August he sailed southward towards Cádiz on the southwestern coast of Spain. With no sign of Villeneuve's fleet by 26 August, the three French army corps invasion force near Boulogne broke camp and marched to Germany, where it would become fully engaged. is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


The same month, Nelson returned home to England after two years of duty at sea, for some well-earned rest. He remained ashore for 25 busy days, and was warmly received by his countrymen, who were understandably nervous about a possible French invasion. Word reached England on 2 September about the combined French and Spanish fleet in the harbour of Cádiz. Nelson had to wait until 15 September before his ship HMS Victory was ready to sail. September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ...


On 15 August, Cornwallis made the fateful decision to detach 20 ships of the line from the fleet guarding the channel and to have them sail southward to engage the enemy forces in Spain. This left the channel somewhat denuded of ships, with only eleven ships of the line present. However, this detached force formed the nucleus of the British fleet that would fight at Trafalgar. Initially this fleet was placed under the command of Vice-Admiral Calder, reaching Cádiz on 15 September. Nelson joined the fleet on 29 September to take command. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The British fleet used frigates to keep a constant watch on the harbor, while the main force remained out of sight 50 miles (80 km) west of the shore. Nelson's hope was to lure the combined Franco-Spanish force out and engage them in a "pell-mell battle". The force watching the harbor was led by Captain Blackwood, commanding HMS Euryalus. He was brought up to a strength of seven ships (five frigates and two schooners) on 8 October. For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... HMS Euryalus, launched 1803, was a frigate of the Royal Navy. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Supply situation

At this point, Nelson's fleet badly needed provisioning. On 2 October, five ships of the line, Queen, Canopus, Spencer, Zealous, Tigre, and the frigate Endymion were dispatched to Gibraltar under Rear-Admiral Louis for supplies. These ships were later diverted for convoy duty in the Mediterranean, whereas Nelson had expected them to return. Other British ships continued to arrive, and by 15 October the fleet was up to full strength for the battle. Although it was a significant loss; once the first-rate Royal Sovereign had arrived, Nelson allowed Calder to sail for home in his flagship, the 98-gun Prince of Wales. Calder's apparent lack of aggression during the engagement off Cape Finisterre on July 22, had caused the Admiralty to recall him for a court martial and he would normally have been sent back to Britain in a smaller ship. October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Queen was a 98-gun second-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. ... The Franklin was a French ship of the line designed by engineer Jacques-Noël Sané. She was captured by the fleet of counter-Admiral Nelson at the Battle of the Nile, and commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Canopus. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Zealous. ... This article is about the british frigate Endymion, launched in 1797. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, Villeneuve's fleet in Cádiz was also suffering from a serious supply shortage that could not be readily rectified by the cash-strapped French. The blockades maintained by the British fleet had made it difficult for the allies to obtain stores and their ships were ill fitted. Villeneuve's ships were also more than two thousand men short of the force needed to sail. These were not the only problems faced by the Franco-Spanish fleet. The main French ships of the line had been kept in harbor for years by the British blockades with only brief sorties. The hasty voyage across the Atlantic and back used up vital supplies and was no match for the British fleet's years of experience at sea and training. The French crews contained few experienced sailors, and as most of the crew had to be taught the elements of seamanship on the few occasions when they got to sea, gunnery was neglected. Villeneuve's supply situation began to improve in October, but news of Nelson's arrival made Villeneuve reluctant to leave port. Indeed, his captains had held a vote on the matter and decided to stay in the harbor.


On the 16th of September, Napoleon gave orders for the French and Spanish ships at Cadiz to put to sea at the first favorable opportunity, join with seven Spanish ships of the line then at Cartagena, go to Naples, and land the soldiers they carried to reinforce his troops there, and fight with decisive action if they met a British fleet of inferior numbers. For other places of the same name, see Cartagena. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


Nelson's battle plan

Prevailing tactical orthodoxy at the time involved maneuvering to approach the enemy fleet in a single line of battle and then engaging in a parallel line. The intention of going straight at the enemy echoed the tactics used by Admiral Duncan at the Battle of Camperdown and Admiral Jervis at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent, both in 1797. Nelson instead planned to sail directly into the enemy line, splitting the rear portion from the front, and then concentrating his forces against the now isolated rear portion. In preparation for the battle, Nelson ordered the ships of his fleet painted in a distinctive yellow and black pattern (later known as the Nelson Chequer) that would make them easy to distinguish from their opponents. Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s when sailing ships replaced oared galleys to the 1860s when steam-powered ironclad warships rendered sailing line of battle ships obsolete. ... British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ... Naval tactics in the Age of Sail were used from the early 1600s when sailing ships replaced oared galleys to the 1860s when steam-powered ironclad warships rendered sailing line of battle ships obsolete. ... Admiral Adam Duncan Adam Duncan, Viscount Duncan of Camperdown (1 July 1731 - 4 August 1804), born in Lundie, Angus, Scotland, and receiving his education in Dundee - defeated the Dutch fleet off Camperdown (north of Haarlem) on 11 October 1797. ... The Battle of Camperdown, 11 October 1797 by Thomas Whitcombe, painted 1798, showing the British flagship Venerable engaged with the Dutch flagship Vrijheid The naval Battle of Camperdown took place on 11 October 1797 during the French Revolutionary Wars, and was a victory for a British fleet under Admiral Adam... John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent (9 January 1735-14 March 1823) was an admiral in the British Royal Navy. ... Combatants Great Britain Spain Commanders John Jervis José de Córdoba Strength 15 ships of the line 24 ships of the line Casualties 73 dead 327 wounded Four ships captured 250 dead 550 wounded The naval Battle of Cape St Vincent took place on 14 February 1797, near Cape St. ...


During the period of blockade off the coast of Spain in October Nelson instructed his captains as to how he meant to fight the approaching battle over two dinners aboard Victory. The governing principles of his instructions were that the order of sailing, in which the fleet was arranged when the enemy was first sighted, was to be the order of ensuing battle, so that no time would be wasted in forming a precise line. The attack was to be made in two bodies, of which one, to be led by the second in command, Collingwood, was to throw itself on the rear of the enemy, while the other, led by Nelson, was to take care that the center and vanguard could not come to the assistance of the cut-off ships. A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a English admiral famous for his participation in the Napoleonic Wars, most notably in the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British victory in the war, where he lost his life. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ... Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Horatio Nelson in several of the great victories of the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Nelson was careful to point out that something had to be left to chance. Nothing is sure in a sea fight beyond all others, and he left his captains free from all hampering rules by telling them that "No captain can do very wrong if he places his ship alongside that of the enemy." In short, the execution was to be as circumstances dictated, subject to the guiding rule that the enemy's rear was to be cut off and superior force concentrated on that part of the enemy's line.


The plan had three principal advantages. Firstly, it would allow the British fleet to close with the French-Spanish fleet as quickly as possible, reducing the chance that it would be able to escape without fighting. Secondly, it would quickly bring on a mêlée and frantic battle by breaking the French-Spanish line and inducing a series of individual ship-to-ship fights, in which the British were likely to prevail. Nelson knew that the better seamanship, faster gunnery, and higher morale of his crews had decisive advantages that could not be compensated for by any amount of bravery on the part of their opponents. Thirdly, it would bring a decisive concentration on the rear of the French-Spanish fleet. The ships in the van of the enemy fleet would have to turn back to support the rear, an effort which would take a long time.


The main drawback of attacking head on was that the Franco-Spanish ships would be able to maintain a raking broadside fire on the bows of the leading British ships as they approached, to which the British ships would be unable to reply. Nelson, however, was well aware that French and Spanish gunners were ill-trained, would in all probability be supplemented with soldiers, and would have difficulty firing accurately from a moving gun platform. After all the Combined Fleet was sailing across a heavy swell, which caused the ships to roll heavily and exacerbated the problem. Nelson's plan was indeed a gamble, but a carefully calculated one. French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire on a British ship of line In naval warfare, raking fire is fire along the long axis of an enemy ship. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ...


Battle

On 18 October, Villeneuve received a letter informing him that Vice-Admiral François Rosily had arrived in Madrid with orders to take command. At the same time, he received intelligence that a detachment of six British ships (Admiral Louis's squadron) had docked at Gibraltar. Stung by the prospect of being disgraced before the fleet, Villeneuve resolved to go to sea before his successor could reach Cadiz. Following a gale on 18 October, the fleet began a rapid scramble to set sail. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve Pierre-Charles-Jean-Baptiste-Silvestre de Villeneuve (31 December 1763 – 22 April 1806) was a French naval officer during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Departure

The weather, however, suddenly turned calm following a week of gales. This slowed the progress of the fleet departing the harbor, giving the British plenty of warning. Villeneuve had drawn up plans to form a force of four squadrons, each containing both French and Spanish ships. Following their earlier vote to stay put, the captains were reluctant to leave Cádiz and as a result they failed to follow closely Villeneuve's orders (Villeneuve had reportedly become despised by many of the fleet's officers and crew). As a result, the fleet straggled out of the harbor in no particular formation.


It took most of 20 October for Villeneuve to get his fleet organized, and it set sail in three columns for the Straits of Gibraltar to the south-east. That same evening, the ship Achille spotted a force of 18 British ships of the line in pursuit. The fleet began to prepare for battle and during the night they were ordered into a single line. The following day Nelson's fleet of 27 ships of the line and four frigates was spotted in pursuit from the north-west with the wind behind it. Villeneuve again ordered his fleet into three columns, but soon changed his mind and ordered a single line. The result was a sprawling, uneven formation. October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Achille was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort in 1803 by Jacques-Noël Sané. She took part in the Battle of Trafalgar, where she exploded. ...


The British fleet was sailing, as they would fight, under signal 72 hoisted on Nelson's flagship. At 5:40 a.m., the British were about 21 miles (34 km) to the north-west of Cape Trafalgar, with the Franco-Spanish fleet between the British and the Cape. At 6 a.m. that morning, Nelson gave the order to prepare for battle.


At 8 a.m., Villeneuve ordered the fleet to wear together and turn back for Cádiz. This reversed the order of the Allied line, placing the rear division under Rear-Admiral Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley in the vanguard. The wind became contrary at this point, often shifting direction. The very light wind rendered maneuvering all but impossible for the most expert crews. The inexperienced crews had difficulty with the changing conditions, and it took nearly an hour and a half for Villeneuve's order to be completed. The French and Spanish fleet now formed an uneven, angular crescent, with the slower ships generally leeward and closer to the shore. Vice-Amiral count Pierre-Etienne-René-Marie Dumanoir Le Pelley (1770-1829) was a French Navy officer, best known for commanding the vanguard of the French fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. ...

Nelson's pre-battle prayer, inscribed on oak timber from HMS Victory
Nelson's pre-battle prayer, inscribed on oak timber from HMS Victory

Villeneuve was painfully aware that the British fleet would not be content to attack him in the old-fashioned way, coming down in a parallel line and engaging from van to rear. He knew that they would endeavor to concentrate on a part of his line. But he was too conscious of the inexperience of his officers and men to consider making counter movements. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (854x1343, 497 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (854x1343, 497 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ...


By 11 a.m. Nelson's entire fleet was visible to Villeneuve, drawn up in two parallel columns. The two fleets would be within range of each other within an hour. Villeneuve was concerned at this point about forming up a line, as his ships were unevenly spaced and in an irregular formation. The French-Spanish fleet was drawn out nearly five miles (8 km) long as Nelson's fleet approached.


As the British drew closer, they could see that the enemy was not sailing in a tight order, but rather in irregular groups. Nelson could not immediately make out the French flagship as the French and Spanish were not flying command pennants.


The six British ships dispatched earlier to Gibraltar had not returned, so Nelson would have to fight without them. He was outnumbered and out gunned, nearly 30,000 men and 2,568 guns to his 17,000 men and 2,148 guns. The Franco-Spanish fleet also had six more ships of the line, and so could more readily combine their fire. There was no way for some of Nelson's ships to avoid being "doubled on" or even "trebled on".


Order of battle

Trafalgar order of battle is a listing of the fleets that participated in the battle of Trafalgar on October 21, 1805. ...

Engagement

Nelson's famous signal.
Nelson's famous signal.
Nelson's famous signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", flying from Victory on the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar
Nelson's famous signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", flying from Victory on the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar

The battle progressed largely according to Nelson's plan. At 11:45, Nelson sent the famous flag signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty" He had instructed his signal officer, Lieutenant John Pasco, to signal to the fleet the message "England confides [i.e. is confident] that every man will do his duty." Pasco suggested to Nelson that expects be substituted for confides, since the former word was in the signal book, whereas confides would have to be spelled out letter-by-letter. Nelson agreed to the change.[2] Image File history File links Nelsons signal at Trafalgar. ... Image File history File links Nelsons signal at Trafalgar. ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Trafalgar ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Trafalgar ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2357 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Edit Info:HMS Victory (1765) Licensing Talk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson Battle of... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2357 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Edit Info:HMS Victory (1765) Licensing Talk File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson Battle of... The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of this famous signal flying from the Victory. ... It has been suggested that the section intro from the article Civil flag be merged into this article or section. ... The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of this famous signal flying from the Victory. ... John Pasco (1774-1853) served in the Royal Navy between 1784 and 1853, eventually rising to the rank of Rear Admiral. ...

His Lordship came to me on the poop, and after ordering certain signals to be made, about a quarter to noon, he said, "Mr. Pasco, I wish to say to the fleet, ENGLAND CONFIDES THAT EVERY MAN WILL DO HIS DUTY" and he added "You must be quick, for I have one more to make which is for close action." I replied, "If your Lordship will permit me to substitute the confides for expects the signal will soon be completed, because the word expects is in the vocabulary, and confides must be spelt," His Lordship replied, in haste, and with seeming satisfaction, "That will do, Pasco, make it directly."[3]

The term England was widely used at the time to refer to the United Kingdom, though the British fleet included significant contingents from Ireland, Scotland and Wales as well as England. Unlike the photographic depiction, this signal would have been shown on the mizzen mast only and would have required 12 'lifts'. The fleet was approaching the French line in two columns. Leading the windward column in Victory was Nelson, while Collingwood in Royal Sovereign led the second, leeward, column. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ... The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical pole which supports the sails. ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ... Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Horatio Nelson in several of the great victories of the Napoleonic Wars. ... HMS Royal Sovereign (1786) a 100-gun 1st rate ship of the line which served as the flagship of Admiral Collingwood at the Battle of Trafalgar. ...


As the battle opened, the French and Spanish were in a ragged line headed north as the two British columns approached from the west at nearly a right angle. The northern, windward column of the British fleet was headed by Nelson's 104-gun flagship Victory. The leeward column was led by the 100-gun Royal Sovereign, the flagship of Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood. Nelson led his line into a feint toward the van of the Franco-Spanish fleet and then abruptly turned toward the actual point of attack. Collingwood altered the course of his column slightly so that the two lines converged at this line of attack. Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood (26 September 1750 – 7 March 1810) was an admiral of the Royal Navy, notable as a partner with Horatio Nelson in several of the great victories of the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Just before his column engaged the allied forces, Collingwood said to his officers, "Now, gentlemen, let us do something today which the world may talk of hereafter". Because the winds were very light during the battle, all the ships were moving extremely slow, and the foremost British ships were under heavy fire from several of the enemy ships for almost an hour before their own guns could bear.

Situation at 1200 hours as the Royal Sovereign was breaking into the Franco-Spanish line

At noon, Villeneuve sent the signal "engage the enemy", and Fougueux fired her first trial shot at Royal Sovereign. Royal Sovereign had all sails out and, having recently had her bottom cleaned, outran the rest of the British fleet. As she approached the allied line, she came under fire from Fougueux, Indomptable, San Justo and San Leandro, before breaking the line just astern of Admiral Alava's flagship Santa Ana, into which she fired a devastating double-shotted raking broadside. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x850, 30 KB) Description: This map of the Battle of Trafalgar shows the approximate position of the two fleets at 1200 hours during the battle as the Royal Sovereign was breaking into the Franco-Spanish line. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x850, 30 KB) Description: This map of the Battle of Trafalgar shows the approximate position of the two fleets at 1200 hours during the battle as the Royal Sovereign was breaking into the Franco-Spanish line. ... The Fougueux was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Lorient from 1784 to 1785 by engineer Segondat. ... Indomptable (Indomitable) was an 80-gun ship of the line in the French Navy. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire on a British ship of line In naval warfare, raking fire is fire along the long axis of an enemy ship. ... USS Iowa Broadside (1984) A broadside is the side of a ship; the battery of cannon on one side of a warship; or their simultaneous (or near simultaneous) fire in naval warfare. ...


The second ship in the British lee column, Belleisle, was engaged by Aigle, Achille, Neptune and Fougueux; she was soon completely desmasted, unable to maneuver and largely unable to fight, as her sails blinded her batteries, but kept flying her flag for 45 minutes until the following British ships came to her rescue. HMS Belleisle was a Royal Navy third rate ship of the line. ... The Aigle was a 74-gun French ship of the line which took part in the Battle of Trafalgar. ... The Achille was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort in 1803 by Jacques-Noël Sané. She took part in the Battle of Trafalgar, where she exploded. ... The Neptune was a 3rd rate 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, built by Jacques-Noël Sané in Toulon from 1801 to 1803. ...

Trafalgar Battle, situation at 13h
Trafalgar Battle, situation at 13h

For 40 minutes, Victory was under fire from Héros, Santísima Trinidad, Redoutable and Neptune; although many shots went astray others killed and wounded a number of her crew and shot away her wheel, so that she had to be steered from her tiller belowdecks. Victory could not yet respond. At 12:45, Victory cut the enemy line between Villeneuve's flagship Bucentaure and Redoutable. Victory came close to the Bucentaure, firing a devastating raking broadside through her stern which killed and wounded many on her gundecks. Villeneuve thought that boarding would take place, and with the Eagle of his ship in hand, told his men: "I will throw it onto the enemy ship and we will take it back there!" However Admiral Nelson of Victory engaged the 74 gun Redoutable. Bucentaure was left to be dealt with by the next three ships of the British windward column Temeraire, Conqueror and Neptune. Download high resolution version (1200x645, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x645, 119 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Héros was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort from 1795 to 1801 by engineer Roland. ... The Spanish ship Santísima Trinidad (officially named Santisima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin) was a first-rate ship of the line of 120 guns (when first built). ... Built after plans by engineer Jacques-Noël Sané, the Redoutable was launched as Suffren on May 31, 1791. ... The Neptune was a 3rd rate 80-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, built by Jacques-Noël Sané in Toulon from 1801 to 1803. ... The French sail battleship Bucentaure was the flagship of Vice-Admiral Latouche Tréville, who died on board on 18 August 1804. ... French frigate Poursuivante firing raking fire on a British ship of line In naval warfare, raking fire is fire along the long axis of an enemy ship. ... The fighting Téméraire, tugged to her last berth to be broken up by J. M. W. Turner, 1838. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HMS Neptune (1797 at Deptford) was a 98-gun 2nd rate ship of the line which fought at the Battle of Trafalgar. ...


A general mêlée ensued and, during that fight, Victory locked masts with the French Redoutable. The crew of the Redoutable, which included a strong infantry corps (with 3 captains and 4 lieutenants), gathered for an attempt to board and seize the Victory. A musket bullet fired from the mizzentop of the Redoutable struck Nelson in the left shoulder and passed through his body lodging in his spine. Nelson exclaimed, "They finally succeeded, I am dead." He was carried below decks and died at about 16:30, as the battle that would make him a legend was ending in favor of the British. Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...

Bucentaure being fired upon by Temeraire at Trafalgar
Bucentaure being fired upon by Temeraire at Trafalgar

Victory ceased fire, the gunners having been called on the deck to fight the capture but were repelled to the below decks by French grenades. As the French were preparing to board Victory, the Temeraire, the second ship in the British windward column, approached from the starboard bow of the Redoutable and fired on the exposed French crew with a carronade, causing many casualties. Download high resolution version (1600x948, 374 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x948, 374 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 24-pounder carronade (140 mm) 68-pounder British naval carronade The carronade was a short smoothbore, cast iron cannon, developed for the Royal Navy by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland, UK used from the 1770s to the 1860s. ...


At 13:55, Captain Lucas, of the Redoutable, with 99 fit men out of 643 and severely wounded himself, was forced to surrender. The French Bucentaure was isolated by the Victory and Temeraire, and then engaged by Neptune, Leviathan and Conqueror; similarly, the Santísima Trinidad was isolated and overwhelmed without being rescued, surrendering after three hours. Jean Jacques Etienne Lucas was an French Navy officer, hero of the Battle of Trafalgar. ... HMS Leviathan was a third-rate ship of the line of 1707 tons and 74 guns launched on 9 October 1790. ...

Trafalgar Battle, situation at 17h
Trafalgar Battle, situation at 17h

As more and more British ships entered the battle, the ships of the allied centre and rear were gradually overwhelmed. The allied van, after long remaining quiescent, made a futile demonstration and then sailed away. The British took 22 vessels of the Franco-Spanish fleet and lost none. Among the taken French ships were the Aigle, Algésiras, Berwick, Bucentaure, Fougueux, Intrépide, Redoutable, and Swiftsure. The Spanish ships taken were Argonauta, Bahama, Monarca, Neptuno, San Agustín, San Ildefonso, San Juan Nepomuceno, Santísima Trinidad, and Santa Ana. Of these, Redoutable sank, Santísima Trinidad and Argonauta were scuttled by the British and later sank, Achille exploded, Intrépide and San Augustín burned, and Aigle, Berwick, Fougueux, and Monarca were wrecked in a gale following the battle. Download high resolution version (1200x664, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x664, 135 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Aigle was a 74-gun French ship of the line which took part in the Battle of Trafalgar. ... The Algésiras was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Lorient in 1804. ... The Berwick was a 3rd rate 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, originally built at Portsmouth Dockyard in 1775. ... Intrépide was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the French navy. ... The Swiftsure was a 74-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built in Deptford from 1787 to 1787 under plans by engineer Wells. ... The San Agustín was a 74-gun ship of the line built at the royal shipyard in Guarnizo (Santander) and launched in 1768. ... The San Juan Nepomuceno, 2700 tons, was constructed in the royal shipyard in Guarnizo (Santander) and launched in 1765. ... The Spanish ship Santísima Trinidad (officially named Santisima Trinidad y Nuestra Señora del Buen Fin) was a first-rate ship of the line of 120 guns (when first built). ... The Achille was a 74-gun French ship of the line built at Rochefort in 1803 by Jacques-Noël Sané. She took part in the Battle of Trafalgar, where she exploded. ...


As Nelson lay dying, he ordered the fleet to anchor as a storm was predicted. However, when the storm blew up many of the severely damaged ships sank or ran aground on the shoals. A few of them were recaptured by the French and Spanish prisoners overcoming the small prize crews or by ships sallying from Cádiz. A shoal is a sandbank or bar creating a shallow. ...


Aftermath

Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck of Victory
Nelson is shot on the quarterdeck of Victory

Only eleven ships regained Cádiz, and of those only five were considered seaworthy. Under captain Julien Cosmao, they set sail two days later and attempted to re-take some of the English prizes; they succeeded in re-capturing two ships, and forced Collingwood to scuttle a number of his prizes. Download high resolution version (1000x663, 211 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1000x663, 211 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Julien Marie Cosmao-Kerjulien (Châteaulin, 27 November 1761 - Brest, 17 February 1825) was a French Navy officer, admiral, and hero of the Battle of Trafalgar. ...


The four van ships which escaped with Dumanoir were taken on November 4th by Sir Richard Strachan at the Battle of Cape Ortegal. Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland First French Empire Commanders Sir Richard Strachan Pierre Dumanoir le Pelley Strength 4 ships of the line, 2 frigates 4 ships of the line The Battle of Cape Ortegal was fought on 3 November 1805 between a British squadron and a French...


When Rosily arrived in Cádiz, he found only five French ships remained rather than the 18 he was expecting. The surviving ships remained bottled up in Cádiz until 1808, when Napoleon invaded Spain. The French ships were then seized by the Spanish forces and put into service against France.


HMS Victory made its way to Gibraltar for repairs carrying on board the body of Admiral Nelson. It put into Rosia Bay, Gibraltar and after emergency repairs were carried out it returned to England. Many of the injured crew were brought ashore at Gibraltar and treated in the Naval Hospital. Those that subsequently died from injuries sustained at the Battle are buried in and near the Trafalgar Cemetery, at the south end of Main Street, Gibraltar. The Trafalgar Cemetery The Trafalgar Cemetery is a cemetery in Gibraltar used for burials between 1798 and 1814, and subsequently fell into disuse. ...


All of the Royal Marine Corps officers in HMS Victory were killed, leaving the Sergeant Major of Marines (who was first by Nelson's side when he was hit) in command of Victory's Marine detachment.


The Battle took place the very day after the Battle of Ulm, and Napoleon did not hear about it for a few weeks - the Grande Armée had left Boulogne to meet Britain's allies before they could muster a huge force. He had tight control over the Paris media and kept the defeat a closely guarded secret. In a propaganda move, the battle was declared a "spectacular victory" by the French and Spanish. Combatants First French Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Mack von Liebereich # Strength 150,000 72,000 Casualties 5,980 dead or wounded 12,000 dead or wounded, 30,000 captured The Ulm Campaign September-October 1805. ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ...


Vice-Admiral Villeneuve was taken prisoner aboard his flagship and taken back to England. After his parole in 1806 and return to France, Villeneuve was found in his inn room during a stop on the way to Paris stabbed six times in the chest with a dining knife. While the verdict was that he had committed suicide, he was very likely murdered on the orders of Napoleon. Villeneuve had fallen from favor with Napoleon before Trafalgar and it was rumored he was to be relieved of command. Losing the battle resulted in further disfavor with Napoleon.


Less than two months later, the War of the Third Coalition ended with a decisive French victory over Russia and Austria, Britain's allies, at the Battle of Austerlitz. Prussia decided not to join the Coalition and, for a while, France was at peace again. However, it could not longer challenge Great Britain at sea. Napoleon instead established the Continental System in an attempt to deny Britain trade with the continent. In the Napoleonic Wars, the Third Coalition against Napoléon emerged in 1805, and consisted of an alliance of the United Kingdom, Austria, Russia, Naples, and Sweden against France. ... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] War... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


Consequences

Detail from an 1805 poster commemorating the battle.
A broadside from the 1850s recounts the story.
A broadside from the 1850s recounts the story.

Following the battle, the Royal Navy was never again seriously challenged by the French fleet in a large-scale engagement. Napoleon had already abandoned his plans of invasion before the battle and they were never revived. The battle did not mean however that the French naval challenge to Britain was over. First, as the French control over the continent expanded, Britain had to take active steps in 1807 and 1808 to prevent the ships of smaller European navies from falling into French hands. This effort was largely successful, but did not end the French threat as Napoleon instituted a large scale shipbuilding program that produced a fleet of 80 ships of the line at the time of his fall from power in 1814, with more building. In comparison Britain had 99 ships of the line in active commission in 1814, and this was close to the maximum that could be supported. Given a few more years, the French could have realised their plans to commission 150 ships of the line and again challenge the Royal Navy, compensating for the inferiority of their crews with sheer numbers. [4] For almost 10 years after Trafalgar the Royal Navy maintained close blockade of French bases and anxiously observed the growth of the French fleet. In the end, Napoleon's Empire was destroyed before the ambitious buildup could be completed. Image File history File links Battle_of_Trafalgar_Poster_1805. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Trafalgar_Poster_1805. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (550x1336, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Trafalgar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (550x1336, 132 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle of Trafalgar Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Combatants United Kingdom Denmark Commanders James Gambier Ernst Peymann Casualties 42 killed, 145 wounded, 24 missing[1] 5,000 soldiers and militia[1] The Second Battle of Copenhagen, (16 August - 5 September 1807) was a British attack on the civilian population of Copenhagen in order to seize the Danish fleet. ...


Nelson became - and remains - Britain's greatest naval war hero, and an inspiration to the Royal Navy, yet his unorthodox tactics were only infrequently emulated by later generations. The first monument to be erected in Britain to commemorate Nelson was raised on Glasgow Green in 1806, possibly preceded by a monument at Taynuilt, near Oban dated 1805, both also commemorating the many Scots crew and captains at the battle.[5][6] The 44 m (144 ft) tall Nelson Monument on Glasgow Green was designed by David Hamilton and paid for by public subscription. Around the base are the names of his famous victories: Aboukir (1798), Copenhagen (1801) and Trafalgar (1805). In 1808, Nelson's Pillar was erected in Dublin to commemorate Nelson and his achievements (many sailors at Trafalgar had been Irish[7][8]), and remained until it was blown up by "Old IRA" members in 1966.[5] Nelson's Monument in Edinburgh was built between 1807 and 1815 in the form of an upturned telescope, and in 1853 a time ball was added which still drops at noon GMT to give a time signal to ships in Leith and the Firth of Forth. In summer this coincides with the one o'clock gun being fired. McLennan Arch at the north-west entrance to Glasgow Green Glasgow Green situated in the east end of the city on the north bank of the River Clyde, is the oldest park in Glasgow dating back to the 15th century. ... Taynuilt is a village in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. ... For other uses, see Oban (disambiguation). ... David Hamilton may refer to David Hamilton (Tenor) David Hamilton (Radio DJ) David Hamilton (architect) David Hamilton (photographer) David Hamilton (Labour Party) David Hamilton (Thunder Bay mayor) David Hamilton (composer) David Hamilton (galston maniac) Category: ... The Battle of Abukir or Aboukir refers to three battles fought near Egypt: For the naval battle fought in 1798, sometimes known as Battle of Aboukir Bay, see Battle of the Nile. ... The Battle of Copenhagen The Battle of Copenhagen (Danish: Slaget på Reden) was a naval battle fought on 2 April 1801 by a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker, against a Danish fleet anchored just off Copenhagen. ... Nelsons Pillar on OConnell Street Nelsons Pillars viewing platform afforded views over Dublin, as this 1964 photograph of OConnell Street attests. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... Nelsons Monument, Edinburgh Nelsons Monument is a commemorative tower to Admiral Horatio Nelson, situated on top of Calton Hill, Edinburgh. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The timeball at Greenwich is shown in the top right of picture A time ball is a large metal or painted wooden ball, visible to shipping, that drops at a predetermined time to enable sailors to set their chronometers. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... The Water of Leith looking upriver from the docks, with the old buildings along Leith Shore including The Kings Wark and The Old Ship Hotel and Kings Landing. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea...


London's famous Trafalgar Square was named in honor of his victory, and Nelson's statue on Nelson's Column, finished in 1843, towers triumphantly over it. Conversely, generations of French schoolchildren were taught that Trafalgar was an "inconclusive battle in which the British Admiral was killed" [citation needed]. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Lord Nelson at the top of the column that bears his name Nelsons Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. ...


The disparity in losses has been attributed by some historians less to Nelson's daring tactics, than to the difference in fighting readiness of the two fleets[citation needed]. Nelson's fleet was made up of ships of the line which had spent considerable amount of sea time during months of blockades of French ports, whilst the French fleet had generally been at anchor in port. However, Villeneuve's fleet had just spent months at sea crossing the Atlantic twice, which supports the proposition that the main difference between the two fleets' combat effectiveness was the morale of the leaders.


The Royal Navy proceeded to dominate the seas for the remaining years of sail. Although the victory at Trafalgar was typically given as the reason at the time, modern analysis by historians such as Paul Kennedy suggests that relative economic strength was a more important underlying cause of British naval mastery. Paul Kennedy can refer to: Paul Kennedy a professor of history at Yale University who is known for his study of the history of international relations. ...


An anecdotal consequence, related to Trafalgar, is that French Navy officers have not been called "sir" ever since, supposedly due to Napoleon's disgust at his great fleet having been so comprehensively beaten. The rank insignia of the French Navy are worn on epaulettes of shirts and white jackets, and on sleeves for navy jackets and mantels. ...


200th anniversary

Nelson on top of his column in Trafalgar Square
Nelson on top of his column in Trafalgar Square

In 2005, a series of events around the UK, as part of the Sea Britain theme, marked the bicentenary. The 200th anniversary of the battle was also marked by six days of celebrations in Portsmouth during June and July, and at St Paul's Cathedral (where Nelson is entombed) and in Trafalgar Square in London in October (T Square 200), as well as across the rest of the UK. Download high resolution version (678x871, 31 KB)Nelson on his column - Nelsons Column - Trafalgar Square - London - England - 240404 Taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th Aprl 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (678x871, 31 KB)Nelson on his column - Nelsons Column - Trafalgar Square - London - England - 240404 Taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th Aprl 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lord Nelson at the top of the column that bears his name Nelsons Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square, London, England. ... Trafalgar Square viewed from the northeast corner. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The mayor of Penzance taking part in the re-enactment of the announcement of the death of Nelson from the Union Hotel. ... Two hundred year anniversary. ... The mayor of Penzance taking part in the re-enactment of the announcement of the death of Nelson from the Union Hotel. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... T Square 200 was the name given to the son et lumière event, held in Trafalgar Square on Sunday, October 23, 2005, to mark the bicentenary of the Battle of Trafalgar. ...


On 28 June, the Queen was involved in the biggest Fleet Review in modern times in the Solent, in which 167 ships from 35 nations took part. The Queen inspected the international fleet from the Antarctic patrol ship HMS Endurance. The fleet included six carriers: Charles De Gaulle, Illustrious, Invincible, Ocean, Príncipe de Asturias and Saipan. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The International Fleet review The Carriers assembled at the Review. ... Satellite image showing the Solent, separating the Isle of Wight from mainland Britain The Solent is a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from the mainland of Great Britain. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Endurance. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The fifth HMS Illustrious (R06) is an Invincible-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, affectionately known as Lusty to her crew. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... The SPS Príncipe de Asturias (R 11) is the only active aircraft carrier of the Spanish Navy. ... The second USS Saipan (LHA-2) is a Tarawa-class amphibious assault ship in the United States Navy. ...


The frigate Grand Turk played the part of HMS Victory in a symbolic re-enactment of the battle. Grand Turk, at anchor in Oostende, Belgium The Grand Turk is a three-masted 6th rate frigate, well known as the from the TV series Hornblower (and also as the French ship Papillon). ... HMS Victory is a 104-gun ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built between 1759 and 1765. ...


Lapenotiere's historic voyage in HMS Pickle bringing the news of victory from the fleet to Falmouth and thence by post chaise to the Admiralty in London, was commemorated by the New Trafalgar Dispatch and Trafalgar Way celebrations, from July to September, in which an actor played the part of Lapenotiere and reenacted the historic journey. John Richards Lapenotiere RN was descended from Huguenot refugees, who came to England with William of Orange in 1688 and were settled in Ireland. ... HMS Pickle was a 10-gun cutter of the Royal Navy. ... Falmouth (Cornish: Aberfal) is a seaport on the River Fal on the south coast of Cornwall, England, UK. It is both a town and a civil parish. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... The New Trafalgar Dispatch was part of the bicentenary celebrations of Lord Nelsons famous and momentous victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, in 1805. ... The Trafalgar Way is the name given to the historic route taken in November 1805 by Lieutenant Lapenotiere, from Falmouth to London, with the momentous news of Lord Nelsons victory and death in the Battle of Trafalgar, in October 1805. ...


On 21 October, naval manoeuvres were conducted in Trafalgar Bay, near Cadiz, involving a combined fleet from Britain, Spain and France. Many descendants of those men who fought and died in these waters, including members of Nelson's family, were present at the ceremony. is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ...


In popular culture

The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) combines events from several moments during the battle
The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) combines events from several moments during the battle
  • In the Richard Sharpe series of novels (specifically Sharpe's Trafalgar) by Bernard Cornwell, Sharpe finds himself at the Battle of Trafalgar aboard the fictitious HMS Pucelle, following a complicated series of events which began in India.
  • Trafalgar, a book about the battle of the same name, opens the series of novels Episodios Nacionales by Benito Pérez Galdós.
  • In the alternate history collection Alternate Generals, John W. Mina's short story "Vive l'Amiral" posits Admiral Nelson fleeing an English debtor's prison, ending up in France and leading Napoleon's navy to victory at Trafalgar.
  • Spanish writer Arturo Pérez-Reverte has published the novel Cape Trafalgar (Cabo Trafalgar, ed. Alfaguara 2004, in Spanish).
  • Recently an Alexandre Dumas, père novel was discovered entitled Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine. The book is an adventure story set in the Napoleonic Era in which the main character is alleged to be the one who shot Nelson.
  • In the Horatio Hornblower series, by C.S. Forester, Hornblower is given the task of delivering false orders to Villeneuve. Since Hornblower speaks fluent French and Spanish, he is successful in his mission. Villeneuve sends his fleet out of Cadiz and to the destruction that takes place at Trafalgar. Even though Hornblower doesn't participate in the battle itself, he is put in charge of Admiral Nelson's funeral in England. These events take place at the end of Hornblower and the Crisis and at the beginning of Hornblower and the Atropos.
  • In the novel "Honour This Day" from the Richard Bolitho series by Alexander Kent, Bolitho's squadron is sent first to the West Indies with the task of intercepting a Spanish quota ship and, then, in 1805 to the Mediterranean, to prevent reinforcements from reaching the Combined Fleet at Trafalgar
  • In Dudley Pope's Ramage and the Drumbeat, the second in the Ramage series, Lieutenant Lord Ramage ordered to proceed to Gibraltar "with all possible despatch" aboard His Majesty's ship Kathleen, to support Lord Nelson in the battle with the Spanish off Cape Trafalgar.
  • In Louis A. Meyer's Under the Jolly Roger, the third Bloody Jack novel, the heroine, Jacky Faber, cross-dressing English-woman and Lieutenant in the British Royal Navy, is captured as a pirate by British forces on the eve of the battle. Her ship is destroyed, but she escapes from the brig in time to "man" the guns in grim action against the Redoubtable.

The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822&#8211;1824) The painting combines events from several times during the battle. ... The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822&#8211;1824) The painting combines events from several times during the battle. ... The Battle of Trafalgar The Battle of Trafalgar was painted by J. M. W. Turner in 1824. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (April 23, 1775 (exact date disputed) – December 19, 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... Richard Sharpe is the central character in Bernard Cornwells Sharpe novels and of the Sharpe series of TV movies in which he is played by Sean Bean. ... Bernard Cornwell OBE (born February 23, 1944) is a prolific and popular English historical novelist. ... Nathaniel Drinkwater is a fictional officer in the British Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, the protagonist of a series of novels by Richard Woodman. ... Richard Woodman (1944 - ) is an English novelist and naval historian who retired in 1997 from a 30 year naval career, mainly working for Trinity House, to write full time. ... The French sail battleship Bucentaure was the flagship of Vice-Admiral Latouche Tréville, who died on board on 18 August 1804. ... Republican homage, bust by Erminio Blotta, at Independencia Park, Rosario, Argentina Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish novelist. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Alternate Generals is a collection of alternate history short stories edited by Harry Turtledove, published in 1998, ISBN 0671878867. ... Spanish stamp (2002) tribute to Captain Alatriste Arturo Pérez-Reverte (b. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie (July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870) was a French writer, best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him one of the most widely read French authors in the world. ... The Knight of Sainte-Hermine (Le Chevalier de Sainte-Hermine in the original French) is an unfinished historical novel by Alexandre Dumas. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... Blackadder is the generic name that encompasses four series of an acclaimed BBC One historical sitcom, along with several one-off installments. ... Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769&#8211;14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman, widely considered one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century. ... Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, writer, actor, novelist, filmmaker and television personality. ... Rowan Atkinson as Blackadder the Third. ... This article has been illustrated as part of WikiProject WikiWorld. ... George IV King of the United Kingdom George IV (George Augustus Frederick) (12 August 1762&#8211;26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom and Hanover from 29 January 1820. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 &#8211; 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Cape Trafalgar (Spanish: Cabo Trafalgar) is a headland in Cadiz Province in the South-West of Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cecil Scott Forester is the pen name of Cecil Smith (August 27, 1899 - April 2, 1966), an English novelist whose rose to fame with tales of adventure with military themes, notably the 11-book Horatio Hornblower series (being filmed with Ioan Gruffudd as Horatio Hornblower) about naval warfare during the... Hornblower and the Crisis is a 1967 historical novel by C. S. Forester. ... Hornblower and the Atropos is a 1953 historical novel by C.S. Forester. ... Richard Bolitho is a fictional Royal Navy officer who is the main character in a series of novels written by Douglas Reeman (using the pseudonym Alexander Kent). ... Alexander Kent is the pseudonym of the British novelist Douglas Edward Reeman. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... The Best of Both Worlds is a two-part episode from the third/fourth seasons of the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Captain Jean-Luc Picard, played by Patrick Stewart, is a character from the Star Trek franchise who appears in the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation, in the movies Star Trek: Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, and Star Trek: Nemesis, and makes a cameo appearence in... For the song by Dave Matthews Band, see Bartender (song). ... Guinan, played by Whoopi Goldberg, is a recurring character on Star Trek: The Next Generation. ... Lord Nelson Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson (September 29, 1758 &#8211; October 21, 1805) was a British admiral who won fame as a leading naval commander. ... Star Trek: Generations (Paramount Pictures, 1994, see also 1994 in film) is the seventh feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Captain Jean-Luc Picard, played by Patrick Stewart, is a character from the Star Trek franchise who appears in the TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation, in the movies Star Trek: Generations, Star Trek: First Contact, Star Trek: Insurrection, and Star Trek: Nemesis, and makes a cameo appearence in... Dudley Pope (29 December 1925 - 25 April 1997) was a British writer of both nautical fiction and history, most notable for his Lord Ramage series of historical novels. ... Lord Nicholas Ramage was the fictional character at the center of a series of sea novels written by Dudley Pope. ... Louis A. Meyer (born 1942), who writes under the name L.A. Meyer, is an American writer and author of the Bloody Jack novels. ... Under the Jolly Roger is a young adult historical fiction novel set in the early 1800s. ... Bloody Jack can refer to: Bloody Jack, the nickname of 19th century Māori chief Tuhawaiki. ...

Trivia

  • Nelson explained his battle plan to Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth a month before, at White Lodge in Richmond Park, by drawing lines on the table with a wine-moistened finger.
  • It has been estimated that hundreds of the British sailors at Trafalgar were black.[9]
  • Nelson's last words before he died at 4:30 P.M. have been disputed. William Beatty, the surgeon claimed they were "Thank God I have done my duty." [1] According to his chaplain, Alexander Scott; his steward, Chevalier; and the purser, Walter Burke, who were also present, Nelson's last words were "Drink, drink. Fan, fan. Rub, rub." This was a request to alleviate his symptoms of thirst, heat, and the pains of his wounds. (Pocock, Horatio Nelson, 1987, p.331.)

An enduring version of events is that Nelson said "Kiss me, Hardy", and Hardy (the captain of HMS Victory) accordingly kissed him on the cheek. This account makes clear that there was no doubt at all what Nelson had said, and that nobody was surprised - Englishmen did kiss each other, and display emotion, then. The Right Honourable Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth, PC (30 May 1757–15 February 1844) was a British statesman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1804. ... White Lodge is the first stage of training at the Royal Ballet School, London. ... It has been suggested that King Henry VIIIs Mound be merged into this article or section. ... Portrait of Sir Beatty wearing full uniform. ...


Bibliography

Trafalgar by Oliver Warner. 1971 Pan edition - 192 pages
  • Adkins, Roy, Trafalgar: The Biography of a Battle, 2004, Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-72511-0.
  • Corbett, Julian S., The Trafalgar Campaign, 1910, London.
  • Desbrière, Edouard, The Naval Campaign of 1805: Trafalgar, 1907, Paris. English translation by Constance Eastwick, 1933.
  • Fernandez, Juan Cayuela, Trafalgar. Hombres y naves entre dos épocas, 2004, Ariel (Barcelona) ISBN 84-344-6760-7
  • Harbron, John D., Trafalgar and the Spanish Navy, 1988, London, ISBN 0-85177-963-8.
  • Howarth, David, Trafalgar: The Nelson Touch, 2003, Phoenix Press, ISBN 1-84212-717-9.
  • Huskisson, Thomas, Eyewitness to Trafalgar, reprinted in 1985 as a limited edition of 1000; Ellisons' Editions, ISBN 0-946092-09-5 — the author was half-brother of William Huskisson
  • Lambert, Andrew, War at Sea in the Age of Sail, Chapter 8, 2000, London, ISBN 1-55278-127-5
  • Nicolson, Adam, Men of Honour: Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero (U.S. title Seize the Fire: Heroism, Duty, and the Battle of Trafalgar), 2005, HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-719209-6.
  • Pocock, Tom, Horatio Nelson, Chapter XII, 1987, London, ISBN 0-7126-6123-9
  • Pope, Dudley, England Expects (U.S. title Decision at Trafalgar), 1959, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  • Schom, Alan, Trafalgar: Countdown to Battle, 1803-1805, 1990, New York, ISBN 0-689-12055-9.
  • Warner, Oliver, Trafalgar. First published 1959 by Batsford - republished 1966 by Pan.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Image File history File links Trafalgar_pan. ... Image File history File links Trafalgar_pan. ... William Huskisson (11 March 1770 - 15 September 1830), was a British statesman, financier, and Member of Parliament for Liverpool. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

References

  1. ^ Admirals of the time, due to the slowness of communications, were given considerable autonomy to make strategic as well as tactical decisions.
  2. ^ Nelson and His Navy - England or Nelson?. Historical Maritime Society. Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  3. ^ England Expects. The Nelson Society. Retrieved on 24 March 2005.
  4. ^ Richard Glover, The French Fleet, 1807-1814; Britain's Problem; and Madison's Opportunity, The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Sep., 1967), pp. 233-252.
  5. ^ a b England expects - on the trail of Admiral Lord Nelson Nelson monuments
  6. ^ Capital City - Tree for All Five of Nelson’s 27 captains of the Fleet were Scottish as were almost 30% of the crew
  7. ^ First Sea Lord Admiral Sir Alan West on Trafalgar 2005 reports recruitment English 53%, Irish 21%, Scots 7% though many more may have been recruited in England
  8. ^ Poppyland Activity 1: Nelson's Crew at Trafalgar
  9. ^ BBC - London - Features - Who Needs Black History?

Naval strategy is the planning and conduct of warfare at sea, the naval equivalent of military strategy on land. ... Naval tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemyship or fleet in battle at sea, the naval equivalent of military tactics on land. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Nelson's Navy
  • The London Gazette Extraordinary, November 6, 1805 original published dispatches, Naval History: Great Britain, EuroDocs: Primary Historical Documents From Western Europe, Brigham Young University Library, accessed July 27, 2006
  • Interactive guide:Battle of Trafalgar educational presentation by Guardian Unlimited
  • HMS Victory Royal Navy Web Site
  • Nelson's Memorandum - battle plan - in the British Library
  • BBC video (42 min.) of the re-enactment of the Battle of Trafalgar off Portsmouth on 28th June 2005

is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Front page of Guardian Unlimited from August 16, 2005 Guardian Unlimited is a British website owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Trafalgar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5397 words)
The Battle of Trafalgar, as seen from the mizzen starboard shrouds of the Victory by J.
The Battle of Trafalgar, fought on 21 October 1805, is part of the War of the Third Coalition assembled by Britain against France.
It was the most significant naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars and the pivotal naval battle of the 19th century.
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