FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of Stalingrad
Battle of Stalingrad
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

Soviet soldiers lead German POWs past the Stalingrad Grain Silo in February 1943.
Date 17 July 1942February 2, 1943 [1]
Location Stalingrad, Soviet Union
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Belligerents
Flag of Nazi Germany Germany
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Hungary Hungary
Croatia
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Commanders
Flag of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler
Flag of Nazi Germany Friedrich Paulus #
Flag of Nazi Germany Erich von Manstein
Flag of Nazi Germany Wolfram von Richthofen
Flag of Romania Petre Dumitrescu
Flag of Romania Constantin Constantinescu
Flag of Italy Italo Gariboldi
Flag of Hungary Gusztáv Vitéz Jány
Viktor Pavičić
Flag of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin
Flag of the Soviet Union Vasily Chuikov
Flag of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky
Flag of the Soviet Union Georgiy Zhukov
Flag of the Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko
Flag of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky
Flag of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky
Flag of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko
Strength
Army Group B:
German Sixth Army
German Fourth Panzer Army
Romanian Third Army
Romanian Fourth Army
Italian Eighth Army
Hungarian Second Army
Croatian Legion

Initial: 270,000 men
3,000 artillery
500 tanks
600 aircraft, 1,600 by mid-September (Luftflotte 4)[2][3]

At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive:
1,011,000 men
10,250 artillery
675 tanks
732 (402 operational) aircraft[4][5]
Stalingrad Front
Southwestern Front
Don Front
Soviet 62nd Army

Initial: 187,000 men
2200 artillery
400 tanks
300 aircraft[6]

At the time of the Soviet counter-offensive: 1,103,000 men
15,501 artillery
1463 tanks
1,115[7] aircraft
Casualties and losses
750,000 killed or wounded
250,000 captured
Aircraft: 900 (including 274 Transports and 165 Bombers used as Transports)[8]
700,000 killed, wounded or captured,
40,000+ civilian dead
Aircraft: (28 June to 19 November[9][10], approx. 300 (20 November - 31 December), 942 (1 January - 4 February)[11]. Total: 4,088

The Battle of Stalingrad is a commonly used name in English sources for several large operations by Germany and its allies and Soviet forces conducted with the purpose of possession of the city of Stalingrad, which took place between 17 July 1942 and February 2, 1943, during the Second World War[12]. Stalingrad was known as Tsaritsyn until 1925 and has been known as Volgograd since 1961. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Operation Winter Storm (German Unternehmen Wintergewitter) was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve the German Sixth Army from encirclement during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. The operation commenced on 12 December 1942 and was able to advance just halfway to its objective before a... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Balck V.M.Badanov Casualties Soviet claims for 12,000 KIA 5,000 POW unknown WIA 84 Tanks 106 Guns Unknown KIA Unknown MIA Unknown WIA up to 190 tanks The Tatsinskaya Raid occurred during Operation Little Saturn in late December 1942. ... Combatants Red Army Germany Commanders Filipp Golikov Nikolay Vatutin Erich von Manstein †Theodor Eicke Strength 300,000 men 160,000 men Casualties Voronezh Front: Army of Popov: 3,000 KIA 11,000 WIA Southwestern Front: 20,000 KIA 90,000 WIA 9,000 POWs Final battles: 25,000 KIA 80... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ...


The results of these operations are often cited as one of the turning points of World War II. Stalingrad was the bloodiest battle in human history, with combined casualties estimated to be above 60 million. The battle was marked by brutality and disregard for military and civilian casualties by both sides. The German offensive to take Stalingrad, the battle inside the city, and the Soviet counter-offensive which eventually trapped and destroyed the 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city was the second large-scale defeat of the Second World War. In Soviet and Russian historiography the struggle included the following campaigns, strategic and operational level operations: The following is a list of the most lethal battles in world history. ... Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ...

  • Summer-Autumn Campaign of 1942 (1 May 1942 - 18 November 1942)
Stalingrad Strategic Defensive Operation (17 July 1942 - 18 November 1942)
Defensive Battles on Distant Approaches (17 July 1942 - 17 August 1942)
Defensive Battles on Near Approaches and in Stalingrad (19 August 1942 - 18 November 1942)

Second Period of the Great Patriotic War (19 November 1942 - 31 December 1943)

  • Winter Campaign of 1942-1943 (19 November 1942 - 3 March 1943)
Stalingrad Strategic Offensive Operation (19 November 1942 - 2 February 1943)
Operation Uranus (19 November 1942 - 30 November 1942)
Kotelnikovo Offensive Operation (12 December 1942 - 31 December 1942)
Operation Little Saturn or Middle Don Offensive Operation (16 December 1942 - 30 December 1942)
Operation Koltso (1943) (English: Operation Ring) (10 January 1943 - 2 February 1943)

Contents

Background

On June 22, 1941, Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa). The armed forces of Germany and its allies invaded the Soviet Union, quickly advancing deep into Soviet territory. During December, having suffered multiple defeats during the summer and autumn, Soviet forces counter-attacked during the Battle of Moscow and successfully drove the German Army (Wehrmacht Heer) from the environs of Moscow. is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


By spring 1942, the Germans had stabilized their front in a line running roughly from Leningrad in the north to Rostov in the south. There were a number of salients in the line where Soviet offensives had pushed the Germans back, notably to the northwest of Moscow and south of Kharkov, but neither was particularly threatening. In the far south the Germans were in control of most of the Ukraine and much of the Crimean, although Sevastapol remained in Soviet hands along with a small portion of the Kerch peninsula. Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Kharkov (rus: Ха́рьков) or Kharkiv (ukr: Ха́рків) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. ... Sevastopol (Севастополь, Sevastopol’ in Ukrainian; Aqyar in Crimean Tatar), formerly known as Sebastopol, is a port city in Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimean peninsula. ...


The Germans were confident they could master the Red Army when winter weather no longer impeded their mobility. There was some substance to this belief: while Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) had suffered heavy punishment, 65 percent of its infantry had not been engaged during the winter fighting, and had been rested and reequipped.[13] Army Groups North and South had not been particularly hard pressed over the winter. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ...


Planning and offensive

Confusing matters considerably was the recent entry of the United States following Germany's declaration of war in support of its Japanese ally. To everyone's surprise, the new Anglo-American Allies stated that their first priority was Germany. Hitler wanted to end the fighting on the Eastern Front, or at least minimize it, before the Americans had a chance to get deeply involved in the war in Europe.[14]Whatever plan they chose it would have to have sweeping strategic importance. Limited operations, like collapsing the salients or finally taking Leningrad, would simply not force the war to a close. Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


Moscow was thus an obvious target. Capturing Moscow could conceivably force the Soviets to surrender, or at least so upset their command, control and manufacturing to remove them as a major force. However, an important part of the German "Blitzkrieg" style of warfare was to attack at the least obvious point, in order to concentrate the offensive against the weakest defense, punching through, and then maintaining a highly mobile offensive in order to keep the enemy off balance. Moscow was just as obvious a target to the Soviets as the Germans, and was heavily defended as a result. Although a successful offensive was certainly possible, it would likely be a costly victory. This article is about the military term. ...


Another possibility was to upset the strategic balance by cutting off the Soviet supplies. The basic theory behind total war was that if the industrial output of a country could be disrupted, their military forces would be unable to fight and be defeated as a matter of course. Hitler himself had always claimed to favor this style of warfare, and had personally intervened during Barbarossa to capture areas he felt were of prime industrial importance (much to the chagrin of his generals). In this case there was an obvious target, the oil fields of the Caucasus area, which supplied the Soviets with the vast majority of their fuel. An offensive in this area would also complete the takeover of the Ukraine. If the Volga could be reached, grain supplies from much of the Soviet "breadbasket" would be cut off completely, as it traveled either by barge on the Volga, or trains on lines further west that would also be overrun. Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Importance of Stalingrad

The capture of Stalingrad was important to Hitler for two primary reasons. Firstly, it was a major industrial city on the Volga River -- a vital transport route between the Caspian Sea and Northern Russia. Secondly, its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the oil-rich Caucasus region -- with a goal of cutting off fuel to Stalin's war machine. The fact that the city bore the name of Hitler's nemesis, Joseph Stalin, would make its capture an ideological and propaganda coup. Stalin realized this, also, and despite being under tremendous constraints of time and resources, ordered anyone who was strong enough to hold a rifle be sent out to defend the city.[15] The Red Army, at this stage of the war, was less capable of highly mobile operations than the German Army; however, the prospect of combat inside a large urban area, which would be dominated by short-range firearms rather than armored and mechanized tactics, minimized the Red Army's disadvantages against the Germans. “Volga” redirects here. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Operation Blau / Blue

Main article: Operation Blue

Army Group South was selected for a sprint forward through the southern Russian steppes into the Caucasus to capture the vital Soviet oil fields there. Instead of focusing his attention on the Soviet Capital of Moscow as his general staff advised, Hitler continued to send forces and supplies to the eastern Ukraine. The planned summer offensive was code-named Fall Blau (trans.: “Case Blue”). It was to include the German Sixth Army, Seventeenth Army, Fourth Panzer Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South had overrun the Ukrainian SSR in 1941. Poised in the Eastern Ukraine, it was to spearhead the offensive. Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used clandestinely to refer to another name or word. ... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. ... Panzergruppe 4 4. ... Panzer Group Kleist Panzer Group 1 First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Hitler intervened, however, ordering the Army Group to be split in two. Army Group South (A), under the command of Wilhelm List, was to continue advancing south towards the Caucasus as planned with the Seventeenth Army and First Panzer Army. Army Group South (B), including Friedrich Paulus’s Sixth Army and Hermann Hoth's Fourth Panzer Army, was to move east towards the Volga and the city of Stalingrad. Army Group B was commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later by General Maximilian von Weichs. An army group is a military organization (formation) consisting of several armies, and is supposed to be self-sufficient for indefinite periods. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. He entered the Army in 1898 and served as a staff officer in the First World War. ... Insignia of the German First Panzer Army The First Panzer Army (German: ) was a German tank army that fought during World War II. When formed the First Panzer Army was named Panzer Group Kleist (Panzergruppe Kleist) and was activated on November 16, 1940 with Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist in... General Hermann Hoth Hermann Papa Hoth (12 April 1885 - 26 January 1971) was a general of the Third Reich during World War II, notable for victories in France and on the Eastern Front, and later, after serving six years in prison for war crimes, as a writer on military history. ... “Volga” redirects here. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ... Maximilian von Weichs Maximilian Maria Joseph Karl Gabriel Lamoral Reichsfreiherr von Weichs zu Glon (12 November 1881 - 27 September 1954) was a German Generalfeldmarschall and a military leader in World War II. He was born into a noble family at Dessau, a son of an Army colonel. ...


The start of Operation Blau had been planned for late May 1942. However, a number of German and Romanian units that were involved in Blau were then in the process of besieging Sevastopol on the Crimean Peninsula. Delays in ending the siege pushed back the start date for Blau several times, and the city did not fall until the end of June. A smaller action was taken in the meantime, pinching off a Soviet salient in the Second Battle of Kharkov, which resulted in the pocketing of a large Soviet force on 22 May. This article or section should be merged with Battle of Sevastopol The Siege of Sevastopol, which began on 5 June 1942, was a massive German incirclement of Soviet forces on the Crimean peninsula. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Blau finally opened as Army Group South began its attack into southern Russia on June 28, 1942. The German offensive started well. Soviet forces offered little resistance in the vast empty steppes and started streaming eastward in disarray. Several attempts to re-establish a defensive line failed when German units outflanked them. Two major pockets were formed and destroyed: the first northeast of Kharkov on July 2 and a second, around Millerovo, Rostov Oblast, a week later. is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military tactic. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Millerovo (Russian: ) is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... Flag of Rostov Oblast Rostov Oblast (Russian: , Rostovskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. ...


Meanwhile, the Hungarian Second Army and the German 4th Panzer Army had launched an assault on Voronezh, capturing the city on the 5th of July. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Panzergruppe 4 4. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... July 5 is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 179 days remaining. ...

Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942      to 7 July 1942      to 22 July 1942      to 1 August 1942      to 18 November 1942
Operation Blau: German advances from 7 May 1942 to 18 November 1942      to 7 July 1942      to 22 July 1942      to 1 August 1942      to 18 November 1942

The initial advance of the Sixth Army was so successful that Hitler intervened and ordered the Fourth Panzer Army to join Army Group South (A) to the south. A massive traffic jam resulted when the Fourth Panzer and the Sixth both required the few roads in the area. Both armies were stopped dead while they attempted to clear the resulting mess of thousands of vehicles. The delay was long, and it is thought that it cost the advance at least one week. With the advance now slowed, Hitler changed his mind and re-assigned the Fourth Panzer Army back to the attack on Stalingrad. Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1201x921, 219 KB) Eastern Front (WWII), 1942- 05-07 to 1942- 11-18 Drawn by User:Gdr File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ...


By the end of July, the Germans had pushed the Soviets across the Don River. At this point, the Germans began using the armies of their Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian allies to guard their left (northern) flank. The German Sixth Army was only a few dozen kilometers from Stalingrad, and Fourth Panzer Army, now to their south, turned northwards to help take the city. To the south, Army Group A was pushing far into the Caucasus, but their advance slowed as supply lines grew overextended. The two German army groups were not positioned to support one another due to the great distances involved. The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ...


After German intentions became clear in July, Stalin appointed Marshall Andrei Yeremenko as commander of the Southeastern Front on August 1, 1942. Yeremenko and Commissar Nikita Krushchev were tasked with planning the defense of Stalingrad [16] . The eastern border of Stalingrad was the wide Volga River, and over the river additional Soviet units were deployed. This combination of units became the newly formed 62nd Army, which Yeremenko placed under the command of Lt. Gen. Vasiliy Chuikov on September 11, 1942. The 62nd Army's mission was to defend Stalingrad at all costs. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, born in Markovka in the province of Kharkov in Ukraine to a peasant family. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, born in Markovka in the province of Kharkov in Ukraine to a peasant family. ... Russian political officer during winter war Commissar is the English transliteration of an official title (комисса́р) used in Russia after the Bolshevik revolution and in the Soviet Union, as well as some other Communist countries. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, born in Markovka in the province of Kharkov in Ukraine to a peasant family. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Чуйко́в) (February 12, 1900 - March 18, 1982) was a lieutenant general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, two times Hero of the Soviet Union (1944, 1945), who after the war became a Marshal of the Soviet Union. ...


Beginning of the battle

Before the Wehrmacht reached the city itself, the Luftwaffe had rendered the Volga River, vital for bringing supplies into the city, virtually unusable to Soviet shipping. Between 25 July and 31 July, 32 Soviet ships were sunk with another nine crippled[17]. The battle began with the heavy bombing of the city by the Generaloberst von Richthofen's Luftflotte 4, which in the summer and autumn of 1942 was the mightiest single air command in the world. Some 1,000 tons were dropped[18]. The city was quickly turned to rubble, although some factories survived and continued production whilst workers joined in the fighting. The Croatian 369th Reinforced Infantry Regiment was the only non-German unit [19] selected by the Wehrmacht to enter Stalingrad city during assault operations.   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Colonel General is a senior military rank which is used in some of the world’s militaries. ...

Soviet factory workers heading to the front lines.

Stalin prevented civilians from leaving the city on the premise that their presence would encourage greater resistance from the city's defenders[20]. Civilians, including women and children, were put to work building trenchworks and protective fortifications. A massive German air bombardment on August 23 caused a firestorm, killing thousands and turning Stalingrad into a vast landscape of rubble and burnt ruins[21]. Ninety percent of the living space in the Voroshilovskiy area was destroyed[22][23]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... The aerial bombing of cities became a common tactic in World War II. // World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Soviet Air Force, the Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily (VVS), was swept aside by the Luftwaffe. The VVS unit in the immediate area lost 201 aircraft from 23-31 August, and despite meager reinforcements of some 100 aircraft in August, it was with just 192 servicable aircraft which included just 57 fighters[24]. The Soviets poured aerial reinforcements into the Stalingrad area in late September but continued to suffer appalling losses. The Luftwaffe had complete control of the skies.


The burden of the initial defense of the city fell on the 1077th Anti-Aircraft (AA) Regiment, a unit made up mainly of young women volunteers who had no training on engaging ground targets. Despite this, and with no support available from other Soviet units, the AA gunners stayed at their posts and took on the advancing Panzers. The German 16th Panzer Division reportedly had to fight the 1077th’s gunners "shot for shot" until all 37 AA batteries were destroyed or overrun.[21][25] In the beginning, the Soviets relied extensively on "Workers' militias" composed of workers not directly involved in war production. For a short time, tanks continued to be produced and then manned by volunteer crews of factory workers. They were driven directly from the factory floor to the front line, often without paint or even gunsights.[21] The 1077th Anti-aircraft Regiment under Colonel Raiynin, was a unit of the Stalingrad Air Defense Corps of the Soviet Air Defence Force which fought during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... For other uses, see Volunteer (disambiguation). ... 16th Infantry Division 16th Motorized Infantry Division Windhund 16th Panzergrenadier Division Windhund 16th Panzer Division 116th Panzer Division Windhund Created as 16th Infantry Division in 1935. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ...


By the end of August, Army Group South (B) had finally reached the Volga, north of Stalingrad. Another advance to the river south of the city followed. By September 1, the Soviets could only reinforce and supply their forces in Stalingrad by perilous crossings of the Volga, under constant bombardment by German artillery and aircraft. is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On September 5, the Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organised a massive attack against XIV Panzerkorps. The Luftwaffe helped the German forces repulse the offensive by subjecting Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines to heavy attack. The Soviets were forced to withdraw at midday after only a few hours. Of the 120 tanks the Soviets committed, 30 were lost to air attack[26]. Soviet operations were constantly hampered by the Luftwaffe. On 18 September, the Soviet 1st Guards and 24th Army launched an offensive against VIII Armeekorps at Kotluban. VIII Fliegerkorps dispatched wave after wave of Stuka dive-bombers to prevent a breakthrough. The offensive was repulsed, and the Stukas claimed 41 of the 106 Soviet tanks knocked out that morning while escorting Bf 109s destroyed 77 Soviet aircraft, shattering their remaining strength[27]. Amid the debris of the wrecked city, the Soviet 62nd and 64th Armies, which included the Soviet 13th Guards Rifle Division, anchored their defense lines with strongpoints in houses and factories. Fighting was fierce and desperate. The life expectancy of a newly-arrived Soviet private in the city dropped to less than 24 hours, while that of a Soviet officer was about 3 days. Stalin's Order No. 227 of July 27, 1942, decreed that all commanders who order unauthorized retreat should be subjects of a military tribunal. “Not a step back!” was the slogan. The Germans pushing forward into Stalingrad suffered heavy casualties. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull-wings and fixed undercarriage. ... (Bf 109 was the official Reichsluftfahrtministerium designation, though some late_war aircraft actually carried the Me 109 designation stamped onto their aircraft type plates. ... The term Army, besides its generalized meaning (see army) specifically denotes a major military formation in militaries of various countries, including the Soviet Union. ... The 13th Guards Rifle Division was a Soviet infantry division. ... Order No. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Bob Marley song, see Slogans (song). ...

Street fighting in Stalingrad.
Street fighting in Stalingrad.

German military doctrine was based on the principle of combined-arms teams and close cooperation by tanks, infantry, engineers, artillery, and ground-attack aircraft. To counter this, Soviet commanders adopted the simple expedient of always keeping the front lines as close together as physically possible. Chuikov called this tactic "hugging" the Germans. This forced the German infantry to either fight on their own or risk taking casualties from their own supporting fire; it neutralized German close air support and weakened artillery support. Bitter fighting raged for every street, every factory, every house, basement and staircase. There were fire-fights in the sewers. The Germans, calling this unseen urban warfare Rattenkrieg ("Rat War"), bitterly joked about capturing the kitchen but still fighting for the living-room. Streetfight inside Stalingrad source of the photograph File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Streetfight inside Stalingrad source of the photograph File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Polish military engineers at work in Pakistan A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive, defensive and logistical structures for warfare. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ...


Fighting on Mamayev Kurgan, a prominent, blood-soaked hill above the city, was particularly merciless. The position changed hands many times.[28] During one Soviet counter-attack, the Russians lost an entire division of 10,000 men in one day[citation needed]. This division was the 13th Guards Rifle Division, assigned to retake Mamayev Kurgan and Railway Station No. 1, on September 13. Both objectives were successful, only to temporary degrees. The railway station changed hands 14 times in 6 hours. By the following evening, the 13th Guards Rifle Division did not exist, but its men had killed an approximately equal number of Germans. According to Antony Beevor, two bodies were exhumed atop Mamayev Kurgan in 1944 during restoration, one German, one Soviet, who had apparently killed each other by simultaneous bayonet impalement through the chests, and who had at that moment been buried by an exploding artillery shell. At the Grain Silo, a huge grain-processing complex dominated by a single enormous silo, combat was so close that at times Soviet and German soldiers could hear each other breathe. Combat raged there for weeks. When German soldiers finally took the position, only forty Soviet bodies were found, though the Germans had thought there to be many more Soviet soldiers present due to the ferocity of Soviet resistance. The Soviets burned the heaps of grain as they retreated.[who?] In another part of the city, a Soviet platoon under the command of Yakov Pavlov turned an apartment building into an impenetrable fortress. The building, later called “Pavlov's House,” oversaw a square in the city center. The soldiers surrounded it with minefields, set up machine-gun positions at the windows, and breached the walls in the basement for better communications[21]. They were not relieved, and not significantly reinforced, for two months. Well after the Battle, Chuikov liked to joke, perhaps accurately, that more Germans died trying to capture Pavlov's House than died capturing Paris. According to Beevor, after each wave, throughout the second month, of the Germans' repeated, persistent assaults against the building, the Soviets had to run out and kick down the piles of German corpses in order for the machine and anti-tank gunners in the building to have clear firing lines across the square. Sgt. Pavlov was awarded the "Hero of the Soviet Union" for his actions. The 52-meter-tall monument The Motherland Calls! — the tallest statue in the world when erected in 1967 Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев Курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in southern Russia. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... War photo of Yakov Pavlov Yakov Fedotovich Pavlov (Яков Федотович Павлов in Russian) (October 4, 1917 - 1981) was a famous Russian soldier during the Battle of Stalingrad, Hero of the Soviet Union (June 27, 1945). ... A red brick apartment block in central London, England, on the north bank of the Thames An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Pavlovs House in Stalingrad Pavlovs House (дом Павлова—dom Pavlova in Russian) became the name of a well-defended apartment building during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942–1943. ...


With no end in sight, the Germans started transferring heavy artillery to the city, including the gigantic 800 mm railroad gun nicknamed Dora. The Germans made no effort to send a force across the Volga, allowing the Soviets to build up a large number of artillery batteries there. Soviet artillery on the eastern bank continued to bombard the German positions. The Soviet defenders used the resulting ruins as defensive positions. German tanks became useless amid heaps of rubble up to 8 meters high. When they were able to move forward, they came under Soviet antitank fire from wrecked buildings. Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... The Germans, visible near the base, prepare to fire the gun Schwerer Gustav and Dora were the names under which the 80-cm K (E) siege cannon was known. ... Anti-tank, or simply AT, refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ...

Panoramic view of Stalingrad from the east bank of the Volga during the siege.

Soviet snipers also successfully used the ruins to inflict heavy casualties on the Germans. The most successful sniper was Vasily Zaytsev who is also the most famous [29][30]. Zaytsev was credited with 242 confirmed kills during the battle and a grand total of more than 300; he was also credited with killing a specially-sent, though potentially fictional German sniper known by the names Erwin König and Heinz Thorvald. Zaitsev fixed a standard Moisin-Nagant rifle scope to a Soviet 20mm anti-tank rifle for use against Germans hiding behind walls under window sills. The 20mm rounds easily penetrated the brick and the soldier behind it. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 132 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 247 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 132 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 247 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Captain Vasily Grigoryevich Zaytsev (Russian: , pronounced ) (March 23, 1915–December 15, 1991) was a Soviet sniper during World War II, notable particularly for his activities between November 10 and December 17, 1942 during the Battle of Stalingrad. ... Erwin König (1885? - October 21, 1941) (also known as Heinz Thorvald) was an apparently apocryphal German major, propagated by the Soviets as the best World War II enemy sniper, with more than 400 kills. ... Erwin König (1885? - October 21, 1941) (also known as Heinz Thorvald) was an apparently apocryphal German major, propagated by the Soviets as the best World War II enemy sniper, with more than 400 kills. ...


For both Stalin and Hitler, the battle of Stalingrad became a prestige issue in addition to the actual strategic significance of the battle. The Soviet command moved the Red Army's strategic reserves from the Moscow area to the lower Volga, and transferred aircraft from the entire country to the Stalingrad region. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


The strain on both military commanders was immense: Paulus developed an uncontrollable tic in his eye, which eventually afflicted the left side of his face, while Chuikov experienced an outbreak of eczema that required him to bandage his hands completely. Troops on both sides faced the constant strain of close-range combat. Eczema (from Greek έκζεμα) is a form of dermatitis, or inflammation of the upper layers of the skin. ...

Attack on a factory in Stalingrad.
Attack on a factory in Stalingrad.

Determined to crush Soviet resistance, Luftflotte 4s Stukawaffe flew 700 individual sorties against Soviet positions at the Dzherzhinskiy Tractor Factory on 5 October. Several Soviet regiments were wiped out; the entire staff of the Soviet 339th Infantry Regiment were killed the following morning during an air raid[31]. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Vogograd tractor factory (VTZ) is a heavy equipment factory located in Volgograd, Russia. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ...


By mid-October, the Luftwaffe intensified its efforts against remaining Red Army positions holding the west bank. By now, Soviet aerial resistance had ceased to be effective. Luftflotte 4 flew 2,000 sorties on 14 October and 600 tons of bombs were dropped while German infantry surrounded the three factories. Stukageschwader 1, 2, and 77 had silenced Soviet artillery on the eastern bank of the Volga to a large degree before turning their attention to the shipping that was once again trying to reinforce the narrowing Soviet pockets of resistance. The 62nd Army had been cut in two, and, due to intensive air attack against its supply ferries, were now being paralyzed.


With the Soviets forced into a 1,000-yard (910 m) strip of land on the western bank of the Volga, over 1,208 Stuka missions were flown in an effort to eliminate them[32]. Despite the heavy air bombardment (Stalingrad suffered heavier bombardment than that inflicted on Sedan and Sevastopol), the Soviet 62 Army, with just 47,000 men and 19 tanks, prevented the VI Armee and IV Panzerarmee from wrestling the west bank out of Soviet control. A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ...


The Luftwaffe remained in command of the sky into early November, and Soviet aerial resistance during the day was nonexistent, but after flying 20,000 individual sorties, its original strength of 1,600 serviceable aircraft had fallen 40% to 950. The Kampfwaffe (bomber force) had been hardest hit, having only 232 out of a force of 480 left[33]. Despite enjoying qualitative superiority against the VVS and possessing eighty percent of the Luftwaffe's resources on the Eastern Front, Luftflotte 4 could not prevent Soviet aerial power from growing. By the time of the counter-offensive, the Soviets were superior numerically.


The Soviet bomber force, the Aviatsiya Dalnego Destviya (ADD), having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night. The Soviets flew 11,317 sorties in this manner, from 17 July to 19 November over Stalingrad and the Don-bend sector. These raids caused little damage and were of nuisance value only.[34][35] The situation for the Luftwaffe was now becoming increasingly difficult. On 8 November substantial units from Luftflotte 4 were removed to combat the American landings in North Africa. The German air-arm found itself spread thin across Europe, and struggling to maintain its strength in the other southern sectors of the Soviet-German front[36]. Belligerents Free French Forces United Kingdom United States Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 107,000 (33,000 in Morocco,39,000 near Algiers,35,000 near Oran) 60,000 Casualties and losses 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch...


After three months of carnage and slow and costly advance, the Germans finally reached the river banks, capturing 90% of the ruined city and splitting the remaining Soviet forces into two narrow pockets. In addition, ice-floes on the Volga now prevented boats and tugs from supplying the Soviet defenders across the river. Nevertheless, the fighting, especially on the slopes of Mamayev Kurgan and inside the factory area in the northern part of the city, continued as fiercely as ever. The battles for the Red October Steel Factory, the Dzerzhinsky tractor factory, and the Barrikady gun factory became world famous. While Soviet soldiers defended their positions and took the Germans under fire, factory workers repaired damaged Soviet tanks and other weapons close to the battlefield, sometimes on the battlefield itself. These civilians also volunteered as tank crews to replace the dead and wounded, though they had no experience or training in operating tanks during combat.[citation needed] Volgogradskiy Metallurgicheskiy Zavod Krasny Oktyabr Closed Joint-Stock Company (Russian: , Zakrytoye aktsionernoye obshchestvo Volgogradskiy metallurgicheskiy zavod Krasny Oktyabr) is a Russian closed joint-stock company which maintains the Krasny Oktyabr factory, one of the largest Russian metallurgy facilities. ... Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky (Феликс Эдмундович Дзержинский; September 11, 1877 - July 20, 1926) was a Polish Communist revolutionary, famous as the founder of the Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka, later known by many names. ...


Soviet counter-offensives

Recognizing that German troops were ill prepared for offensive operations during the winter, the Stavka decided to conduct a number of offensive operations of its own to exploit this weakness, with the recognition that most of the German troops were redeployed elsewhere on the southern sector of the Eastern Front. Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ...


Seen in post-war history as a pivotal strategic period of war that began the Second Period of the Great Patriotic War (19 November 1942 - 31 December 1943), these operations would open the Winter Campaign of 1942-1943 (19 November 1942 - 3 March 1943) taking on the strategic and operational planning structure below, employing several Fronts, and some 15 Armies.


Stalingrad Strategic Offensive Operation 19 November 1942 - 2 February 1943 Southwestern, Don, Stalingrad Fronts The Southwestern Front is a geographical area where armies are engaged in conflict The Soviet Southwestern Front was one of the Soviet Fronts in WWII. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Southern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ...

  • Operation Uranus 19 November 1942 - 30 November 1942
    • Southwestern Front 1st Guards, 21st, 5th Tank, 17th Air Armies, and the 25th Tank Corps
    • Don Front 24th, 65th, 66th, 16th Air Armies
    • Stalingrad Front 28th, 51st, 57th, 62nd, 64th, 8th Air Armies
  • Kotelnikovo Offensive Operation 12 December 1942 - 31 December 1942
    • Stalingrad Front 2nd Guards, 5th Shock, 51st, 8th Air Armies
  • Middle Don Offensive Operation (Operation Little Saturn) 16 December 1942 - 30 December 1942
    • Southwestern Front
    • Don Front
  • Operation Koltso (English: Operation Ring) 10 January 1943 - 2 February 1943
    • Don Front 21st, 24th, 57th, 62nd, 64th, 65th, 66th, 16th Air Armies

The German offensive to take Stalingrad had been halted by a combination of stubborn Red Army resistance inside the city and local weather conditions. The Soviet counter-offensive planning used deceptive measures that eventually trapped and destroyed the 6th Army and other Axis forces around the city, becoming the second large scale defeat of the German Army during Second World War.[37] During the siege, the German, Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian armies protecting Army Group B's flanks had pressed their headquarters for support.[38] The Hungarian Second Army, consisting of mainly ill-equipped and ill-trained units, was given the task of defending a 200 km section of the front north of Stalingrad between the Italian Army and Voronezh. This resulted in a very thin line, with some sectors where 1–2 km stretches were being defended by a single platoon. Soviet forces held several bridgeheads on the western bank of the river and presented a potentially serious threat to Army Group B. The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn Operation Saturn was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front of World War II that led to battles in the northern Caucasus and Donets Basin regions of the Soviet Union from December 1942 to February 1943. ... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... Headquarters denotes the location where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are concentrated. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Voronezh (Russian: ) is a large city in southwestern Russia, not far from Ukraine. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ...


Similarly, on the southern flank of the Stalingrad sector the front south-west of Katelnikovo was held only by the Romanian VII Corps, and beyond it a single German 16th Motorized Infantry Division.


However, Hitler was so focused on the city itself, that requests from the flanks for support were refused. The chief of the Army General Staff, Franz Halder, expressed concerns about Hitler's preoccupation with the city, pointing at the Germans' weak flanks, claiming that if the situation on the flanks was not rectified then 'there would be a disaster'. Hitler had claimed to Halder that Stalingrad would be captured and the weakened flanks would be held with 'national socialist ardour, clearly I cannot expect this of you (Halder)'. Halder was then replaced in mid October with General Kurt Zeitzler. The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... Kurt Zeitzler (June 9, 1895 - September 25, 1963) was an officer in the German Reichswehr and its successor the Wehrmacht, most prominent for being the Chief of the Army General Staff from 1942 to 1944. ...


Operation Uranus

Main article: Operation Uranus
The Soviet counter-attack at Stalingrad                      German front, 19 November                      German front, 12 December                      German front, 24 December      Russian advance, 19-28 November
The Soviet counter-attack at Stalingrad                      German front, 19 November                      German front, 12 December                      German front, 24 December      Russian advance, 19-28 November

In autumn the Soviet generals Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy and Georgy Zhukov, responsible for strategic planning in the Stalingrad area, concentrated massive Soviet forces in the steppes to the north and south of the city. The German northern flank was particularly vulnerable, since it was defended by Italian, Hungarian, and Romanian units that suffered from inferior training, equipment, and morale when compared with their German counterparts. This weakness was known and exploited by the Soviets, who preferred to face off against non-German troops whenever it was possible, just as the British preferred attacking Italian troops, instead of German ones, whenever possible, in North Africa. The plan was to keep pinning the Germans down in the city, then punch through the overstretched and weakly defended German flanks and surround the Germans inside Stalingrad. During the preparations for the attack, Marshal Zhukov personally visited the front, which was rare for such a high-ranking general.[21] The operation was code-named “Uranus” and launched in conjunction with Operation Mars, which was directed at Army Group Center. The plan was similar to Zhukov's victory at Khalkin Gol three years before, where he had sprung a double envelopment and destroyed the 23rd Division of the Japanese army.[39] The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... (Redirected from 19 November) November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka, Kaluga... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Operation Mars, or 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive was a World War II strategic offensive launched in November-December of 1942 by Soviet forces against a German salient in the vicinity of Moscow. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded (stated estimate) 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded (stated estimate) The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: ; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


On November 19, the Red Army unleashed Uranus. The attacking Soviet units under the command of Gen. Nikolay Vatutin consisted of three complete armies, the 1st Guards Army, 5th Tank Army, and 21st Army, including a total of 18 infantry divisions, eight tank brigades, two motorized brigades, six cavalry divisions and one anti-tank brigade. The preparations for the attack could be heard by the Romanians, who continued to push for reinforcements, only to be refused again. Thinly spread, outnumbered and poorly equipped, the Romanian Third Army, which held the northern flank of German Sixth Army, was shattered. On November 20, a second Soviet offensive (two armies) was launched to the south of Stalingrad, against points held by the Romanian IV Corps. The Romanian forces, made up primarily of infantry, collapsed almost immediately. Soviet forces raced west in a pincer movement, and met two days later near the town of Kalach, sealing the ring around Stalingrad. The Russians later reconstructed the link up for use as propaganda, and the piece of footage achieved worldwide fame. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin (1900 - 1944) was a Soviet marshal. ... The Soviet First Guards Army was a Soviet field army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. During the Sixth Armys assault on Stalingrad in August 1942, the Red Army launched a counter-offensive to drive the German forces back. ... The 5th Guards Tank Army was a Soviet Guards armoured formation which fought in many notable actions during World War II. The 5th Guards Tank Army was formed on 10 February 1942. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ... Motorized forces or military units are those that have trucks, or other wheeled, un-armoured transport as an integral part of their organization. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... The Romanian Third Army was a field army that fought as part of of the German Army Group B during World War II. Categories: | | | ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... Kalach-na-Donu (Russian: ), or Kalach-on-the-Don, is a town in Volgograd Oblast, Russia, located on the Don River 85 km west of Volgograd at . ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Stalingrad Pocket

Because of the Soviet pincer attack, about 230,000 German and Romanian soldiers[40], as well as the Croatian 369th Reinforced Infantry Regiment [41] and other volunteer subsidiary troops, found themselves trapped inside the resulting pocket. Inside the pocket (German: kessel) there also were the surviving Soviet civilians—around 10,000,[21] and several thousand Soviet soldiers the Germans had taken captive during the battle. Not all German soldiers from Sixth Army were trapped; 50,000 were brushed aside outside the pocket. The encircling Red Army units immediately formed two defensive fronts: a circumvallation facing inward, to defend against any breakout attempt, and a contravallation facing outward, to defend against any relief attempt. In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with contravallation. ... Contravallation is a standard military tactic of siege used in ancient and modern warfare. ...


Adolf Hitler had declared in a public speech (in the Berlin Sportpalast) on September 30 that the German army would never leave the city. At a meeting shortly after the Soviet encirclement, German army chiefs pushed for an immediate breakout to a new line on the west of the Don. But Hitler was at his Bavarian retreat of Obersalzberg in Berchtesgaden with the head of the Luftwaffe, Göring. When asked by Hitler, Göring replied, after being convinced by Hans Jeschonnek[42], that the Luftwaffe could supply the Sixth Army with an "air bridge". This would allow the Germans in the city to fight on while a relief force was assembled. Hitler redirects here. ... The Berliner Sportpalast (built 1910, demolished 1973) was a multi-purpose winter sport venue and meeting hall near Potdamer Platz in the Schöneberg section of Berlin. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... Hans Jeschonnek (April 9, 1899 – August 19, 1943) was a German Generaloberst and a Chief of the General Staff of Nazi Germanys Luftwaffe during World War II. // Jeschonnek was born in Hohensalza (InowrocÅ‚aw) in the Prussian Province of Posen. ...


A similar plan had been used successfully a year earlier at the Demyansk Pocket, albeit on a much smaller scale: it had been only an army corps at Demyansk as opposed to an entire army. Also, Soviet fighter forces had improved considerably in both quality and quantity in the intervening year. But the mention of the successful Demyansk air supply operation reinforced Hitler's own views, and was endorsed by Hermann Göring several days later. Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ...


The head of the Fourth Air Fleet (Luftflotte 4), Wolfram von Richthofen, tried to have this decision overturned without success. The Sixth Army would be supplied by air. The Sixth Army was the largest unit of this type in the world, almost twice as large as a regular German army. Also trapped in the pocket was a corps of the Fourth Panzer Army. It should have been clear that supplying the pocket by air was impossible -- the maximum 117.5 tons they could deliver a day was less than the 800 tons/day needed by the pocket[43]. To supplement the limited number of Junkers Ju 52 transports, the Germans equipped aircraft wholly inadequate for the role, such as the bomber He-177 (some bombers performed adequately -- the Heinkel He-111 proved to be quite capable and was a lot faster than the Ju 52). But Hitler backed Göring's plan and reiterated his order of "no surrender" to his trapped armies. Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 - 12 July 1945) was a German fighter ace during World War I and a general and field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the German World War I flying ace Manfred von Richthofen...


The air supply mission failed. Appalling weather conditions, technical failures, heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire and fighter interceptions led to the loss of 488 German aircraft. The Luftwaffe failed to achieve even the maximum supply capacity of 117 tons that it was capable of. An average of 94 tons of supplies per day was delivered to the trapped German Army. Even then, it was often inadequate or unnecessary; one aircraft arrived with 20 tonnes of Vodka and summer uniforms, completely useless in their current situation[44]. The transport aircraft that did land safely were used to evacuate technical specialists and sick or wounded men from the besieged enclave (some 42,000 were evacuated in all). The Sixth Army slowly starved. Pilots were shocked to find the troops assigned to offloading the planes too exhausted and hungry to unload food. General Zeitzler, moved by the troops' plight at Stalingrad, began to limit himself to their slim rations at meal times. After a few weeks of such a diet he'd grown so emaciated that Hitler, annoyed, personally ordered him to start eating regular meals again. American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Kurt Zeitzler (June 9, 1895 - September 25, 1963) was an officer in the German Reichswehr and its successor the Wehrmacht, most prominent for being the Chief of the Army General Staff from 1942 to 1944. ...


The expense to the Transportgruppen was heavy. Some 266 Junkers Ju 52s were destroyed, one-third of the fleets strength on the Soviet-German front. The He 111 gruppen lost 165 aircraft in transport operations. Other losses included 42 Junkers Ju 86s, nine Fw 200 "Condors", five He 177 bombers and a single Ju 290. The Luftwaffe also lost close to 1,000 highly experienced bomber crew personnel[45]. The Junkers Ju 86 was a German monoplane bomber and civilian airliner designed in the early 1930s by Junkers. ... Focke-Wulf Fw 200 The Focke-Wulf Fw 200 was a German all-metal four-engined monoplane that entered service as an airliner and later as long range reconnaissance and anti-shipping bomber aircraft for the Luftwaffe. ... The Heinkel He 177 was a 4-engined long-range World War 2 bomber of the Luftwaffe. ...


So heavy were the Luftwaffe's losses that four of Luftflotte 4s transport units (KGrzbV 700, KGrzbV 900, I./KGrzbV 1 and II./KGzbV 1) were "formally dissolved"[46].


Operation Saturn

Soviet forces consolidated their positions around Stalingrad, and fierce fighting to shrink the pocket began. Operation Wintergewitter (Operation Winter Storm), a German attempt to relieve the trapped army from the South, was successfully fended off by the Soviets in December. The full impact of the harsh Russian winter set in. The Volga froze solid, allowing the Soviets to supply their forces more easily. The trapped Germans rapidly ran out of heating fuel and medical supplies, and thousands started to die of frostbite, malnutrition, and disease. Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Operation Winter Storm (German Unternehmen Wintergewitter) was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve the German Sixth Army from encirclement during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. The operation commenced on 12 December 1942 and was able to advance just halfway to its objective before a... Operation Winter Storm (German Unternehmen Wintergewitter) was the German Fourth Panzer Armys attempt to relieve the German Sixth Army from encirclement during the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II. The operation commenced on 12 December 1942 and was able to advance just halfway to its objective before a... This article is about a medical condition. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... This article is about the medical term. ...


On December 16, the Soviets launched a second offensive, Operation Saturn, which attempted to punch through the Axis army on the Don and take Rostov. If successful, this offensive would have trapped the remainder of Army Group South, one third of the entire German Army in Russia, in the Caucasus. The Germans set up a "mobile defense" in which small units would hold towns until supporting armor could arrive. The Soviets never got close to Rostov, but the fighting forced von Manstein to extract Army Group A from the Caucasus and re-establish the frontline some 250 km away from the city. The Tatsinskaya Raid also caused significant losses to Luftwaffe’s transport fleet. The Sixth Army now was beyond all hope of German reinforcement. The German troops in Stalingrad were not told this however, and continued to believe that reinforcements were on their way. Some German officers requested that Paulus defy Hitler’s orders to stand fast and instead attempt to break out of the Stalingrad pocket. Paulus refused, as he abhorred the thought of disobeying orders. Also, whereas a breakout may have been possible in the first few weeks, at this late stage, Sixth Army was short of the fuel required for such a breakout. The German soldiers would have faced great difficulty breaking through the Soviet lines on foot in harsh winter conditions.[21] is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn. ... Central market and Church in Rostov. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Balck V.M.Badanov Casualties Soviet claims for 12,000 KIA 5,000 POW unknown WIA 84 Tanks 106 Guns Unknown KIA Unknown MIA Unknown WIA up to 190 tanks The Tatsinskaya Raid occurred during Operation Little Saturn in late December 1942. ...


Soviet victory

German POWs: Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus (centre) with his general staff.
German POWs: Field Marshal Friedrich Paulus (centre) with his general staff.
759,560 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of Stalingrad from 22nd December 1942.
759,560 Soviet personnel were awarded this medal for the defence of Stalingrad from 22nd December 1942.

The Germans inside the pocket retreated from the suburbs of Stalingrad to the city itself. The loss of the two airfields at Pitomnik on 16 January and Gumrak on the 25 January[47] meant an end to air supplies and to the evacuation of the wounded.[48] Other sources indicate Luftwaffe's last flight from Gumrak was night 21st to 22nd of January 1943. [49]. Third and last serviceable runway was Stalingradskaja flight school which reportedly had last Luftwaffe landings and takeoff night 22nd to 23rd of January 1943. [50]. After daytime 23rd of Jan 1943 there were no more reported landings except for continuous air drops of ammunition and food until the end. The Germans were now not only starving, but running out of ammunition. Nevertheless they continued to resist stubbornly, partly because they believed the Soviets would execute those who surrendered. In particular, the so-called "HiWis", Soviet citizens fighting for the Germans, had no illusions about their fate if captured. The Soviets, in turn, were initially surprised by the large number of German forces they had trapped, and had to reinforce their encircling forces. Bloody urban warfare began again in Stalingrad, but this time it was the Germans who were pushed back to the banks of the Volga. They fortified their positions in the factory districts and the Soviets encountered almost the same tooth-and-nail ferocity that they themselves displayed a month earlier. The Germans adapted a simple defense of fixing wire nets over all windows to protect themselves from grenades. The Soviets responded by fixing fish hooks to the grenades so they stuck to the nets when thrown. The Germans now had no usable tanks in the city. Those tanks which still functioned could at best be used as stationary cannons. The Soviets did not bother employing tanks in areas where the urban destruction ruined their mobility. A Soviet envoy made Paulus a generous surrender offer—that if he surrendered within 24 hours, the Germans would receive a guarantee of safety for all prisoners, medical care for the German sick and wounded, a promise that prisoners would be allowed to keep their personal belongings, "normal" food rations, and repatriation to whatever country they wished to go to after the war—but Paulus, ordered not to surrender by Adolf Hitler, did not reply, ensuring the destruction of the 6th Army.[citation needed] Image File history File links German POWs: Field Marshall Paulus and his staff in Stalingrad Source File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links German POWs: Field Marshall Paulus and his staff in Stalingrad Source File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Friedrich Paulus. ... Image File history File links Medal_defense_of_Stalingrad. ... Image File history File links Medal_defense_of_Stalingrad. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... Hiwi is a German abbreviation. ... Urban warfare is a modern warfare conducted in urban areas such as towns and cities. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Hitler promoted Friedrich Paulus to Generalfeldmarschall on January 30, 1943, (the 10th anniversary of Hitler coming to power). Since no German Field Marshal had ever been taken prisoner, Hitler assumed that Paulus would fight on or take his own life. Nevertheless, when Soviet forces closed in on Paulus' headquarters in the ruined GUM department store the next day, Paulus surrendered. The remnants of the German forces in Stalingrad surrendered on February 2; 91,000 tired, ill, and starving Germans were taken captive. To the delight of the Soviet forces and the dismay of the Third Reich, the prisoners included 22 generals. Hitler was furious at the Field Marshal’s surrender and confided that "Paulus stood at the doorstep of eternal glory but made an about-face". According to the German documentary film Stalingrad, over 11,000 German and Axis soldiers refused to lay down their arms at the official surrender, seemingly believing that fighting to the death was better than what seemed like a slow end in Soviet camps. These forces continued to resist until early March 1943, hiding in cellars and sewers of the city with their numbers being diminished at the same time by Soviet forces clearing the city of remaining enemy resistance. By March, what remained of these forces were small and isolated pockets of resistance that surrendered. According to Soviet intelligence documents shown in the documentary, 2,418 of the men were killed, and 8,646 were captured.[51] Friedrich Paulus. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The following list of German Field Marshals denotes those who have held the German rank of Generalfeldmarschall. ... The GUM facade faces Red Square. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Only 5,000 of the 91,000 German prisoners of war survived their captivity and returned home. Already weakened by disease, starvation and lack of medical care during the encirclement, they were sent to labour camps all over the Soviet Union, where most of them died of overwork and malnutrition. A handful of senior officers were taken to Moscow and used for propaganda purposes and some of them joined National Committee for a Free Germany. Some, including Paulus, signed anti-Hitler statements which were broadcast to German troops. General Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach offered to raise an anti-Hitler army from the Stalingrad survivors, but the Soviets did not accept this offer. It was not until 1955 that the last of the handful of survivors were repatriated. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in forced labor. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Walther von Seydlitz-Kurzbach (August 22, 1888 in Hamburg, Germany - April 28, 1976 in Bremen) was a German general. ... Repatriation (from late Latin repatriare - to restore someone to his homeland) is a term used to describe the process of return of refugees or soldiers to their homes, most notably following a war. ...


The German public was not officially told of the disaster until the end of January 1943, though positive reports in the German propaganda media about the battle had stopped in the weeks before the announcement. It was not the first major setback of the German military, but the crushing defeat at Stalingrad was unmatched in scale. On February 18, the minister of propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, gave his famous Sportpalast speech in Berlin, encouraging the Germans to accept a total war which would claim all resources and efforts from the entire population. is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A minister or a secretary is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


Legacy

The scope of the battle

The aftermath of the Battle of Stalingrad

The battle of Stalingrad was one of the largest battles in human history. It raged for 199 days. Numbers of casualties are difficult to compile due to the vast scope of the battle and the fact that the Soviet government did not allow estimates to be made, for fear the cost would be shown to be too high. In its initial phases, the Germans inflicted heavy casualties on Soviet formations; but the Soviet encirclement by punching through the German flank, mainly held by Romanian troops, effectively besieged the remainder of German Sixth Army, which had taken heavy casualties in street fighting prior to this. At different times the Germans had held up to 90% of the city, yet the Soviet soldiers and officers fought on fiercely. Some elements of the German Fourth Panzer Army also suffered casualties in operations around Stalingrad during the Soviet counter offensive. Image File history File links Stalingrad_aftermath. ... Image File history File links Stalingrad_aftermath. ...


Various scholars have estimated the Axis suffered 850,000 casualties of all types (wounded, killed, captured...etc) among all branches of the German armed forces and its allies, many of which were POWs who died in Soviet captivity between 1943 and 1955. 400,000 Germans, 200,000 Romanians, 130,000 Italians, and 120,000 Hungarians were killed, wounded or captured[52]. Of the 91,000 German POW's taken at Stalingrad 27,000 died within weeks[53] and only 5,000 returned to Germany in 1955. The remainder of the POWs died in Soviet captivity[54][55][56]. In the whole Stalingrad area the Axis lost 1.5 million killed, wounded or captured[57]. 50,000 ex-Soviets Hiwis (local volunteers incorporated into the German forces in supporting capacities) were killed or captured by the Red Army. According to archival figures, the Red Army suffered a total of 1,129,619 total casualties[58]; 478,741 men killed and captured and 650,878 wounded. These numbers are for the whole Stalingrad Area; in the city itself 750,000 were killed, captured, or wounded. Also, more than 40,000 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs during a single week of aerial bombing as the German Fourth Panzer and Sixth armies approached the city; the total number of civilians killed in the regions outside the city is unknown. In all, the battle resulted in an estimated total of 1.7 million to 2 million Axis and Soviet casualties. Hiwi is a German abbreviation. ...


Besides being a turning point in the war, Stalingrad was also revealing of the discipline and determination of both the German Wehrmacht and the Soviet Red Army. The Soviets first defended Stalingrad against a fierce German onslaught. So great were Soviet losses that at times, the life expectancy of a newly arrived soldier was less than a day,[21] and the life expectancy of a Soviet officer was three days. Their sacrifice is immortalized by a soldier of General Rodimtsev, about to die, who scratched on the wall of the main railway station (which changed hands 15 times during the battle) “Rodimtsev’s Guardsmen fought and died here for their Motherland.” The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Alexander Rodimtsev Aleksandr Ilich Rodimtsev (1905 - 1977, Russian: Александр Ильич Родимцев) was a colonel general in the Soviet Red Army during World War II, twice Hero of the Soviet Union (1937, 1945). ...

The 85-meter-tall statue of Mother Motherland crowns the Mamayev Kurgan

For the heroism of the Soviet defenders of Stalingrad, the city was awarded the title Hero City in 1945. After the war, in the 1960s, a colossal monument, Mother Motherland was erected on Mamayev Kurgan, the hill overlooking the city. The statue forms part of a War memorial complex which includes ruined walls deliberately left the way they were after the battle. The Grain Silo, as well as Pavlov's House, the apartment building whose defenders eventually held out for two months until they were relieved, can still be visited. Even today, one may find bones and rusty metal splinters on Mamayev Kurgan, symbols of both the human suffering during the battle and the successful yet costly resistance against the German invasion. Image File history File linksMetadata Mutter_Heimat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mutter_Heimat. ... The 52-meter-tall monument The Motherland Calls! — the tallest statue in the world when erected in 1967 Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев Курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in southern Russia. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... For other uses, see Monument (disambiguation). ... The 52-meter-tall monument The Motherland Calls! — the tallest statue in the world when erected in 1967 Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев Курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in southern Russia. ... This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... Pavlovs House in Stalingrad Pavlovs House (дом Павлова—dom Pavlova in Russian) became the name of a well-defended apartment building during the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942–1943. ...


On the other side, the German Army showed remarkable discipline after being surrounded. It was the first time that it had operated under adverse conditions on such a scale. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ...


Hitler, acting on Göring's advice, ordered that the German 6th Army be supplied by air; the Luftwaffe had successfully accomplished an aerial resupply in January 1942, as a German garrison had been surrounded in Demyansk for four months. In this case, however, there were obvious differences. The encircled forces at Demyansk were a much smaller garrison, while an entire army was trapped in Stalingrad.


During the latter part of the siege, short of food and clothing, many German soldiers starved or froze to death.[21] Yet, discipline was maintained until the very end, when resistance no longer served any useful purpose. Friedrich Paulus obeyed Hitler's orders, against many of Hitler's top generals' counsel and advice including that of von Manstein, and did not attempt to break out of the city. German ammunition, supplies, and food became all too scarce. Friedrich Paulus. ...


Paulus knew that the airlift had failed and that Stalingrad was lost. He asked for permission to surrender to save the life of his troops but Hitler refused and instead promoted him to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall. No German officer of this rank had ever surrendered, and the implication was clear. If Paulus surrendered, he would shame himself and would become the highest ranking German officer ever to be captured. Hitler believed that Paulus would either fight to the last man or commit suicide. Choosing to live, Paulus surrendered, commenting that: "I have no intention of shooting myself for that Bavarian corporal". Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ...


Stalingrad in the media

The extreme conditions of the battle, including the paralyzing Soviet winter that precipitated massive German fatalities due to starvation and freezing, have been immortalized in several films of German, Russian, and American origin. The struggle is also remembered and reflected upon in numerous books, for its significance in thwarting the German invasion, as well as its significance as a landmark of military barbarism and human suffering in which the loss of life was unprecedented. The battle of Stalingrad (1942), an enormous battle on Eastern front of World War 2, has inspired various films, books, and games. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von...


See also

Combatants Romania Germany Hungary Italy Soviet Union Commanders Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Georgy Zhukov Strength Romanian Third Army-152,492 men Romanian Fourth Army-75,580 men 10,819 artillery pieces 1,183 tanks 790 airplanes Casualties 158,854 men dead, wounded or missing  ? This article is a detailed picture... The Italian war in the Soviet Union, 1941-1943, began as part of Italys involvement in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. ... See also the history of Europe, the history of present-day nations and states, Hungary before the Magyars, and Hungary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... List of officers and commanders of the German Wehrmacht, the Russian Red Army, Romanian Army, Italian army and Hungarian Army in the Battle of Stalingrad. ...

References

  1. ^ Glantz
  2. ^ This force grew to 1,600 in early September by withdrawing forces from the Kuban region and Southern Caucasus: Hayward, p195
  3. ^ Bergström 2007, p.72.
  4. ^ J. S. A Hayward 1998, p. 225.
  5. ^ Bergstrom 2005, p. 87.
  6. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 72.
  7. ^ J. S. A Hayward 1998, p. 224.
  8. ^ Bergstom 2007, p. 122-123.
  9. ^ Figures of losses of 28 June- 19 November were for the Don-Stalingrad area)
  10. ^ Bergstrom 2005, p. 86.
  11. ^ Bergström 2005, p. 126.
  12. ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. 
  13. ^ A.J.P Taylor & Alan Clark 1974, p. 144.
  14. ^ Gilbert Villahermosa, The Reichsmarschall's Revelations, World War II Magazine,September 2006
  15. ^ McDonald 1986, p. 94.
  16. ^ Craig 1973, p. 25, p. 48.
  17. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 69.
  18. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 122.
  19. ^ Pojić, Milan. Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941. - 1943.. Croatian State Archives. Zagreb, 2007.
  20. ^ Beevor 1998, p106
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i Beevor, Antony [1999]. Stalingrad (in English). Viking Press, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024985-0 (Pbk). 
  22. ^ Bergström 2007, p.73.
  23. ^ Bergström quotes: Soviet Reports on the effects of air raids between 23-26 August 1942. This indicates 955 people were killed and another 1,181 wounded
  24. ^ Bergström 2007, p.74.
  25. ^ stalingrad-info.com/stalingrad1942.htm.
  26. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 75.
  27. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 80.
  28. ^ Craig 1973
  29. ^ WW2 Snipers
  30. ^ Snipers
  31. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 83.
  32. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 84.
  33. ^ Hayward 1998, p.195.
  34. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 82.
  35. ^ Golovanov 2004, p. 265.
  36. ^ 8,314 German aircraft were produced from July-December 1942, but this could not keep pace with an attritional three front aerial war
  37. ^ pp.108-119, Glantz, Soviet Military Deception
  38. ^ pp.209-211, Haupt, Army Group South
  39. ^ www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/Maps.html#map17.
  40. ^ von Manstein, Erich; Powell, Anthony G.; Hart, B. H. Liddell; Blumenson, Martin (2004)
  41. ^ Pojić, Milan. Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941. - 1943.. Croatian State Archives. Zagreb, 2007.
  42. ^ J. Hayward 1998, p. 234.
  43. ^ J. Hayward 1998, p.310
  44. ^ Craig 1973
  45. ^ J. Hayward 1998, p.310.
  46. ^ Bergström 2007, p. 122.
  47. ^ Bergström 2007, p.96-97
  48. ^ MacDonald 1986, p. 98.
  49. ^ Gefr. Michael Deiml Meine Stalingradeinsätze. Einsätze des Bordmechanikers Gefr. Michael Deiml.
  50. ^ Pojić, Milan. Hrvatska pukovnija 369. na Istočnom bojištu 1941. - 1943.. Croatian State Archives. Zagreb, 2007.
  51. ^ Stalingrad - OSA III - Stalingradin taistelu päättyy. Retrieved on 2007-07-16.
  52. ^ Craig 1973
  53. ^ Rayfield 2004, p.396.
  54. ^ J W. Baird, 1969, pp. 196.
  55. ^ Beevor 1998, pp. 430
  56. ^ Jorg Bernig, 1997, pp. 36
  57. ^ http://www.hrono.info/sobyt/1900sob/1942stal.html
  58. ^ http://www.hrono.info/sobyt/1900sob/1942stal.html

Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... A. J. P. Taylor (March 25, 1906 - September 7, 1990) (full name Alan John Percivale Taylor) was a renowned British historian of the 20th century. ... Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (13 April 1928 - 5 September 1999) was a British Conservative politician, historian and diarist. ... Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Viking Press was founded on March 1, 1925, in New York City, by Harold K. Guinzburg and George S. Oppenheim. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Bergström, Christer, (2007), Stalingrad - The Air Battle: 1942 through January 1943, Chevron Publishing Limited ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4
  • Baird, Jay W, (1969), Journal of Contemporary History, The Myth of Stalingrad, Sage Publications, Ltd.
  • Beevor, Antony (1998). "Stalingrad" or "Stalingrad: The Fateful Siege: 1942–1943" (In the US). New York: Viking, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-670-87095-1); London: Penguin Books, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-028458-3).
  • Bernig,Jorg (1997). Eingekesselt: Die Schlacht um Stalingrad im deutschsprachigen Roman nach 1945: (German Life and Civilization Journal No 23), : Peter Lang publishers.
  • Clark, Alan, Barbarossa (1965)
  • Craig, William (1973). Enemy at the Gates: the Battle for Stalingrad. New York: Penguin Books (ISBN 0-14-200000-0 & ISBN 1-56852-368-8).
  • Dibold, Hans. Doctor at Stalingrad. Littleton, CO: Aberdeen, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-9713852-1-1).
  • Einsiedel, Heinrich Graf von; Wieder, Joachim. Stalingrad: Memories and Reassessments. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 1-85409-460-2); London: Cassell, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-304-36338-3).
  • Erickson, John. The Road to Stalingrad: Stalin's War with Germany, Vol. 1. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984 (hardcover, ISBN 0-86531-744-5); New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1985 (hardcover, ISBN 0-586-06408-7); New Haven, CT; London: Yale University Press, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-300-07812-9); London: Cassell, 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-304-36541-6).
  • Golovanov, A.Ye.(2004) Dalnyaya bombardirovochnaya. Delta NB, Moscow.
  • Hayward, Joel S.A. Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, *1942–1943 (Modern War Studies). University Press of Kansas, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7006-0876-1); 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-7006-1146-0).
  • Holl, Adelbert. An Infantryman In Stalingrad: From 24 September 1942 to 2 February 1943. Pymble, NSW, Australia: Leaping Horseman Books, 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-9751076-1-5).
  • Hoyt, Edwin Palmer. 199 Days: The Battle for Stalingrad. New York: A Forge Book, 1999 (paperback, ISBN 0-312-86853-7).
  • Mayer, SL & Taylor, AJP (1974). History of World War II. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 0706403991 & ISBN 978-0706403992
  • MacDonald, John. (1986) Great Battles of World War II. London: Michael Joseph books.
  • Raus, Erhard. Panzer Operations: The Eastern Front Memoir of General Raus, 1941–1945, compiled and translated by Steven H. Newton. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003 (hardcover, ISBN 0-306-81247-9); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0-306-81409-9).
  • Rayfield, Donald. Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him. New York: Random House, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-375-50632-2); 2005 (paperback, ISBN 0375757716).
  • Reviewed by David R. Snyder in The Journal of Military History, Vol. 69, No. 1. (2005), pp. 265–266.
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. Victory at Stalingrad: The Battle that Changed History. New York: Longman, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-582-77185-4).
  • Samsonov A.M., Stalingrad Battle, 4th ed. re-edited and added-to, Moscow, Science publishing, 1989. Russian: Самсонов А.М. Сталинградская битва, 4-е изд., испр. и доп.— М.: Наука, 1989. [1] (in Russian)
  • Taylor, A.J.P. and Mayer, S.L., eds. A History Of World War Two. London: Octopus Books, 1974. ISBN 0-70640-399-1.
  • von Manstein, Erich; Powell, Anthony G.; Hart, B. H. Liddell; Blumenson, Martin (2004). Lost Victories: The War Memoirs of Hitler's Most Brilliant General. Zenith Press. ISBN 0-7603-2054-3

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alan Kenneth Mackenzie Clark (13 April 1928 - 5 September 1999) was a British Conservative politician, historian and diarist. ... Donald Rayfield is professor of Russian and Georgian at the University of London. ... Stalin and His Hangmen: An Authoritative Portrait of a Tyrant and Those Who Served Him[1] by Donald Rayfield, also reprinted with a different subtitle: Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, is a political biography of Joseph Stalin and file people who were in...

External links

  • Detailed summary of campaign
  • Stalingrad Battle 1942–1943
  • Information, Photos, and Original Maps of the Battle
  • Stalingrad-info.com, many Pictures from the battle and the city
  • Volgograd State Panoramic Museum official homepage
  • (Russian) Stalingrad Battle This site is sponsored by the main historical and culture organizations of Volgograd.
  • The Battle of Stalingrad in Film and History Written with strong Socialist/Communist political under and overtones.
  • The Battle of Stalingrad The Battle of Stalingrad in detail.
  • Soviet Artilleryman's Story Of Stalingrad: Isaak Kobylyanskiy
  • Roberts, Geoffrey. "Victory on the Volga", The Guardian, February 28, 2003
  • Operation Blau (Serbian)
  • Battle of Stalingrad (Serbian)
  • The Soviet counter-offensive: Operation Uranus (Serbian)
  • Disaster of 6th Army (Serbian)
  • The Great Battle on the Volga on Google Video
  • German Newsreels of the Battle of Stalingrad on Youtube


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
::The Battle of Stalingrad:: (991 words)
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians to have been the turning point in World War Two in Europe.
The battle at Stalingrad bled the German army dry in Russia and after this defeat, the Germany Army was in full retreat.
The Battle for Stalingrad was fought during the winter of 1942 to 1943.
The Battle Of Stalingrad (2806 words)
It was the stubborn battle to occupy the city itself to the last ruined meter, and later Hitler's refusal to retreat from Stalingrad, that cost him his entire southern campaign, and horrible losses to both sides.
Stalingrad's defenders were informed that the secret police guards all crossing points on the Volga, and everyone crossing the river without permission will be shot on the spot.
One unit which perhaps sacrificed most in the battle of Stalingrad was the elite 13th Guards division, which was sent across the Volga into Stalingrad just in time to repel a German attack that reached the Volga near the center of the city.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m