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Encyclopedia > Battle of Smolensk (1943)
Second Battle of Smolensk
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

Soviet civilians in their ruined house in Smolensk.
Date 7 August 19432 October 1943
Location Smolensk region, USSR
Result Decisive Soviet victory
Combatants
Axis Soviet Union
Commanders
Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko,
Vasily Sokolovsky
Strength
850,000 men,
8,800 guns,
500 tanks,
700 planes[1]
1,253,000 men,
20,640 guns,
1,430 tanks,
1,100 planes[1]
Casualties
(Soviet est.)
~200,000–250,000 killed, wounded or captured[2]
450,000 killed, wounded or captured[3][4]
Eastern Front
BarbarossaFinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Belorussia – Lvov-Sandomierz – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPrague

The second Battle of Smolensk (7 August 19432 October 1943), also known as Operation Suvorov, was a major World War II offensive by the Red Army in western Russia. Staged almost simultaneously with the Battle of the Dnieper, the offensive lasted 2 months and was led by Generals Andrei Yeremenko and Vasily Sokolovsky. It was aimed at clearing the German presence from the Smolensk and Bryansk regions. Smolensk had been under German occupation since the first Battle of Smolensk in 1941. The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Image File history File links Soviet_civilians_in_a_ruined_Smolensk. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hans Günther von Kluge (October 30, 1882–August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union... Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Sokolovsky Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near Bialystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... Combatants Germany, Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Filipp Oktyabrskiy, Ivan Petrov Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Georgiy Zhukov Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... During World War II, Operation Bagration was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Nazis from Belarus which resulted in the destruction of the German Army Group Centre, possibly the greatest defeat for the Wehrmacht during the war. ... The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was the general attack by Soviet forces to clear the Germans from Ukraine. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Weidling Helmuth Reymann Wilhelm Mohnke Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Koniev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Strength 1,000,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 3,300 aircraft 2,500,000 men, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery Casualties 150,000–173... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Andrei Yeremenko Andrei Ivanovich Yeremenko (Yeryomenko, Андрей Иванович Ерёменко) (October 14, 1892 - November 19, 1970) Soviet general during World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union... Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Sokolovsky Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky (Russian: Василий Данилович Соколовский) (July 21, 1897 - May 10, 1968), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in Kozliki, a small town in the province of Grodno, near Bialystok in Poland (then part of the Russian Empire). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ...


Despite an impressive German defense, the Red Army was able to stage several breakthroughs, liberating several major cities including Smolensk and Roslavl. They moved into occupied Belorussia. However, the overall advance was quite modest and slow in the face of heavy German resistance, and the operation was therefore accomplished in three stages: August 7–20, August 21–September 6, and September 7–October 2. A church in Roslavl. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия)) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ...


Although playing a major military role in its own right, the Smolensk Operation was also important for its effect on the Battle of the Dnieper. It has been estimated that as many as fifty-five German divisions were committed to counter the Smolensk Operation — divisions which would have been critical to prevent Soviet troops from crossing the Dnieper in the south. In the course of the operation the Red Army also definitively drove back German forces from the Smolensk land bridge, historically the most important approach for a western attack on Moscow. This article is about the river. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ...

Contents

Context of the offensive

See also: Panther-Wotan line

By the end of the Battle of Kursk in July 1943, the Wehrmacht had lost all hope of regaining the initiative on the Eastern Front. Losses were considerable and the whole army was less effective than before, as many of its experienced soldiers had fallen during the previous two years of fighting. This left the Wehrmacht capable of only reacting to Soviet moves. The Panther-Wotan Line: In 1918 the German army built the famous Hindenburg defensive line on the western front. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Wehrmacht troops of the Heer (military land forces) marching at a military parade in honour of the 50th birthday of Adolf Hitler, on April 20th, 1939. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. ...


On the Soviet side, Stalin was determined to pursue the liberation of occupied territories from German control, a course of action that had started at the end of 1942 with Operation Uranus, which led to the liberation of Stalingrad. The Battle of the Dnieper was to achieve the liberation of the Ukraine and push the southern part of the front towards the west. However, in order to weaken the German defenses even further, the Smolensk operation was staged simultaneously, in a move that would also draw German reserves north, thereby weakening the German defense on the southern part of the front. Both operations were a part of the same strategic offensive plan, aiming to recover as much Soviet territory from German control as possible The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city in and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ...


Thirty years later, Marshal Vasilevsky (Chief of the General Staff in 1943) wrote in his memoirs: This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... As a literary genre, a memoir (from the Latin memoria, meaning penial) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...

This plan, enormous both in regard of its daring and of forces committed to it, was executed through several operations: the Smolensk operation, …the Donbass [Operation], the left-bank Ukraine operation…[5]

Geography

Map of the Smolensk operation and related offensives
Map of the Smolensk operation and related offensives

The territory on which the offensive was to be staged was a slightly hilly plain covered with ravines and possessing significant areas of swamps and forests that restricted military movement. Its most important hills reached heights of 250 to 270 meters (750–800 ft), sometimes even more, allowing for improved artillery defense. In 1943, the area was for the most part covered with pine and mixed forests and thick bushes.[6] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 176 KB) Summary Map of the Dnieper battle and connected operations in 1943 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1256x956, 176 KB) Summary Map of the Dnieper battle and connected operations in 1943 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


Numerous rivers also passed through the area, the most important of them being the Western Dvina, Dnieper, Desna, Volost' and Ugra rivers. None of these rivers were especially wide at 10 to 120 meters (30 to 260 ft) respectively, nor deep at 40 to 250 cm (1 to 8 ft) respectively; but the surrounding wide, swamp-like areas proved difficult to cross, especially for mechanized troops. Moreover, like many south-flowing rivers in Europe, the Dnieper's western bank, which was held by German troops, was higher and steeper than the eastern. There were very few available bridges or ferries.[7] River Daugava flowing through Riga city into the Baltic Sea The Daugava or Western Dvina (Latvian: Daugava, German Düna, Belarusan: Заходняя Дзьвіна, Russian: За́падная Двина́, Finnish Väinä) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills, flowing through Russia and Belarus, and then Latvia, draining into the Gulf of Riga, an arm of... This article is about the river. ... Desna () is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of the Dnieper. ... Volost or volost (Russian: ) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Russia. ... Ugra is a river in Smolensk and Kaluga Oblasts in Russia, left tributary of Oka river. ...


Transport infrastructure

For the Soviet troops, the offensive was further complicated by a lack of adequate transport infrastructure in the area in which the offensive was to be staged. The road network was not well developed, and paved roads were rare. After rainfall, which was quite common during the Russian summer, most of them were turned into mud (a phenomenon known as rasputitsa), greatly slowing down any advance of mechanized troops, and raising logistical issues as well. As for railroads, the only major railroad axis available for Soviet troops was the Rzhev - Vyazma - Kirov line. The rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица) is the twice annual flooding of Belarus, western Russia and the Ukraine. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... Vyazma (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River, about halfway between Smolensk and Mozhaysk, at , . Throughout its turbulent history, the city defended western approaches to the city of Moscow. ... Kirov can refer to: Sergey Kirov, Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet communist The north-eastern European Russian city Kirov, center of Kirov Oblast The Soviet warship Kirov, now of the Russian Navy, lead ship of the Kirov class of battlecruisers. ...


On the other hand, the Wehrmacht controlled a much wider network of roads and railroads, centered on Smolensk and Roslavl. These two cities were important logistical centers, allowing quick supply and reinforcements for German troops. By far the most important railroads for German troops were the Smolensk - Bryansk axis and the Nevel - Orsha - Mogilev axis, linking German western troops with troops concentrated around Oryol.[7] Wehrmacht troops of the Heer (military land forces) marching at a military parade in honour of the 50th birthday of Adolf Hitler, on April 20th, 1939. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... A church in Roslavl. ... The Cheat Commandos is a fictional cartoon series and line of action figures in the universe of the animated cartoon series Homestar Runner. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... Nevel (Russian: ) is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on Lake Nevel some 242 km southeast of Pskov. ... Orsha (Belarusian: Во́рша; Russian: О́рша; Polish: Orsza) is a city in Belarus, an important railway node along the Minsk–Moscow line. ... Mogilev, or MahiloÅ­ (Belarusian Магілёў (Mahilyow), Russian Могилёв (Mogilev, Mogilyov), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... Oryol or Orel (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, administrative center of Oryol Oblast. ...


German defense setup

A set of German antitank devices set up in wooded hills, part of the extensive defences the Germans had created around Smolensk
A set of German antitank devices set up in wooded hills, part of the extensive defences the Germans had created around Smolensk

The front had been more or less stable for four to five months (and up to 18 months in several places) before the battle, and possessed geographical features favorable for a strong defensive setup. Thus, German forces had time to build extensive defensive positions, numbering as much as five or six defensive lines in some places, for a total depth extending from 100 to 130 kilometers (60–80 mi).[8] Image File history File links A_german_set_of_antitank_devices. ... Image File history File links A_german_set_of_antitank_devices. ...


The first (tactical or outer) defensive zone included the first (main) and the second defense lines, for a total depth varying between 12 and 15 kilometers (7–9 mi), and located, whenever possible, on elevated ground. The main defense line, 5 kilometers deep, possessed three sets of trenches and firing points, linked by an extensive communication network. The density of firing points reached 6 or 7 per kilometers (0.6 mi) of front line. In some places, where heavy tank attacks were feared, the third set of trenches was in fact a solid antitank moat with a steep western side integrating artillery and machine guns emplacements. The forward edge of the battle area was protected by three lines of barbed wire and a solid wall of minefields.[9] Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... A selection of forms of barbed wire. ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ...


The second defense zone, located about 10 kilometers (6 mi) behind the outer defense zone and covering the most important directions, was composed of a set of firing points connected with trenches. It was protected with barbed wire, and also with minefields in some places where heavy tank offensives were anticipated. Between the outer and the second defense zones, a set of small firing points and garrisons was also created in order to slow down a Soviet advance should the Red Army break through the outer defense zone. Behind the second zone, heavy guns were positioned. For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but...


Finally, deep behind the front line, three or four more defense lines were located, whenever possible, on the western shore of a river. For instance, important defense lines were set up on the western side of the Dnieper and Desna. Additionally, the main urban centers located on the defense line (such as Yelnya, Dukhovshchina and Spas-Demensk), were reinforced and fortified, preparing them for a potentially long fight. Roads were mined and covered with antitank devices and firing points were installed in the most important and tallest buildings. Desna () is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of the Dnieper. ... Coat of Arms of Yelnya Yelnya (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, situated on the Desna River 82 km from Smolensk. ... Dukhovshchina (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vostitsa River some 57 km northeast of Smolensk, at It is the administrative center of Dukhovshchinsky District. ... Spas-Demensk (Russian: ) is a town in Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Demena River (an arm of the Ugra River) some 197 km west of Kaluga. ...


Front line shape and location

A detail of the Smolensk offensive, showing the concave shape of the Soviet front line
A detail of the Smolensk offensive, showing the concave shape of the Soviet front line

As of July 1943, the Soviet front line on the Eastern Front had a concave shape with a re-entrant centered around Oryol, creating for German troops the risk of being exposed to flank attacks from the north. As the result, a significant number of divisions of Army Group Center were kept on this part of the front because of a (quite legitimate) fear of a major offensive in this sector. Image File history File links Map_detail_of_smolensk_operation. ... Image File history File links Map_detail_of_smolensk_operation. ... In military terms, a salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ...


For instance, at the end of July 1943, a German staff briefing stated:

On the front… held by the Army Group Center many signs show a continuous preparation to a yet limited offensive (Roslavl, Smolensk, Vitebsk) and of a maneuver of immobilization of the Army Group Center…[9]

Therefore, the offensive promised to be quite difficult for Soviet troops.


First stage (7 August – 20 August)

Main breakthrough

General layout of Smolensk region during the battle
General layout of Smolensk region during the battle

After a day of probing, the goal of which was to determine whether German troops would choose to withdraw or not from the first set of trenches, the offensive started on 7 August 1943 at 06:30 am (with a preliminary bombardment starting at 04:40 am) with a breakthrough towards Roslavl. Three armies were committed to this offensive: the 5th Army, the 10th Guards Army and the 33rd Army. Image File history File links General_map_of_smolensk_region. ... Image File history File links General_map_of_smolensk_region. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... A church in Roslavl. ...


However, the attack quickly encountered heavy opposition and stalled. German troops attempted numerous counterattacks from their well-prepared defense positions, supported by tanks, assault guns, and the fire of heavy guns and mortars. As Konstantin Rokossovsky recalls, "we literally had to tear ourselves through German lines, one by one".[10] On the first day, the Soviet troops advanced only 4 kilometers (2.5 mi),[11] with all available troops (including artillery, communications men and engineers) committed to battle.[12] Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. ...


Despite violent Soviet attacks, it quickly became obvious that the three armies would not be able to get through the German lines. Therefore, it was decided to commit the 68th Army, kept in reserve, to battle. On the German side, three additionnal divisions (2nd Panzer Division, 36th Infantry Division and 56th Infantry Division) were sent to the front from the Oryol sector to try and stop the Soviet advance. The 2nd Panzer Division () was created in 1935, and stationed in Austria after the Anschluss. ...


The following day, the attack resumed, with another attempt at a simultaneous breakthrough taking place further north, towards Yartzevo. Both attacks were stopped in their tracks by heavy German resistance. In the following five days, Soviet troops slowly made their way through German defenses, repelling heavy counterattacks and sustaining heavy losses. By feeding reserve troops to battle, the Red Army managed to advance to a depth varying from 15 to 25 kilometers (10–15 mi) by 11 August.[13] A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Subsequent attacks by the armored and cavalry forces of the 6th Guards Cavalry Corps had no further effect and resulted in heavy casualties because of strong German defenses, leading to a stalemate. Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... Stalemate is a situation in chess where the player whose turn it is to move has no legal moves but is not in check. ...


Spas-Demensk offensive

A destroyed German bunker, showing shell impacts in its steel plating
A destroyed German bunker, showing shell impacts in its steel plating

Near Spas-Demensk, things went a little better for the 10th Army. In this area, the Wehrmacht had fewer troops and only limited reserves, enabling the 10th Army to break through German lines and advance 10 kilometers in two days. Image File history File links A_destroyed_german_bunker. ... Image File history File links A_destroyed_german_bunker. ...


However, the 5th Mechanized Corps, relocated from Kirov and committed to battle in order to exploit the breakthrough, failed in its mission, mainly because a poorly organized anti-aircraft defense enabled German dive bombers to attack Soviet tank formations with a certain degree of impunity. The corps sustained heavy losses and had to pull away from combat. Eventually, Soviet troops advanced a further 25 kilometers (15 mi) as of 13 August, liberating Spas-Demensk.[14] Soviet emblem of Kirov incorporates a bow as its former coat of arms. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ...


Dukhovshchina offensive

As ordered by the Stavka (the Soviet Armed Forces Command), the offensive near Dukhovshchina started almost a week later, on 13 August. However, as on other parts of the front, the 39th and 43rd armies encountered very serious opposition. During the first day alone, German troops attempted 24 regimental-sized counterattacks, supported by tanks, assault guns, and aviation.[15] Stavka is an abbreviation for Shtab vierhovnogo komandovania, or General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... A counterattack is a military tactic used by defending forces when under attack by an enemy force. ... The Brummbar was a German assault gun used in World War II An assault gun is an armoured fighting vehicle similar to a tank, but typically does not have a traversable turret, and may have an open roof. ...


During the next five days, Soviet troops managed to advance only 6 to 7 kilometers (3 to 4 mi), and although they inflicted heavy casualties on German troops, their own losses were also heavy.[16]


Causes of the stalemate

By mid-August, Soviet operations all along the Smolensk front stabilized. The resulting stalemate, while not a defeat per se, was stinging for Soviet commanders, who provided several explanations for their failure to press forward. Deputy Chief of General Staff General A. I. Antonov reported "We have to deal both with forests and swamps and with increasing resistance of enemy troops reinforced by divisions arriving from Bryansk region"[17] while Marshal Nikolai Voronov, formerly a Stavka member, analysed the stalemate in his memoirs, publishing what he saw as the eight primary causes:[18] Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Russia-related stubs | People stubs | Military of the Soviet Union ... Nikolai Nikolayevich Voronov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Воронов) (April 23 (N.S. May 5), 1899, Petersburg - February 28, 1968, Moscow) was a Soviet military leader, Chief Marshal of Artillery (1944), and Hero of the Soviet Union (May 7, 1965). ...

  1. The German command knew about the operation and was prepared for it.
  2. German defense lines were exceptionally well prepared (firing points reinforced by trenches, barbed wire, minefields etc.)
  3. Several Soviet rifle divisions were insufficiently prepared to perform an assault of a multi-lined defense setup. This was especially true for reserve divisions, whose training was not always properly supervised.
  4. There were not enough tanks committed to battle, forcing Soviet commanders to rely on artillery, mortars and infantry to break through German lines. Moreover, numerous counterattacks and an abundance of minefields slowed down the infantry's progress.
  5. The interaction between regiments and divisions was far from perfect. There were unexpected pauses during the attack and a strong will of some regiments to "hide" from the attack and expose another regiment.
  6. Many Soviet commanders were too impressed by German counterattacks and failed to act properly, even if their own troops outnumbered those of the Wehrmacht.
  7. The infantry were not using their own weapons (such as their own heavy guns and portable mortars) well enough. They relied too much on artillery.
  8. The fact that the offensive was postponed from 3 August to 7 August gave German troops more time to increase their readiness.

All these factors considered, Voronov demanded that the 4th Tank Army and the 8th Artillery Corps were transferred from the Bryansk Front and instead committed to support the attack near Smolensk.[19] US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a group of battalions, usually four and commanded by a colonel. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... The Bryansk Front was a Front (i. ...


The stalemate was far from what had been desired by the Stavka, but it had at least one merit: it tied down as much as 40% of all German divisions on the Eastern Front near Smolensk, making the task for troops fighting in the south and near Kursk much easier.[20] The Stavka planned to resume the offensive on 21 August, but decided to postpone it slightly to give Soviet units time to resupply and reinforce.[21] Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Second stage (21 August – 6 September)

By mid-August, the situation on the Eastern Front had changed as the Red Army started a general offensive, beginning with the Kursk counteroffensive Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev and continuing with the Battle of the Dnieper in the south. Nevertheless, the Wehrmacht command was still reinforcing its troops around Smolensk and Roslavl, withdrawing several divisions from the Oryol region. As the result, the Kursk counteroffensive proceeded relatively easily around Oryol, creating a large salient south of Smolensk and Bryansk. Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 500 tanks 200... Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev (literally: Commander Rumyantsev, after 18th-century Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev) was a military operation conducted by the Red Army in its fight against the German Wehrmacht during World War II. The operation was conducted by Steppe Front in the Belgorod sector. ...


In this situation, the former attack axis, directed southwest towards Roslavl and Bryansk, became useless. The Stavka decided instead to shift the attack axis west to Yelnya and Smolensk.[22]


Yelnya offensive

A camouflaged Ilyushin Il-2 ground attack aircraft sitting on its base.
Enlarge
A camouflaged Ilyushin Il-2 ground attack aircraft sitting on its base.

Yelnya was considered a "key" to Smolensk, and therefore German troops created a massive defense setup around the city. Swampy areas on the Desna and Ugra rivers were mined and heavy guns set up on hills overlooking the city. During the week from 20 August to 27 August, the Soviet armies were reinforced with tanks and artillery. Image File history File links A_camouflaged_Il-2_ground_attack_aircraft. ... Image File history File links A_camouflaged_Il-2_ground_attack_aircraft. ... Anolis caroliensis showing blending camouflage and counter-shading. ... The Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik (Russian: ) was a ground attack aircraft of World War II, and was produced by the Soviet Union in huge numbers; in combination with its successor, the Il-10, a total of 36,163 were built. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Coat of Arms of Yelnya Yelnya (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, situated on the Desna River 82 km from Smolensk. ... Desna () is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of the Dnieper. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ...


The offensive finally commenced on 28 August by three armies (10th Guards, 21st and 33rd), supported by three Tank and Mechanized corps and the 1st Air Army. These three armies were covering a front of only 36 kilometers (22 mi), forming a very strong concentration of troops. However, the troops lacked fuel and supplies, with enough supplies for only one or two weeks.[23] August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... A Mechanized Corps was a Soviet armoured formation used since before the beginning of World War II. // In Soviet Russia, the so-called armored forces (Bronevyye sily) preceded the mechanized corps. ...


After an intense shelling that lasted 90 minutes, Soviet troops moved forward. The artillery bombardment as well as ground attack aircraft softened German lines, allowing the Red Army to execute a breakthrough on a 25 kilometer (15 mi) front and advance 6 to 8 kilometers (4–5 mi) by the end of the day. The following day, 29 August, Soviet rifle divisions advanced further, creating a salient 30 kilometers (19 mi) wide and 12 to 15 kilometers (7–9 mi) deep.[24] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ...


In order to exploit the breakthrough, the 2nd Guards Tank Corps was thrown into battle. In one day, its troops advanced by 30 kilometers (19 mi) and reached the outskirts of Yelnya. Leaving the Germans no time to regroup their forces, Soviet troops attacked the city and started to surround it. On 30 August, German forces were forced to abandon Yelnya, sustaining heavy casualties. This started a full-scale German retreat from the area. By 3 September, Soviet forces reached the eastern shore of the Dnieper. The 2nd Guards Tank Corps (honorific Tatsin) was a Red Army armoured formation that saw service during World War II on the Eastern Front. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bryansk maneuver

Near Bryansk, things went equally well, despite heavy German resistance. However, an identified weakness changed all the previous plans. A surprisingly easy capture of several hills commanding the Dubrovka region north of Bryansk, with numerous German soldiers captured in total absence of battle readiness, came to the attention of General Markian Popov, commander of the Bryansk Front from June to October 1943.[25] This meant that the Soviet offensive was probably not expected along that particular axis. Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... Markian Mikhailovich Popov (Маркиан Михайлович Попов) (1902-1969) was a Soviet military commaner, Army General (1953), Hero of the Soviet Union (1965). ...


Therefore, the boundary between the Belorussian Front and the Western Front was shifted south, and two "new" armies executed a single-pincer movement to Dubrovka and around Bryansk, forcing German forces to withdraw.[26] The Western Front was a military subdivision of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the World War II. The term is not to be confused with the general notion of the front in Western direrection. Categories: Russia-related stubs | Soviet fronts ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ...


By 6 September, the offensive slowed down almost to a halt on the entire front, with Soviet troops advancing only 2 kilometers (1 mi) each day. On the right flank, heavy fighting broke out in the woods near Yartzevo. On the center, advancing Soviet troops hit the Dnieper defense line. On the left flank, Soviet rifle divisions were slowed as they entered forests southwest of Yelnya. Moreover, Soviet divisions were tired and depleted, at less than 60% nominal strength. On 7 September, the offensive was stopped, and the second stage of the Smolensk operation was over.[27] September 6 is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years). ... Coat of Arms of Yelnya Yelnya (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, situated on the Desna River 82 km from Smolensk. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ...


Third stage (7 September – 2 October)

Soviet sappers erecting a bridge across northern Dnieper
Soviet sappers erecting a bridge across northern Dnieper

In the week from 7 September to 14 September, Soviet troops were yet again reinforced and were preparing for another offensive. The next objectives set by the Stavka were the major cities of Smolensk, Vitebsk and Orsha. The operation resumed on 14 September, involving the left flank of the Kalinin Front and the Western Front. Once again, after a preliminary artillery bombardment, Soviet troops attempted to break through German lines. Image File history File links Russian_sappers_building_a_bridge_across_dnieper. ... Image File history File links Russian_sappers_building_a_bridge_across_dnieper. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with combat engineering. ... This article is about the river. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Towns in Belarus ... Orsha (Belarusian: Во́рша; Russian: О́рша; Polish: Orsza) is a city in Belarus, an important railway node along the Minsk–Moscow line. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ... The Western Front was a military subdivision of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the World War II. The term is not to be confused with the general notion of the front in Western direrection. Categories: Russia-related stubs | Soviet fronts ...


On the Kalinin Front’s attack sector, the Red Army created a salient 30 kilometers (19 mi) wide and 3 to 13 kilometers (2–8 mi) deep by the end of the day. After four days of battle, Soviet rifle divisions captured Dukhovshchina, another "key" to Smolensk.[28]


On the Western Front's attack sector, where the offensive started one day later, the breakthrough was also promising, with a salient 20 kilometers (12 mi) large and 10 kilometers (6 mi) deep. The same day, Yartzevo, an important railroad hub near Smolensk, was liberated by Soviet troops. On the Western Front's left flank, Soviet rifle divisions reached Desna and force-crossed it, creating several bridgeheads on its western shore.


As the result, the defense line protecting Smolensk was overrun, exposing the troops defending the city to enveloping maneuvers. General Kurt von Tippelskirch, Chief of Staff of the 4th Army during the Smolensk operation and later commander of the 4th Army, later wrote:


"The forces of the Soviet Western Front struck the left wing of Army Group Center from the Dorogobuzh-Yelnya line with the aim of achieving a breakthrough in the direction of Smolensk. It became clear that the salient—projecting far to the east—in which the 9th Army was positioned could no longer be held."[29]


By 19 September, Soviet troops had created a 250 kilometers (150 mi) large and 40 kilometers (25 mi) wide hole in German lines. The following day, the Stavka ordered Western Front troops to advance to Smolensk before 27 September, then to proceed towards Orsha and Mogilev. Kalinin front was ordered to capture Vitebsk before 10 October. September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ...


On 25 September, after a force-crossing of the northern Dnieper and street fighting that lasted all night, Soviet troops liberated the city of Smolensk. The same day, Roslavl, another important city, was recaptured. By 30 September, the Soviet offensive force was tired and depleted, and became bogged down outside Vitebsk, Orsha, and Mogilev, which were still held by the Wehrmacht, and on 2 October the Smolensk operation was over. A limited follow-on was made to successfully capture Nevel after two days of street fighting. Overall, Soviet troops advanced 100 to 180 kilometers (60–110 mi) during the almost 20 days of this third part of the offensive.[30] September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Belarus-related stubs | Towns in Belarus ... Orsha (Belarusian: Во́рша; Russian: О́рша; Polish: Orsza) is a city in Belarus, an important railway node along the Minsk–Moscow line. ... Mogilev, or MahiloÅ­ (Belarusian Магілёў (Mahilyow), Russian Могилёв (Mogilev, Mogilyov), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Nevel (Russian: ) is a town in Pskov Oblast, Russia, located on Lake Nevel some 242 km southeast of Pskov. ...


Aftermath

A sapper searching for mines in the streets of Smolensk
A sapper searching for mines in the streets of Smolensk

The Smolensk operation was a decisive Soviet victory and a stinging defeat for the Wehrmacht. Although quite modest compared to later offensive operations (not more than 200–250 kilometers or 120–150 miles were gained in depth[31]), the Soviet advance during this operation was important from several points of view. Image File history File links A_sapper_searching_for_mines_in_Smolensk. ... Image File history File links A_sapper_searching_for_mines_in_Smolensk. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with combat engineering. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ...


Firstly, German troops were definitively driven back from the Moscow approaches. This strategic threat, which had been the Stavka's biggest source of worries since 1941, was finally removed.


Secondly, German defense rings, on which German troops planned to rely, were almost completely overrun. Quite a few remained, but it was obvious that they would not last. An essay written after the war by several Wehrmacht officers stated that:

Although the vigorous actions of their command and troops allowed the Germans to create a continuous front, there was no doubt that the poor condition of the troops, the complete lack of reserves, and the unavoidable lengthening of individual units' lines concealed the danger that the next major Soviet attack would cause this patchwork front—constructed with such difficulty—to collapse.[32]

Thirdly, as outlined above, the Smolensk Operation was an important "helper" for the Battle of the Dnieper, locking between 40 and 55 divisions near Smolensk and preventing their relocation to the southern front. Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ...

Smolensk streets during the war.
Smolensk streets during the war.

Finally, a once-united German front was now separated by the huge and impassable Pripet marshes, cutting Army Group South off from its northern counterparts, thus greatly reducing the Wehrmacht's abilities to shift troops and supplies from one sector of the front to the other.[33] Image File history File links Smolensk_streets_after_liberation. ... Image File history File links Smolensk_streets_after_liberation. ... poop poop poopy poo poop poopy poo poop Categories: | | | ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ...


For the first time, Soviet troops entered territories which had been occupied for a long time by German soldiers, and discovered war crimes committed by the SS, Einsatzgruppen, and Wehrmacht troops. In the areas liberated during the Smolensk operation (occupied for almost two years), almost all industry and agriculture was gone. In Smolensk oblast itself, almost 80% of urban and 50% of rural living space had been destroyed, along with numerous factories and plants.[6] In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to execute a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...


After the Smolensk offensive, the central part of the Soviet-German front stabilized again for many months until late June 1944, while the major fighting shifted to the south for the Dnieper line and the territory of the Ukraine. Only during January 1944 would the front move again in the north, when German forces were driven back from Leningrad, completely lifting the siege which had lasted for 900 days. Finally, Operation Bagration in summer 1944 allowed the Red Army to clear almost all the remaining territory of the USSR of Wehrmacht troops, ending German occupation and shifting the war into Poland and Germany. Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b A.A. Grechko and al., History of Second World War, Moscow, 1973-1979, tome 7, p.241
  2. ^ V.A. Zolotarev and al., Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 (collection of essays), Moscow, 1998, t.2 p. 473 and following.
  3. ^ Nikolai Shefov, Russian fights, Lib. Military History, Moscow, 2002
  4. ^ David M. Glantz & Jonathan M. House, When Titans Clashed, Modern War Studies, ISBN 0-7006-0899-0, Table B
  5. ^ Marshal A.M. Vasilevsky, The matter of my whole life, Moscow, Politizdat, 1973, p. 327.
  6. ^ a b V.P. Istomin, Smolensk offensive operation, 1943, Moscow, Mil. Lib., 1975, page 15
  7. ^ a b V.P. Istomin, p. 16
  8. ^ Marshal N.N. Voronov, On military duty, Moscow, Lib. Milit. Ed., 1963, pp. 382
  9. ^ a b V.P. Istomin, p. 12
  10. ^ K. Rokossovsky, Soldier's duty, Moscow, Politizdat, 1988, p. 218.
  11. ^ V.P. Istomin, pp. 81-82
  12. ^ V.P. Istomin, p.84
  13. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 84–88
  14. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 92-94
  15. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 94-95
  16. ^ A.A. Grechko and al., History of Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945, Moscow, 1963, t. 3, p. 361.
  17. ^ G.K. Zhukov, Memoirs, Moscow, Ed. APN, 1971, p. 485
  18. ^ Voronov, pp. 387—388
  19. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 101
  20. ^ Operations of Soviet Armed Forces during the Great Patriotic War 1941—1945 (collective work, part written by V.P.Istomin), tome 2, Voenizdat, Moscow, 1958.
  21. ^ Marshal A.I. Yeremenko, Years of retribution, Moscow, Science, 1969, pp. 51—55.
  22. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 104
  23. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 105
  24. ^ V.P.Istomin, p.110.
  25. ^ Voenno-istoricheskiy zhurnal (Military history journal), 1969, #10, p. 31
  26. ^ Voenno-istoricheskiy zhurnal, p. 32
  27. ^ V.P. Istomin, pp. 122-123
  28. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 131
  29. ^ Kurt Tippelskirch, History of Second World War, Moscow, 1957, pp. 320–321
  30. ^ V.P. Istomin, pp. 134–136
  31. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 5
  32. ^ World war 1939–1945 (collection of essays), Moscow, Ed. Foreign Lit., 1957, pp. 216–217.
  33. ^ V.P. Istomin, p. 163

References

  • A.A. Grechko and al., History of Great Patriotic War, 1941—1945, Moscow, 1963
  • A.A. Grechko and al., History of Second World War, Moscow, 1973—1979
  • Kurt Tippelskirch, History of Second World War, Moscow, 1957
  • K. Rokossovsky, Soldier's duty, Moscow, Politizdat, 1988.
  • Marshal A.I. Yeremenko, Years of retribution, Moscow, Science, 1969
  • Marshal A.M. Vasilevsky, The matter of my whole life, Moscow, Politizdat, 1973
  • Marshal N.N. Voronov, On military duty, Moscow, Lib. Milit. Ed., 1963
  • Nikolai Shefov, Russian fights, Lib. Military History, Moscow, 2002
  • V.P. Istomin in Operations of Soviet Armed Forces during the Great Patriotic War 1941—1945, tome 2, Voenizdat, Moscow, 1958
  • V.P. Istomin, Smolensk offensive operation, 1943, Moscow, Mil. Lib., 1975
  • World war 1939—1945 (collection of essays), Moscow, Ed. Foreign Lit., 1957
  • V.A. Zolotarev and al., Great Patriotic War 1941–1945 (collection of essays), Moscow, 1998
  • G.K. Zhukov, Memoirs, Moscow, Ed. APN, 1971

Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ...


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