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Encyclopedia > Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
Part of the American Revolutionary War

Tower at Victory, New York where the surrender occurred. There are pedestals for four American heroes at the base above the doors. One of the pedestals is left empty to signify Benedict Arnold.
Date September 19 & October 7, 1777
Location Saratoga County, New York
Result Decisive American victory
Combatants
British

9th/Hill, 20th/Lynd, 21st/ Hamilton, 62nd/Ansthruter, Simon Fraser This article is about military actions only. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1160x2220, 348 KB) Summary Saratoga Monument at Victory, New York. ... Victory is a village located in Saratoga County, New York. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Saratoga County is a county located in the state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ... General Simon Fraser Simon Fraser (1729 - October 7, 1777, Saratoga, New York) was a British general during the American Revolutionary War who was killed in the Battle of Bemis Heights. ...


Brunswick Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ...


Major Generals V. Riedesel, 1st Brigade (Brunswickers) Brig. Gen. Johann Specht 2nd Brigade (Hesse-Hanau): Brig.-Gen. V. Gall

United States

Col. Daniel Morgan, Capt.Gabriel Long 11th Virginia Regiment; General Enoch Poor 1st NH, 2nd NH, 3rd NH, 2nd NY, 4th NY and Gen. Ebenezer Learned (1st NY, 2nd, 8th and MA 9th John Glover MA Brigade, John Patterson MA Brigade, John Nixon MA Brigade Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ... Gabriel Long was born to Reuben Long and his only wife Mary Harrison in 1751 in Culpeper County, Virginia. ... The 11th Virginia Regiment was raised on September 16, 1776 at Williamsburg, Virginia from Daniel Morgans Independent Rifle Company for service with the (U.S.) Continental Army. ... Enoch Poor (June 21, 1736 – September 8, 1780) was a Brigadier General in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. ... // The 1st New Hampshire Regiment was authorized as New Hampshire State Troops on 22 May 1775 and was organized as ten companies of 800 volunteers from Hillsborough and Rockingham counties of the colony of New Hampshire at Medford, Massachusetts commanded by John Stark and was adopted into the Continental Army... The 2nd New Hampshire Regiment also known as 2nd Continental Regiment was formed in early May, 1775 as the second of three Continental Army regiment raised by the state of New Hampshire during the American Revolutionary War. ... The 3rd New Hampshire Regiment was formed on June 1, 1775 as the third of three Continental Army regiments raised by the state of New Hampshire during the American Revolution. ... The 2nd New York Regiment was raised on May 25, 1775 at New York City, New York for service with the Continental Army under the command of Colonel Philip Van Cortlandt. ... The 4th New York Regiment was raised on May 25, 1775 at Albany, New York for service with the Continental Army. ... Ebenezer Learned (April 18, 1728-April 1, 1801) was a Brigadier General in the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. ... The 1st New York Regiment was raised on May 25, 1775 at Albany, New York for service with the Continental Army under Colonel Van Schaick. ... The 2nd Massachusetts Regiment was raised on April 23, 1775 under Colonel Thomas outside of Boston, Massachusetts. ... The 8th Massachusetts Regiment was raised on April 23, 1775 under Colonel Sargent at Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... The 9th Massachusetts Regiment also known as 26th Continental Regiment was raised on April 23, 1775 under Colonel Gerrish outside of Boston, Massachusetts. ...

Commanders
John Burgoyne # Horatio Gates

Benedict Arnold General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ...

Strength
3,900 German*

3,300 British


650 Canadian and Indian


7,800 Total

  • Brunswick
15,000 Regular Army and Militia from four states
Casualties
1,600 killed, wounded and/or missing, 6,000 captured 800 killed, wounded and/or missing

The Battle of Saratoga in September and October 1777 was a decisive American victory resulting in the surrender of an entire British army of 9,000 men invading New York from Canada during the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Saratoga was actually two battles about 9 miles south of Saratoga, New York, namely the Battle of Freeman's Farm and the Battle of Bemis Heights, as well as the Battle of Bennington, about 15 miles east of Saratoga. The surrender of General John Burgoyne, who was surrounded by much larger American militia forces, took place after his retreat to Saratoga. Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ... Combatants Great Britain United States Commanders John Burgoyne General Arthur St. ... Combatants Continental army Great Britain Brunswick-Luneburg Commanders Seth Warner Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel Strength 1,200 men 850 men 180 Germans Casualties 41 killed, 96 wounded, 234 captured 60 killed, 148 wounded The Battle of Hubbardton was an engagement in the Saratoga campaign of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants British United States Commanders Lt Col. ... Combatants Tryon County militia 40 Oneida Indians Hanau Jager detachment Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Seneca Indians Natives of the Seven Nations of Canada: Mohawks, Abenakis, Algonquins, Nipissings and Hurons Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson, John Butler, Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450+ Casualties... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Saratoga is a town located in Saratoga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,141. ... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ...


The capture of an entire British army secured the northern American states from further attacks out of Canada and prevented New England from being isolated. A major result was that France entered the conflict on behalf of the Americans, thus dramatically improving the Americans' chances in the war. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ...

Contents

Background

Main article: Saratoga campaign

Commanders Horatio Gates John Burgoyne Template:Campaignbox American Revolutionary War: Campaign of 1777 The campaign of 1777 was a series of battles in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War for control of the Hudson River. ...

British strategy

British General John Burgoyne set out with 3,000 red-coated British regulars, 3,900 blue-coated German mercenaries from Brunswick, and 650 Canadians, Tories and Indians from Canada in June. The objective was to reach Albany, New York and there meet up with Colonel Barry St. Leger coming east along the Mohawk River valley with a mixed force of about 600 Tories, Canadians and 1,000 Iroquois Indians, and General William Howe coming up the Hudson valley with a large force from New York City. The result would be control of upstate New York, and isolation of New England. The complex plan required coordination and communication among the three units. General John Burgoyne (February 24, 1722 – August 4, 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. ... Depiction of a British soldier in 1742 Red coat is a term often used to refer to a soldier of the historical British Army, because of the colour of the military uniforms formerly worn by the majority of regiments. ... The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ... Location of the Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire Capital Braunschweig Government Monarchy Duke  - 1813-1815 Frederick William  - 1913-1918 Ernest Augustus History  - Restoration 1815  - Abdication 1918 Area  - 1910 3,672 km² Population  - 1910 est. ... Britannia gives a heros welcome to returning American Loyalists. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... Barrimore Matthew St. ... The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


The British advance beyond the southern ends of Lake Champlain and Lake George was slowed to a few miles per day by Americans who cut down trees to block the forest route. When, on August 1, 1777, Burgoyne's forces finally reached the Hudson River at Fort Edward, he was running out of supplies. On August 11, he detached troops to obtain cattle from the farms near Bennington, Vermont, and other supplies there. The detachment was overwhelmed and defeated by aroused American militia at the Battle of Bennington. Burgoyne continued south and crossed to the west side of the Hudson at Saratoga (now Schuylerville). He marched another 9 miles down the Hudson but was eventually blocked at Stillwater by regular soldiers and militia under General Horatio Gates. Over the course of the summer the American forces had grown to roughly 15,000 men as militia poured in from Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and as far as Virginia. Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long narrow lake at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains, northern New York, USA. The lake extends about 32. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August... Schuylerville is a village in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 1,197 at the 2000 census. ... Stillwater is the name of some places in the United States of America: Stillwater, Minnesota Stillwater, New York Stillwater, Oklahoma Stillwater is the name of several rivers, see Stillwater River. ... Horatio Gates Horatio Lloyd Gates (1727–1806) was an American general during the Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the state. ...


Washington sends reinforcements

Knowing a battle was shaping up, George Washington held Howe's army at Philadelphia and sent aid north. He first dispatched Major General Benedict Arnold , his most aggressive field commander, and Major General Benjamin Lincoln, a Massachusetts man noted for his influence with the New England militia. From the main army in Pennsylvania he ordered 750 men from Putnam's force in the New York highlands to join Gates. Then he put the word out for any available militia groups to form up on Gates. In mid-August he detached forces under Colonel Daniel Morgan of the 11th Virginia Regiment with over 400 specially selected Virginia riflemen, chosen for their sharpshooting ability. Morgan's men were given specific instructions to concentrate on officers and artillerymen. In the battle, the sharpshooters were accurate at well over 200 yards (183 m), but suffered from their long reload times and their lack of bayonets for when the enemy got too close. The Americans eventually learned to mix the sharpshooters with trained men armed with muskets and bayonets to protect them. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Lincoln (1733–1810) was a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ... The 11th Virginia Regiment was raised on September 16, 1776 at Williamsburg, Virginia from Daniel Morgans Independent Rifle Company for service with the (U.S.) Continental Army. ...


Howe's blunder

The original conception of the campaign had been for Burgoyne to advance south via Lake Champlain and Lake George to the Hudson River and then to Albany, where he would meet with the forces of William Howe, advancing north from the British fortress at New York City. This would cut off the New England states from the rest of America. However, Howe decided instead to make a strategically irrelevant assault on the American capital of Philadelphia. In addition, Howe chose to approach the city by sailing the army to Chesapeake Bay rather than marching overland across New Jersey, rendering his army totally unable to come to Burgoyne's aid. On July 23, 1777, Howe and his army set sail and did not return to the mainland until August 25. Howe succeeded in taking Philadelphia, winning victories at Brandywine on Sept. 11 and Germantown on October 4, but the Continental Congress simply retreated to York, Pennsylvania, and evaded capture. Because of the slow and difficult communications of the period, Burgoyne did not hear of this change in Howe's plans for several weeks; by then it was too late. For the surrealist painter, see William Howe (painter). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 10,600 (8,000 present) 17,000 (6,000 present) Casualties 1,200-1,300 casualties 93 killed 488 wounded 6 missing The Battle of Brandywine was a battle of the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought... Combatants United States Kingdom of Great Britain Commanders George Washington William Howe Strength 11,700 8,000 Casualties 152 killed, 521 wounded, 400 captured 71 killed, 450 wounded, 14 missing The Battle of Germantown was a battle in the Philadelphia campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought on October 4... The Continental Congress was the first national government of the United States. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ...

Plan of battlefield of Battle of Saratoga and views of John Neilson's House from south, east and inside that served as the headquarters for the Generals Enoch Poor and Benedict Arnold.
Plan of battlefield of Battle of Saratoga and views of John Neilson's House from south, east and inside that served as the headquarters for the Generals Enoch Poor and Benedict Arnold.

Download high resolution version (3168x4424, 3705 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Saratoga Battle of Freemans Farm Battle of Bemis Heights Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (3168x4424, 3705 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Saratoga Battle of Freemans Farm Battle of Bemis Heights Categories: U.S. history images ... Enoch Poor (June 21, 1736 – September 8, 1780) was a Brigadier General in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ...

Barry St. Leger's retreat

The second major blow to British aims came on August 6, when British reinforcements—about 1,000 Iroquois Indians and 600 Loyalists advancing down the Mohawk River valley—were unable to reach Burgoyne. They were blocked by a successful militia defense of Fort Stanwix near Rome, New York, and the Battle of Oriskany. The 800 American militia in this battle were poorly trained German-Americans and farmers from Tryon County, New York, commanded by General Nicholas Herkimer. This militia was also accompanied by about 40 Oneida Indians. General Herkimer and over 160 local militia lost their lives in this engagement, which lasted almost six hours and included some intense hand-to-hand combat. News of the imminent arrival of General Benedict Arnold and 1,000 reinforcements broke the stalemate. Colonel Barry St. Leger and his forces retreated back up the Mohawk valley to Canada, minus most of their supplies, which were captured by the Fort Stanwix garrison during the fighting at Oriskany. The garrison hauled as much of the supplies as they could inside their fort and destroyed the rest. It was a serious blow to Indian morale when all of their valuables and food disappeared. The Mohawk River is a major waterway in north-central New York, United States. ... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... Rome is a city in Oneida County, New York, United States. ... Combatants Tryon County militia 40 Oneida Indians Hanau Jager detachment Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Seneca Indians Natives of the Seven Nations of Canada: Mohawks, Abenakis, Algonquins, Nipissings and Hurons Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson, John Butler, Chief Joseph Brant Strength 800 450+ Casualties... Tryon County, New York was a county in New York, part of the Province of New York, named after Governor William Tryon. ... Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany, August 6, 1777 Nicholas Herkimer (c. ... The Oneida (Onyotaa:ka or Onayotekaono, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone) are a Native American/First Nations people and comprise one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. ... Barrimore Matthew St. ...


Battles

Battle of Freeman's Farm

Freemans Farm
Freemans Farm

The Battles of Saratoga consisted of two main engagements, the first being the Battle of Freeman's Farm. The British were past Saratoga and advancing on their destination of Albany, and on September 19, 1777, they ran into American forces in a clearing in the woods at Freeman's Farm, 10 miles south of Saratoga. General Benedict Arnold, commanding the left wing of the American forces, ordered Colonel Daniel Morgan and his 400 sharpshooters to assault and harass the British while they were still advancing through the woods in separate columns. Morgan charged aggressively into British General Simon Fraser's column and inflicted severe casualties before being forced back across the field. Arnold sent forward the brigades of General Enoch Poor and General Ebenezer Learned to support Morgan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3069x1824, 905 KB) Summary Freemans Farm at Saratoga. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3069x1824, 905 KB) Summary Freemans Farm at Saratoga. ... Combatants Continental Army Patriot militia Britain Hessian Army Commanders Benedict Arnold Daniel Morgan Henry Dearborn Ebenezer Learned Enoch Poor Simon Fraser Baron von Riedesel James Inglis Hamilton Casualties 300 killed or wounded 600 killed or wounded The Battle of Freemans Farm (September 19, 1777) was the first engagement in... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Daniel Morgan (July 6, 1736 – July 6, 1802) was an American pioneer, soldier, and United States Representative from Virginia. ... General Simon Fraser Simon Fraser (1729 - October 7, 1777, Saratoga, New York) was a British general during the American Revolutionary War who was killed in the Battle of Bemis Heights. ... Enoch Poor (June 21, 1736 – September 8, 1780) was a Brigadier General in the Continental Army in the Revolutionary War. ... Ebenezer Learned (April 18, 1728-April 1, 1801) was a Brigadier General in the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. ...


Burgoyne sent forward James Inglis Hamilton and Fraser to attack the Americans across Freeman's Farm. Arnold's reinforced line repulsed the British attack with heavy losses. By the end of the battle the British and German troops had repulsed one last attack from the Americans, and Arnold was relieved of command. Although they had to relinquish the field, the Americans had halted Burgoyne's advance and inflicted losses the British could not afford. His son used the same name, and was a Colonel who died at the Battle of Waterloo. ...


Burgoyne built redoubts and fortified his current position. Two miles (3 km) to the south, the Americans also built fortifications. A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


Battle of Bemis Heights

Neilson Farm on Bemis Heights
Neilson Farm on Bemis Heights

The second and final engagement of the Battles of Saratoga was known as the Battle of Bemis Heights, which took place on October 7, 1777. Burgoyne made plans to assault the American lines in three columns and drive them from the field. The main assault would be made by the German Brunswickers (called Hessians) under Major General Riedesel against the American forces on Bemis Heights. American General Benjamin Lincoln now commanded the division of Poor's and Learned's brigades positioned on Bemis Heights. Holding their fire until the Brunswick troops were well within range, Poor's brigade devastated the British in the first attack and routed the survivors in a counter attack. Colonel Morgan and his sharpshooters attacked and routed the Canadian infantry and began to engage Fraser's British regulars. Fraser began to rally his division, and Benedict Arnold arrived on the field (despite his prior dismissal) and ordered Morgan to concentrate his fire on the officers, particularly the generals. One of Morgan's sharpshooters fired and mortally wounded Fraser. After finishing on Morgan's front, Arnold next rode to Learned's brigade. Learned's men, facing the Brunswickers' assault, were beginning to falter. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3055x1634, 886 KB) Summary Neilson Farm on Bennis Heights at Saratoga. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3055x1634, 886 KB) Summary Neilson Farm on Bennis Heights at Saratoga. ... The Battle of Bemis Heights on October 7, 1777 is also known as the 2nd Battle of Saratoga since it was the second and last major engagement in the Battle of Saratoga of the American Revolutionary War. ... The term Hessian refers to the inhabitants of the German state of Hesse. ... Friedrich Adolph Riedesel who, like all adult men of his family, carried the title Freiherr (Baron)zu Eisenbach (1738 - 1800) was commander of a regiment of soldiers from the Duchy of Brunswick, who were among the German units hired by the British during the American Revolution. ... Benjamin Lincoln (1733–1810) was a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. ...


Burgoyne's surrender

Painting of the surrender that hangs in the United States Capitol Rotunda.
Painting of the surrender that hangs in the United States Capitol Rotunda.

In the cover of darkness, British forces retreated north, but their attempted retreat to Fort Ticonderoga was blocked by American forces under the command of General Gates. The British were attempting to cross back over to the east side of the Hudson at Saratoga, the same point they had crossed in August, but by then they were surrounded and badly outnumbered. Forty miles (60 km) south of Fort Ticonderoga, with supplies dwindling and winter not far off, Burgoyne had little option. He set up camp at Saratoga and decided to open discussions with the Americans. Image File history File links Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne. ... Image File history File links Surrender_of_General_Burgoyne. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... Fort Ticonderoga is a large 18th century fort built at a strategically important narrows in Lake Champlain where a short traverse gives access to the north end of Lake George in the state of New York, USA. The fort controlled both commonly used trade routes between the English-controlled Hudson...


At first Gates demanded unconditional surrender, which the British general flatly turned down, declaring he would sooner fight to the death. Gates eventually agreed to a "treaty of convention," whereby the British would technically not surrender nor be taken as prisoners but be marched to Boston and returned to England on the condition that they were not to serve again in America. Gates was concerned that a fight to the death with Burgoyne could still prove costly, and he was also concerned about reports of General Sir Henry Clinton advancing from New York to relieve his compatriots stranded at Saratoga. Resplendent in full ceremonial uniform, General Burgoyne led his troops out from his camp on October 17, 1777, and was greeted with formal cordiality by General Gates. Others lay wounded or were helping the large contingent of officers' wives prepare for captivity. General Sir Henry Clinton K.B. Commander-in-Chief of British troops in America. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1777 (MDCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In the grounding of arms at Saratoga, 5,791 men were surrendered. Riedesel had stated that not more than 4,000 of these were fit for duty. The number of Germans surrendering is set down by Eelking at 2,431 men, and of Germans killed, wounded, captured or missing down to October 6, at 1,122 including the losses at Bennington. The total loss of the British and their German auxiliaries, in killed, wounded, prisoners, and deserters, during the campaign, was 9,000 men. Combatants Vermont, militiamen/Green Mountain Boys, Massachusetts, New Hampshire Brunswick, British Army troops, Native Americans Commanders John Stark Friedrich Baum Strength 2,000 1,250 Casualties 40 killed, 30 wounded 207 killed, 700 captured The Battle of Bennington :) was a battle of the American Revolutionary War, taking place on August...


Aftermath

Burgoyne's troops were disarmed and should have been paroled (returned to Britain on the condition that they engage in no further conflict with America), a common 18th century military practice. Instead, the Continental Congress refused to ratify the "convention" (the document detailing the terms of surrender agreed to by Gates and Burgoyne). Though some of the British and German officers were eventually exchanged for captured American officers, most of the enlisted men in the "Convention Army," as it became known, were held captive in camps in New England, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, until the end of the war. The Convention Army (1777-1783) were the British and allied troops captured after the Battle of Saratoga in the American Revolutionary War. ...


Another serious difficulty encountered was that Charles I, Duke of Brunswick, did not want his soldiers back, fearing they would hinder future recruitment. The Brunswickers did not appreciate this and deserted in large numbers; of 5,723 Brunswick troops, only 3,015 returned in 1783. Most became Americans.


Burgoyne returned to England as a hero--he was a prominent leader in London society. The news that an entire British army had been defeated and captured gave the Americans great credibility. France, in particular, threw its support behind the American Revolution. John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


Legacy

Re-enactments

Benedict Arnold at Battle of Bemis Heights
Boot Monument to Benedict Arnold's injured foot at Saratoga National Historical Park
Boot Monument to Benedict Arnold's injured foot at Saratoga National Historical Park

A group called "Morgan's Rifles" tours Daniel Morgan's significant battle sites in period costumes each year. There are also groups of Hessian descendants that stage battle re-enactments in period costumes using period weapons. Benedict Arnold at Saratoga (Bemis Heights), Oct. ... Benedict Arnold at Saratoga (Bemis Heights), Oct. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1390x2190, 766 KB) Summary Boot Monument at Saratoga National Battlefield commemorating the wounded foot of Benedict Arnold. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1390x2190, 766 KB) Summary Boot Monument at Saratoga National Battlefield commemorating the wounded foot of Benedict Arnold. ... An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ...


Boot Monument

The Boot Monument on the battlefield commemorates the heroism of Benedict Arnold in the conflict when he was wounded in the foot. Arnold was to later switch sides and became a British general after offering to deliver West Point to the British for cash. An American Revolutionary War memorial erected in Saratoga National Historical Park and dedicated to Benedict Arnold. ... Alternate meanings: West Point (disambiguation). ...


According to legend, Arnold, as a British general, asked an American captive in Virginia what the Americans would do with him. The reply was:

"We would cut your leg off and bury it with full military honors for your work at Quebec and Saratoga. The rest of you we would hang."

The monument is dedicated to "the most brilliant soldier of the Continental Army," but does not mention Arnold by name.


It was donated by General John Watts de Peyster. For his son, see John Watts de Peyster Jr. ...


Fiction

The historian Robert Sobel, of Hofstra University, published For Want of a Nail in 1973, an alternate history novel in which Burgoyne won the Battle of Saratoga. Robert Sobel in a promotional photo for his publisher. ... Hofstra University is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational institution of higher learning located in Hempstead, Long Island, New York (USA) founded in 1935 on the basis of the estate of wealthy lumber magnate William Hofstra and widow Kate Davidson. ... The IND local subway stop in Manhattan 81st Street Museum of Natural History (B and C trains, with A trains making local stops during midnight hours) that would ordinarily have been at 79th Street, the large crosstown thoroughfare, is at 81st Street, to accommodate the American Museum of Natural History... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


References

  • Creasy, Sir Edward; The Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World 1908 online
  • Ketchum, Richard M.; Saratoga: Turning Point of America's Revolutionary War; 1997, Henry Holt & Company, ISBN 0-8050-4681-X; (Paperback ISBN 0-8050-6123-1)
  • Mintz, Max M.; The Generals of Saratoga: John Burgoyne and Horatio Gates; 1990, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-04778-9;
  • Nickerson, Hoffman; The Turning Point of the Revolution: Or, Burgoyne in America (1928) online
  • Patterson, Samuel White; Horatio Gates: Defender of American Liberties Columbia University Press, 1941 online

External links

Links to sites that discuss the Hessian soldiers—some with pictures


  Results from FactBites:
 
American Revolution - Revolutionary War Battles - The Battle of Saratoga September 19,1777 (1341 words)
John Trumbull painted this portrait of the surrender of General Burgoyne at the Battle of Saratoga.
This battle proved to the world that the fledgling American army was an effective fighting force capable of defeating the highly trained British forces in a major confrontation.
At the Battle of Freeman's Farm, the new commander of the Northern Department of the American army, General Horatio Gates, lost an indecisive battle.
Battle of Saratoga - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2888 words)
The Battle of Saratoga in July and October 1777 was a decisive American victory that was to result in France entering the conflict on behalf of the Americans during the American Revolutionary War.
Plan of battlefield of Battle of Saratoga and views of John Neilson's House from south, east and inside that served as the headquarters for the Generals Enoch Poor and Benedict Arnold.
The second and final engagement of the Battles of Saratoga was known as the Battle of Bemis Heights which took place on October 7.
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