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Encyclopedia > Battle of Salamis
Battle of Salamis
Part of the Persian Wars

Map of the battle
Date September, 480 BC
Location Off Salamis
Result Decisive Greek victory
Combatants
Greek city-states Persia,
Halicarnassus
Commanders
Eurybiades,
Themistocles
Xerxes I of Persia,
Artemisia I of Caria,
Ariamenes †
Strength
366–380 ships a ~720 shipsb
Casualties
40 ships 200 ships
a Herodotus gives 378 ships of the alliance, but his numbers add up to 366.[1]

b Aeschylus claimed there were 1,207 ships. Battle of Salamis may mean: Battle of Salamis, naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia, fought in September, 480 BC Battle of Salamis in Cyprus (450 BC) was a simultaneous land and sea battle of the Greco-Persian Wars. ... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Image File history File links Battle_of_salamis. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Persia redirects here. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... Eurybiades was the Spartan commander in charge of the Greek navy during the Persian Wars. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis and was set up as the tyrant of Halicarnassus by the Persians, who were at the time the overlords of Ionia, after the death of her husband. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ...

Persian invasion
Persian invasion
Movements to Salamis
Movements to Salamis

The Battle of Salamis (Greek: Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος), was a naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia in September, 480 BC in the strait between Piraeus and Salamis Island, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens. Persian Wars redirects here. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Combatants Naxos Persia, Ionia, Naxian exiles Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Megabates Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships Large number of men and 200 ships Casualties Light Heavy The Siege of Naxos (500 BC-499 BC) was a battle fought between the Persians under Megabates with aid from... Combatants Sardis Ionian Greeks, Athens, Eretria Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Eualcides The Siege of Sardis (498 BC) was fought between the people of Sardis and an alliance of Greeks from Ionia, Athens, and Eretria. ... The Battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt. ... The Battle of Lade was fought in 494 BC between the Ionians and the Persians. ... Combatants Naxos Persia Commanders Unknown Datis, Artaphernes Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships (Modern Estimates) Casualties Heavy Light The Siege of Naxos (490 BC) was fought between the people of Naxos and the Persians under the command of... Combatants Eretria Persia, Cyclades Commanders Aeschines Datis, Artaphernes Strength Unknown 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships Casualties Heavy Heavy The Siege of Eretria was fought by the Eretrians who were invaded by the Persians under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. ... Combatants Athens, Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades, Callimachus â€ , Arimnestus Datis â€ ?, Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians, 1,000 Plataeans 20,000 - 100,000 a Casualties 192 Athenians killed, 11 Plataeans killed (Herodotus) 6,400 killed, 7 ships captured (Herodotus) a These are modern consensus estimates. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon Unknown Strength Unknown 200 ships Casualties The naval Battle of the Eurymedon took place between 470 BC and 466 BC on the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia in Asia Minor, and was between the Athenian-led Delian League and Persia. ... Combatants Delian League Lybia Egypt Persian Empire Strength 250-40 ships After Greek successes in previous battles the Lybian king that was helping the Egyptians to revolt agianst Persia invited the Greeks that where campaigning in Cyprus with over 200 ships to help him in Egypt. ... Combatants Delian League, Greek Cypriot rebels Persian Empire Commanders Cimon † Artabazus Strength 200 ships 300 ships The Siege of Citium (Kition) was a joint naval and land battle fought between the Athenian-led Delian League and the Persian Empire. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon † Anaxicrates Strength 300 triremes estimated 800 ships Casualties 40 ships lost over 250 ships lost The Battle of Salamis took place around 450 BC near Salamis in Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (538x750, 40 KB) Map of the Persian invasion of Greece (480 BC-479 BC). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (538x750, 40 KB) Map of the Persian invasion of Greece (480 BC-479 BC). ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Thermopylae_and_movements_to_Salamis,_480_BC.gif Summary Description  Battle of Thermopylae and movements to Salamis, 480 BC Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Permission  In the public domain as original works of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links... Image File history File links Battle_of_Thermopylae_and_movements_to_Salamis,_480_BC.gif Summary Description  Battle of Thermopylae and movements to Salamis, 480 BC Author/Source  The Department of History, United States Military Academy Permission  In the public domain as original works of the United States federal government and/or military [1] Licensing File links... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Over-Simplified diagram A strait is a narrow channel of water that connects two larger bodies of water, and thus lies between two land masses. ... It has been suggested that Kaminia (Piraeus), Greece be merged into this article or section. ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... The Saronic Gulf or Gulf of Aegina in Greece forms part of the Aegean Sea and defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


The Greeks were not in accord as to how to defend against the Persian army, but Athens under Themistokles used their navy to defeat the much larger Persian navy and force King Xerxes I of Persia to retreat. The Greek victory marked the turning point of the campaign, leading to the eventual Persian defeat. Xerxes personally witnessed his fleet being destroyed. Themistocles (ca. ... Xerxes I of Persia (sometimes known as Xerxes the Great, in old Persian, 𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠[2]) was a king of Persia (reigned 486–465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ...

Contents

Background

On the third day of the indecisive Battle of Artemisium in August, 480 BC, news reached the Greek fleet of the outcome of the Battle of Thermopylae. The fleet retreated to Salamis to assist with the evacuation of Athens while Themistocles left inscriptions addressed to the Ionian Greek crews of the Persian fleet on all springs of water that they might stop at that said: Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...

Men of Ionia, that what you are doing is not proper, campaigning against your fathers and wishing to enslave Greece. It would be best if you came on our side. But if this is not possible, at least during the battle stand aside and also beg the Carians to do the same with you. But if you can not do either the one or the other, if you are chained by higher force and you can not defect during the operations, when we come at hand, act purposely as cowards remembering that we are of the same blood and that the first cause of animosity with the barbarians came from you.[citation needed]. Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ...

After Thermopylae, the Persian army burned and sacked the cities which did not surrender: Plataea and Thespiae in Boeotia. Later, the Persians did the same to Athens. There was disagreement in the Greek camp with the Spartans wanting to return to the Peloponnese, seal off the isthmus of Corinth with a wall and prevent the Persians from defeating them on land. The Athenian commander, Themistocles, persuaded the Spartans to remain at Salamis, arguing that a wall across the Isthmus was pointless as long as the Persian army could be transported around it and supplied by the Persian navy. His argument depended on a particular interpretation of the oracle at Delphi, which prophesied that Salamis would "bring death to women's sons," but also that the Greeks would be saved by a "wooden wall". Themistocles interpreted the wooden wall as the fleet of ships, and argued that Salamis would bring death to the Persians, not the Greeks. Furthermore, some Athenians who chose not to flee Athens interpreted the prophecy literally, barricaded the entrance to the Acropolis with a wooden wall, and fenced themselves in. The wooden wall was overrun, they were all killed, and the Acropolis was burned down by the Persians.[2] Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Thespiae (Greek Θεσπιαι, Thespiai) was an ancient Greek city in Boeotia. ... Boeotia or Beotia (//, (Greek Βοιωτια; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was the central area of ancient Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow landbridge which connects the Peloponnesos peninsula with the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For other uses, see Pythia (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ...


Size of fleets

Historians disagree as to the number of ships at the battle. Herodotus reports that there were 378 Greek ships at Salamis, broken down by city-state (as indicated in the table); however, his numbers only add to 366. Macaulay notes that many editors suppose the 12 missing ships were from the Aegina garrison.[1] Two more ships defected from the Persians to the Greeks; one before Artemisium and one before Salamis. According to Aeschylus, the Greek fleet numbered 310 triremes, while Ctesias claims that the Athenian fleet numbered only 110 triremes, not 180 as Herodotus claims. According to Hyperides, the Greek fleet numbered only 220[3]. The fleet was effectively under the command of Themistocles, but nominally led by the Spartan Eurybiades. The Spartans had very few ships to contribute, but they regarded themselves as the natural leaders of any joint Greek military expedition and always insisted that the Spartan general would be given command on such occasions. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... Hypereides (c. ... Eurybiades was the Spartan commander in charge of the Greek navy during the Persian Wars. ...

City Number
of ships
City Number
of ships
Athens: 180 Corinth: 40
Aegina: 30 Chalcis: 20
Megara: 20 Sparta: 16
Sicyon: 15 Epidaurus: 10
Eretria: 7 Ambracia: 7
Troizen: 5 Naxos: 4
Leucas: 3 Hermione: 3
Styra: 2 Cythnus: 2
Ceos: 2 Melos: 2
Siphnus: 1 Serifos: 1
Croton: 1
Total 366 [1]

The much larger Persian fleet consisted according to some modern estimates of 650[4]-800[5] ships, although their original invasion force consisted of many more ships (1,207) that had since been lost due to storms in the Aegean Sea and at Artemisium. Herodotus claims they were replaced in full but only mentions 120 ships from the Greeks of Thrace and an unspecified number from the Greek islands. Aeschylus also claims 1,207 ships of which 1,000 were triremes and 207 fast ships. Diodorus [6] and Lysias[7] independently claim there were 1,200 at Doriskos. The 1,207 trireme number (for the outset only) is also given by Ephorus while his teacher Isocrates[8] claims there were 1,300 at Doriskos and 1,200 [9] at Salamis. Ctesias gives another number, 1,000 ships, (in a fragment given in Photios's book) while Plato, speaking in general terms [10] refers to 1,000 ships and more. With an average of 200 men per ship onboard, the total Persian naval force would be at least 200,000 men, without taking into account the numerous auxiliary vessels. The Persians, led by Xerxes I, decided to meet the Athenian fleet off the coast of Salamis Island, and were so confident of their victory that Xerxes set up a throne on the shore, on the slopes of Mount Aegaleo, to watch the battle in style and record the names of commanders who performed particularly well. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Temple of Apollo at Corinth Corinth, or Korinth (Κόρινθος) is a Greek city, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the original isthmus, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... Coordinates 38°28′ N 23°36′ E Country Greece Periphery Central Greece Prefecture Euboea Population 53,584 source (2001) Area 30. ... Megara (Greek: Μέγαρα (Big Houses); see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient city in Attica, Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Sicyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria. ... Ambracia (more correctly Ampracia) was an ancient Corinthian colony, situated about 7 miles from the Ambracian Gulf in Greece, on a bend of the navigable river Aracthus (or Aratthus), in the midst of a fertile wooded plain. ... Troezen (TREE-zun, Greek: Τροιζήν), modern: Troizina or Trizina is a city in Argolis located southwest of Athens and a few miles south of Methana. ... Naxos is the largest island (428 km² ) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean Sea, which separates Greece and Turkey. ... Lefkada, or Lefkas (Greek: Modern: Λευκάδα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -as) is an Greek island in the Ionian Sea, connected to the mainland by a long causeway and floating bridge. ... Ermioni is a small town and a popular tourist resort in the Peloponnese, Greece. ... Styra (Greek: Στύρα) is a town on the southwestern shore of Euboea, facing the eastern shore of Attica across the Euboic Gulf. ... Kythnos or Kithnos (Greek: Κύθνος) is a Greek island in the Western Cyclades between Kea and Serifos. ... Khios, or Chios as most Greek English speakers know the island, is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ... Siphnus is a Greek island of the Cyclades. ... Seriphos (or Serifos) is a Greek island in the Aegean Sea, located in the western Cyclades, south of Kythnos and northwest of Siphnos. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Lysias (d. ... Ephorus (c. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Icon of Photius Photios I or Photius I (in Greek: Φώτιος, Phōtios), (Constantinople c. ... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... Aegaleo (Greek Αιγάλεω Aigáleo, Latin Aegaleus), also Aigaleo and Egaleo, is a mountain in Greece. ...


Quarreling Greeks

Eurybiades and the Spartans continued to argue with Themistocles about the necessity of fighting at Salamis. They still wanted to fight the battle closer to Corinth, so that they could retreat to the mainland in case of a defeat, or withdraw completely and let the Persians attack them by land.

Themistocles argued in favor of fighting at Salamis, as the Persian fleet would be able to continually supply their army no matter how many defensive to Xerxes to make the Persian king believe that the Greeks had in fact not been able to agree on a location for battle, and would be stealthily retreating during the night.Sicinnus, a Themistocles' trusty slave of Persian origin, pretended that he deserted from Athenian army and convinced Xerxes to sent his Egyptian squadron to blockade the western outlet of the straits, which also served to block any Greek ships who might be planning to escape. This was exactly what Themistocles wanted Xerxes to do. Sicinnus was later rewarded with emancipation and Athenian citizenship. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Funerary stele: the slave represented as a shorter person, beside the mistress, Munich Glyptothek Slavery was an essential component of the development of Ancient Greece throughout its history. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ...


Persian strategy

After burning the Acropolis, Xerxes visited the Persian fleet gathered at Phaleron to conduct a Council of War. Artemisia, the queen of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor and an ally of Xerxes tried to convince him to wait for the Greeks to surrender believing that battle in the straits of Salamis would be deadly to the large Persian ships.[11] Nevertheless, Xerxes and his chief advisor Mardonius pressed for an attack. Throughout the night the Persian ships searched the gulf for the Greek retreat, while in fact the Greeks remained on their ships, asleep. During the night Aristides, formerly a political opponent of Themistocles, arrived to report that Themistocles' plan had worked, and he allied with the Athenian commander to strengthen the Greek force. Faliro or Faliron/Phaliron (Greek: Φάληρο Pháliro, Latin: Phaleron, Phalerum) is a community 8 km SW of downtown Athens. ... Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis and was set up as the tyrant of Halicarnassus by the Persians, who were at the time the overlords of Ionia, after the death of her husband. ... Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: ; Turkish: , modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... This article is about Aristides the statesman. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ...


The Battle

The next morning (possibly September 28 but the exact date is unknown),[12] the Persians, exhausted from searching for the Greeks all night, sailed in to the straits anyway to attack the Greek fleet. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Greek Trireme
Greek Trireme

Greek Trireme Source: US Military: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Greek Trireme Source: US Military: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Fleet formations

The formation of the two enemy fleets had the Persian fleet at the right flank with the very powerful Phoenician fleet, with Mount Aegaleo at its back; on the left flank was the Ionian fleet (with the Carians on the edge) while in the center were ships from Cyprus and Cilicia. The main effort was to be taken by the Phoenicians, who were intended to encircle and trap the enemy fleet. In the Greek fleet, on the left were the ships of the Athenians (opposite to the Phoenicians); on the right (the position of honor) were the Spartans, Megareans and Aeginians; with the rest of the fleet in the center. Megareans and Aeginians were placed on the right because they were considered more capable than the Athenians [13] and because in case of loss they would have had nowhere to flee to. A Corinthian detachment of approximately 30 ships stayed back to guard against possible encirclement by the Egyptian detachment. Aegaleo (Greek Αιγάλεω Aigáleo, Latin Aegaleus), also Aigaleo and Egaleo, is a mountain in Greece. ...


Battle begins

The Greek fleet started rowing towards the Persians at daybreak, but when it became obvious that they would meet them at the center of the strait which was wide enough there to allow the Persians to use their numerical advantage, they started retreating. According to Plutarch [14] this was not only to gain better position but also in order to gain time until the early morning wind. The fleet reached such a position that it was covered from the left side by the islet of Saint George and on the right by the peninsula of Kynosoura. At this point according to Herodotus the ghost of a woman appeared shouting: "Madmen, how far will ye yet back your ships?"[15] Then the early morning wind started blowing raising waves, which shook the tall Phoenician ships more than the triremes. The ship of the Athenian Ameinias of Pallene quickly rammed the leading Persian ship. At this, the rest of the Greeks joined the attack. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Pallene (Greek: ) is the westernmost of the three headlands of Chalcidice, which run out into the Aegean Sea. ...


The Greek and Persian ships rammed each other and something similar to a land battle ensued. Both sides had marines on their ships (the Greeks with fully armed hoplites), and arrows and javelins also flew across the narrow strait. The wave motion made the archers on the Phoenician ships miss their target, thus giving advantage to the hoplites who fought hand to hand. The Greek triremes were outfitted with the "embolon", a long bronze protrusion fitted to the prow at water level, which enabled them to ram and sink enemy ships more easily than they could be sunk themselves. The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ...


When it became obvious to the Greeks that the battle was inevitable, morale rose, and the fleet enthusiastically took to sea and started singing the "paean" Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. ...

Ὦ παῖδες Ἑλλήνων ἴτε,
ἐλευθεροῦτε πατρίδ', ἐλευθεροῦτε δὲ
παῖδας, γυναῖκας, θεῶν τέ πατρῴων ἕδη,
θήκας τε προγόνων:
νῦν ὑπὲρ πάντων ἀγών.

which means:

Forward, sons of the Greeks,
Liberate the fatherland, liberate
Your children, your women, the altars of the gods of your fathers
And the graves of your forebears:
Now is the fight for everything.

This quote (from Aeschylus' tragedy The Persians), especially the last line, has later been used to describe desperate battles, generally. This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... The Persians (Πέρσαι) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Aeschylus. ...


As at Artemisium, the much larger Persian fleet could not maneuver in the gulf. On the left flank the Athenians could maneuver better and call reinforcements to fill gaps while the Phoenicians with land on their back could not. But on the right flank, where the Greeks were outnumbered and with land on their back, the Persians had open water and could call reinforcements, limiting the Spartans and Aeginetans to defense. The left managed to defeat its opposing force and encircle the enemy center. The chief Persian admiral Ariamenes rammed Themistocles' ship, but in the hand-to-hand combat that followed, Ariamenes was killed by a Greek warrior. On his death, confusion among the Persian fleet ensued because the chain of command was disrupted. The encircled Persians tried to turn back, but the strong wind trapped them. Those who were able to turn around were also trapped by the rest of the Persian fleet that had jammed the strait.


Aftermath

At least 200 Persian ships were sunk, including one by Artemisia, who, finding herself pursued by a Greek ship, attacked and rammed a Persian vessel, convincing the Greek captain that she too was Greek; he accordingly abandoned the chase. Aristides took another small contingent of ships and recaptured Psyttaleia, a nearby island that the Persians had occupied a few days earlier. It is said that it was the Immortals, the elite Persian Royal Guard, who during the battle had to evacuate to Psyttaleia after their ships sank and they were slaughtered to a man. According to Herodotus, the Persians suffered many more casualties than the Greeks because most Persians did not know how to swim. One of the Persian casualties was a brother of Xerxes. Those Persians who survived and ended up on shore were killed by the Greeks who found them. Psyttaleias location in the Saronic Gulf. ... A Persian Immortal wielding a spear, wicker shield, dagger, and bow. ...

A king sate on the rocky brow
Which looks o'er sea-born Salamis
And ships, by thousands, lay below,
And men in nations;—all were his!
He counted them at break of day—
And when the sun set where were they?

— the philhellene Lord Byron in Don Juan

[16] Philhellenism (the love of Greek culture) was the intellectual fashion at the turn of the 19th century that led Europeans like Lord Byron to lend their support for the Greek movement towards independence from the Ottoman Empire. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ...

Xerxes, sitting on Mount Aegaleo on his golden throne, witnessed the horror. He remarked that Artemisia was the only general to show any productive bravery by ramming nine Athenian triremes, saying, "My men have become women, and my women men."[17] When some Phoenicians blamed the Ionians for cowardice before the end of the battle, Xerxes, who had just witnessed the battle and the courage of his Ionian fleet, had the Phoenicians beheaded.[18] Thus it appears that Themistocles' psychological operation failed to make the Ionians fight with less resolve but succeeded in creating hostility between the different nations that comprised the Persian fleet.


Consequences of the battle

The victory of the Greeks marked the turning point in the Persian Wars and the heavy defeat of Persia. Without his navy, Xerxes was unable to supply his huge army from resource-poor Greece so he withdrew to the Hellespont. Here, he proposed to march his army back over the bridge of ships he had created, before the Greeks arrived to destroy the bridge (although the Greeks had already decided not to do this). Xerxes returned to Persia, leaving Mardonius and a large force to hold the conquered areas of Greece. Mardonius recaptured Athens, but the Greek city-states joined together once more to fight him at the simultaneous Battle of Plataea and Battle of Mycale in 479 BC, in which they routed and scattered the remaining Persian force. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... 479 pr. ...


Significance

The Battle of Salamis has been described by many historians (among them Victor Davis Hanson, Donald Kagan and John Keegan) as the single most significant battle in human history. The defeat of the Persian navy was instrumental in the eventual Persian defeat, as it dramatically shifted the war in Greece's favor. Many historians argue that Greece's ensuing independence laid the foundations for Western civilization, most notably from the preservation of Athenian democracy, the concept of individual rights, relative freedom of the person, true philosophy, and art and architecture. Had the Persians won at Salamis, it is very likely that Xerxes would have succeeded in conquering all the Greek nations and passing to the European continent, thus preventing Western civilization's growth (and even existence). Given the influence of Western civilization on world history, as well as the achievements of Western culture itself, a failure of the Greeks to win at Salamis would almost certainly have had seriously important effects on the course of human history[19]. Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... Donald Kagan (born 1932) is a Yale historian specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ...


References

  • George Campbell Macaulay (1914). The history of Herodotus — Volume 2 by Herodotus, books V to IX. MacMillan and Co.. Retrieved on 2007-11-15.

Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Herodotus VIII, 85, G. C. Macaulay translation, "whole number of the ships, apart from the fifty-oared galleys, was three hundred and seventy-eight.[31]", "number obtained by adding up the separate contingents is 366", "Stein suggests the insertion of the number twelve in ch. 46."
  2. ^ The debris from the destruction at the Acropolis is called Perserschutt
  3. ^ Lee, Felicia R. "A Layered Look Reveals Ancient Greek Texts". The New York Times. 27 Nov 2006.
  4. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek nation) vol Β', Ekdotiki Athinon 1971
  5. ^ Garoufalis N. Demetrius, Η ναυμαχία της Σαλαμίνας, η σύγκρουση που άλλαξε τον ρού της ιστορίας (The battle of Salamis, the conflict that changed the flow of history), Στρατιωτική Ιστορία (Military History) magazine, issue 24, August 1998
  6. ^ Biblioteca Historica XI 3
  7. ^ II,27
  8. ^ VII,49
  9. ^ IV, 93
  10. ^ Plato Laws, III 699 B
  11. ^ Strauss, Barry (2004). The Battle of Salamis. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0743244508. 
  12. ^ the Hellenic Navy celebrates September 12 as Battle of Salamis Day)
  13. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Biblioteca Historica, XI,18
  14. ^ Plutarch, Themistocles 14
  15. ^ Herodotus VIII, 84, Macaulay translation
  16. ^ Lord Byron, Don Juan, Canto 3, 86.4
  17. ^ Herodotus, VIII, 88, Macaulay translation
  18. ^ Herodotus, VIII, 89-90
  19. ^ According to Victor Davis Hanson a victory of the Persians would had been "dramatic" for Western civilization

Perserschutt, Acropolis, 1866 The Perserschutt (German: Persian debris, or refuse) was the bulk of architectural and votive sculptures destroyed by the invading Persian army on the Acropolis of Athens in 480 BCE, and then ceremonially buried by the Athenians upon the departure of the Persians. ... The Hellenic Navy (Greek: , Polemikón Nautikón) is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ...

Further reading

  • Green, Peter. The Greco-Persian Wars. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970; revised ed., 1996 (hardcover, ISBN 0-520-20573-1); 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-20313-5).
  • Green, Peter. Xerxes at Salamis. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970.
  • Green, Peter. The Year of Salamis, 480–479 B.C. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1970 (ISBN 0-297-00146-9).
  • Hanson, Victor Davis. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. New York: DoubleDay, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-385-50052-1); New York: Anchor Books, 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-385-72038-6). As Why the West has Won: Carnage and Culture from Salamis to Vietnam. London: Faber and Faber, 2001 (hardcover, ISBN 0-571-20417-1); 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-571-21640-4).
  • Strauss, Barry. The Battle of Salamis: The Naval Encounter That Saved Greece—and Western Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7432-4450-8; paperback, ISBN 0-7432-4451-6).

Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of Salamis
  • Livius Picture Archive: the naval battle off Salamis (480 BCE)

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Review: The Battle of Salamis, by Barry Strauss (712 words)
The crucial moment would be a Naval battle off an Island near the coast of Attica called Salamis.
For example, just prior to the battle, Themistocles, the Athenian commander, sent a message to the Persian Great King, Xerxes, falsely telling him that he was willing to turn traitor and bring the whole Athenian fleet with him.
The Battle of Salamis was a battle that had a crucial influence on later events.
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