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Encyclopedia > Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Part of Charlemagne's campaign in the Iberian Peninsula

The death of Roland at the Battle of Roncevaux, from an illustrated manuscript, 1455–1460
Date August 15, 778
Location Roncevaux Pass in the Pyrenees
Result Basque victory
Combatants
Franks Basques
Commanders
Charlemagne
Roland†, Eginhard, Anselmus
Unknown
(speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia)
Strength
Major army Unknown (guerrilla party)
Casualties
Massacre of the Frankish rearguard but safety for the main force Unknown
History of the Basque people
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The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hruodland, or Roland, prefect of the Brittany March, was defeated by the Basques. Approx. location: 42°59′22″N, 1°20′02″W. Image File history File links Mort_de_Roland. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... The Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvaux in English, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hroudland (later changed to Roland), prefect of Brittany March was defeated by the Basques. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... Charlemagne and Pippin the Hunchback. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... Lupo II (Basque: Otsoa, French: Loup, Gascony: Lop, Latin: Lupus, Spanish: Lobo or Lope) is the first-attested duke of Gascony from 769. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... Battle of Simancas was a military battle that took place in 939 AD in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II of Leon and Muslim caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas, in which was decided the control of... The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1054 in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García V, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Casile and León. ... The Battle of Graus (or Siege of Graus) was a battle of the early Spanish Reconquista in spring 1063 (some sources say the battle was in early May, possibly around May 8). ... Combatants Sancho II of Castile Castile Alfonso VI of León León Commanders Sancho II of Castile Alfarez Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar Alfonso VI of León Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Llantada (Spanish:Batalla de Llantada) was fought on July 19, 1068 in... Combatants Sancho II of Castile Castile Alfonso VI of León León Commanders Sancho II of Castile Alfarez Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar Alfonso VI of León Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Battle of Golpejera also known as Golpejar (Spanish: Batalla de Golpejera o Golpejar) was... Combatants Castile Almoravides Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties 59,500 dead Unknown The battle of az-Zallaqah الزلاقة (October 23, 1086) was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Castilian King Alfonso VI. Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call... Combatants Almoravids Castile Commanders Yusuf ibn Tashfin Sancho, son of Alfonso VI Casualties Sancho The Battle of Ucles was fought on 29 May 1108 between the Kingdom of Castile and the Almoravids. ... The Battle of Ourique took place in July 26, 1139, in the countryside outside the town of Ourique, present-day Alentejo (southern Portugal). ... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Combatants Castile, Aragon, Portugal, Navarre Almohads Commanders Alfonso VIII of Castile Sancho VII of Navarre Peter II of Aragon Afonso II of Portugal Muhammad al-Nasir Strength ~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000 ~125,000 - 400,000 Casualties ~2,000 dead or wounded ~100... Combatants Castile Moors The Battle of Jerez was fought in 1231 between Castile and the Moors. ... Combatants Castile Granada Commanders Alfonso XI of Castile Sir James Douglas Muhammed IV, Sultan of Granada The Battle of Teba took place on the 25th August 1330, below the Castello de la Estrella, Teba, a small settlement in Andalusia. ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ... The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. ... The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in northern Spain to watch their border with the Cantabrians and Basques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The County of Vasconia was a small medieval realm segregated c. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Francisco de Goyas Sabbat (19th century). ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... For other uses, see ETA (disambiguation). ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... Fuero (Spanish) is a Spanish legal term and concept. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The real Basque-speaking zones This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Roncesvalles (French: Roncevaux, Basque: Orreaga) is a small village of northern Spain (Navarre Cities), in the province of Navarre; situated on the small river Urrobi, at an altitude of 2,950 ft. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... Mark or march (or various plural forms of these words) are derived from the Frankish word marka (boundary) and refer to a border region, e. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northeastern Spain and southwestern France. ...

Contents

Background

After the Muslim invasion of 711 and the rise of the Carolingians, the Duchy of Vasconia and Aquitaine had been severely punished by both sides. The last double Duke, Waifer had been defeated by Pepin the Short and the Frankish domain north of the Pyrenees seemed consolidated. Age of the Caliphs The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. ... See also: phone number 711. ... The Carolingians were a dynasty of rulers that eventually controlled the Frankish realm and its successors from the 8th to the 10th century, officially taking over the kingdom from the Merovingian dynasty in 751. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... Waifer (a. ... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ...


The plot

Sulaiman Ibn Yakzan Ibn al-Arabi, wali of Barcelona and Girona, had been present at the Court meeting of Paderborn in 777. It seems it was he who induced Charlemagne by promising him an easy surrender of the Upper March of Al Andalus. The Emperor didn't make up his mind until the winter, but he finally decided to launch an expedition into Spain the next year. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. ... // Charlemagne beats the Saxons. ...


The Franks advanced as two armies: one by the east (Catalonia) and another by the west (Basque Country). Charles himself took the command of the second army that crossed Vasconia and camped at Pamplona without apparent opposition. Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The real Basque-speaking zones This article is about the overall Basque domain. ... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Basque Country. ...


Meanwhile in Zaragoza, the capital of the Upper March of Al Andalus, its governor Hussain Ibn Yahya al Ansari, apparently part of the pro-Frankish conspiracy, had to face other problems. The Emir of Cordoba had sent his most trusted general, Thalaba Ibn Obeid to take control of the seemingly rebellious city and prevent the Frankish invasion. Al Ansari and Ibn Obeid had clashed repeatedly but eventually the wali managed to defeat the Cordobese general and make him prisoner. Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس al-andalus) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Reinforced in his autonomous position, it seems, al Ansari became reluctant to yield his new privileged status to the Frankish monarch. No matter what they may have negotiated before, the gates of Zaragoza remained closed for the Christian army.


It is unclear if Charlemagne put siege to Zaragoza. Whatever the case, the military pressure on the city could not have lasted much more than a month, time filled with many negotiations that nevertheless did not result in the prized bounty of the city itself.


Both conspirators seem to have tried to appease Charlemagne by giving him the prisoner General Thalaba and a large tribute of gold. But Suleiman al-Arabi was chained by him.


The retreat

As the Frankish army retreated towards Pamplona they suffered an ambush led by the relatives of al-Arabi. Suleiman al-Arabi was liberated and brought to Zaragoza, where both conspirators jointly resisted a new attack by Abd al-Rahman. Suleiman al-Arabi would eventually be murdered by al Ansari.


After stopping at Pamplona, Charlemagne ordered the walls of this strategic city be destroyed, possibly fearing that it could be used by the Basques in future rebellions. Some primary sources suggest that he destroyed the city altogether.


The Battle

The battle itself took place in the evening of Saturday, August 15th 778, causing numerous losses among the Frankish troops, including several most important aristocrats and the sack of the baggage, probably with all the gold given by the Muslims at Zaragoza. After their success, the attackers took advantage of the night to flee.


The sources are somewhat contradictory, yet the second redaction of the Annales Regii (falsely attributed to Eginhard) reads:[1]

Having decided to return, [Charlemagne] entered the mountains of the Pyrenees, in whose summits the Vascones had set up an ambush. When attacking the rearguard confusion spread by all the army. And, while Frankish were superior to the Vascones both in armament as in courage, the roughness of the terrain and the difference in the style of combat made them inferior. In this battle were killed the majority of the paladins that the King had placed in command of his forces. The bagagge was sacked and, suddenly, the enemy vanished thanks to their knowledge of the terrain. The memory of the injury so produced darkened in great manner in the King's heart that of the feats made in Hispania. Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ...

The Vita Karoli mentions the names of the most important paladins killed among many others: Eginhard, Mayor of the Palace, Anselmus, Palatine Count and Roland, Prefect of the March of Brittany. For other uses, see Paladin (disambiguation). ... Einhard as scribe Einhard (also Eginhard or Einhart) (born about 775 in the valley of the River Main, died March 14, 840, at Seligenstadt, Germany) was a Frankish historian and a dedicated servant of Charlemagne. ... Mayor of the Palace was an early medieval title and office, also known by the Latin name, maior domus or majordomo, used most notably in the Frankish kingdoms in the 7th and 8th centuries. ... Count Palatine is a noble title, used to render several comital styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ...


The Basque army

The guerrilla army of the Basques is not well known. A later source, the anonymous Saxon Poet talks of the Basque spears, which fits with the Pyrenean and Basque tradition that would be present much later among the almogavars. Such typical mountain warrior would have two short spears and a knife or short sword as main weapons, not using armour normally. Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... The Almogavars (Aragonese: Almogabars, Catalan: Almogàvers, Spanish: Almogávares, from Arabic: Al-Mugavari) were a class of Aragonese and Catalan soldiers, well-known during the Christian reconquista (reconquest) of the Iberian peninsula. ...


Pierre de Marca, a Bearnese author, suggests that the attackers were a reduced number of mostly local Low Navarrese, Souletines and Bazatanese, whose main motivation may well have been plunder. Nevertheless he also suggests that the Duke of Vasconia, Lop may have been their commander.[2] This opinion is also held by the authors of the General History of Languedoc who claim that Duke Lop was the leader of the Gascons that attacked Charlemagne.[3] Pierre de Marca (January 24, 1594–June 29, 1662) was a French prelate, bishop and historian born at Gan in Béarn of a family distinguished in the magistracy. ... B arn is a former province of France, located at the base of the Pyr es. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Mauléon, capital of Soule Soule (Zuberoa, Xiberu or Xüberoa in Basque, Sola in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Baztan is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Lupo II (Basque: Otsoa, French: Loup, Gascony: Lop, Latin: Lupus, Spanish: Lobo or Lope) is the first-attested duke of Gascony from 769. ...


The presence of people from other areas beyond those mentioned by de Marca is very likely anyhow. It is difficult to imagine why Baztanese were there and not, for instance, the people of nearby Aezkoa or Salazar valleys. There are even attributions to Guipuscoans, like a dedication in a chapel of Pasaia that gives thanks to Our Lady of Piety because of her support to their alleged participation in this battle. Nevertheless the date mentioned (814) may refer to the Second Battle of Roncevaux (see below). Aezkoa Valley (in the context of Euskal Herria) Aezkoa Valley is an administrative unit of Navarre, Spain. ... Salazar is the name of: António de Oliveira Salazar, Prime Minister and Dictator of Portugal from 1932 to 1968 Alberto Salazar, U.S. distance runner Alejandro Salazar, U.S. Soccer player Argenis Salazar, former Major League Baseball shortstop Eliseo Salazar, Chilean racing driver Ken Salazar, U.S. Senator from... Harbor of Pasaia Pasaia (Spanish: Pasajes) is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Mary, Virgin of the Passion. ...


Location

There has been many different hypotheses on where this battle actually took place, some pointing to very different places such as the High Pyrenees in Aragon or Catalonia. Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ...


The mainstream opinion is nevertheless that it took place somewhere not far from Roncevaux itself as it is not just one of the easiest routes but also a traditional one.


Of important notice is that the old Roman road (also called Route of Napoleon) followed a different route than the modern one, not crossing Ibaineta (the traditional location) but heading eastwards and crossing instead Lepoeder and Bentartea passes, not far from Urkuilu peak, at Aezkoa. It might well have been at one of these narrow passages where the actual battle took place.[4] For the one-off TV Drama, see Roman Road (TV Drama) A Roman road in Pompeii. ...


Consequences

The Franks failed in capturing Zaragoza and suffered significant losses at the hands of the Basques. They would only be able to establish the Marca Hispanica a decade later, when Barcelona was finally captured. Zaragoza remained an important Muslim city, capital of the Upper March and later of an independent emirate, until the 11th century. The Marca Hispanica (Spanish Mark or March) was a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, first set up by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier to keep the Muslim Moors out of the Frankish Kingdom. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The term taifa in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in Spain (Arabic: Al-Andalus) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Defenceless Pamplona was captured by the Muslims soon after and held by them for some years, until in 798-801 a rebellion expelled them as well and helped to consolidate the Banu Qasi realm and eventually the constitution of the independent Kingdom of Pamplona in 824. Events Coenwulf of Mercia invades Kent, deposes and imprisons king Eadbert Praen and makes his own brother Cuthred king. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ...


Legend

Over the years, this battle was romanticized by oral tradition into a major conflict between Christians and Muslims, when in fact both sides in the battle were Christian. In the tradition, the Basques are replaced by a force of 400,000 Saracens. (Charlemagne did fight the Saracens in Iberia, though not in the Pyrenees.) The Song of Roland, which commemorates the battle, was written by an unknown troubadour of the 11th century. It is the earliest surviving of the chansons de geste or epic poems of medieval France in the northern dialect or langue d'oïl of what became the French language. There is a tombstone near the Roncevaux Pass commemorating the area where it is traditionally held that Roland died. As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... A troubadour composing lyrics, Germany c. ... The chansons de geste, Old French for songs of heroic deeds, are the epic poetry that appears at the dawn of French literature. ... The langue doïl language family in linguistics comprises Romance languages originating in territories now occupied by northern France, part of Belgium and the Channel Islands. ...


There is an alternate medieval Iberian legend involving Bernardo del Carpio, a medieval Leonese hero, whom some stories hold to be the vanquisher of Roland at Roncevaux. Bernardo del Carpio is a legendary hero of medieval Spanish legend, comparable to El Cid, thought with less historical evidence of his actual existence. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina, or twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las M...


Second and Third battles of Roncevaux

In the year 812 there was a second Battle in the same pass, that ended in stalemate due to the greater precautions taken by the Franks. Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ...


In the year 824 was the maybe more important Third Battle of Roncevaux, where counts Eblo and Aznar, Frankish vassals, were captured by the joint forces of Pamplona and the Banu Qasi, consolidating the independence of both Basque realms[5] Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ...


Value for comparative history

In the case of the Battle of Roncevaux, historians posses both the description of an event by contemporary and fairly reliable sources and the depiction of the same event resulting from centuries of an oral tradition, in which it was magnified to epic proportions and changed almost unrecognizably.


The ability here to compare both accounts, and trace how an actual historical event is transformed into myth, is useful for the study of other events of which the only existing account is one deriving from centuries of oral tradition, and in which historians need to try to reconstruct the actual historical facts and separate them from later myth (for example, Homer's depiction of the Trojan War or the Biblical account of the Exodus). Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... For the 1997 film, see Trojan War (film). ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... Exodus is the second book of the Torah, the Tanakh, and the Old Testament. ...


In popular culture

The battle is referenced to in the chorus of Týr's song The Edge on their 2004 album Eric the Red Týr is a band that hails from the Faroe Islands. ... Eric the Red is the second full-length album by the Faroese Folk / Viking Metal band Týr. ...


See also

Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... La Brèche de Roland is an impressive natural gap, 40 meters across and 100 meters high, in the steep cliffs of the Cirque de Gavarnie which form part of the border between France and Spain in the Pyrenees. ...

External links

  • Earliest manuscript of the Chanson de Roland, readable online images of the complete original, Bodleian Library MS. Digby 23 (Pt 2) "La Chanson de Roland, in Anglo-Norman, 12th century, ? 2nd quarter".
  • Song of Roland at infoplease.com

References

  1. ^ Narbaitz, Pierre. Orria, o la batall de Roncesvalles. 778. Elkar, 1979. ISBN 84-400-4926-9
  2. ^ Pierre de Marca, Historie du Béarn (quoted by Narbaitz, op.cit.)
  3. ^ Devic and Vaissette, Historie Genérale du Languedoc, 1872 (quoted by Narbaitz, op.cit.)
  4. ^ Narbaitz, op. cit.
  5. ^ Ducado de Vasconia (Auñamendi Encyclopedia)

Bibliography

  • Narbaitz, Pierre. Orria, o la batalla de Roncesvalles. 778. Elkar argitaldaria, 1979. ISBN 84-400-4926-9

External links


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