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Encyclopedia > Battle of Romania (1944)
Battle of Romania
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II

Bucharesters greet the Red Army entering the city on August 31, 1944.
Date August to September 1944
Location Eastern Romania
Result Soviet Victory
Combatants
Soviet Union Germany
Romania
Commanders
Rodion Malinovsky
Fyodor Tolbukhin
Johannes Friessner
Ion Antonescu
Strength
1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. 500,000 German, 405,000 Romanian, 170 tanks, 800 aircraft
Casualties
ca. 13,197 irrecoverable, 53,933 wounded/sick at least 200,000 to 250,000 German irrecoverable, Romanian 185,000
Eastern Front
Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – FinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovBlueStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPrague

Template:Campaignbox Romania 1944 The Battle of the Romania 1944 denotes combat operations usually referred to as 'Jassy–Kishinev Operation' (Russian: Ясско-Кишинёвская операция) between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in Eastern Romania during late August and early September of 1944. The Red Army's 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts engaged German Heeresgruppe Südukraine, which consisted of German and Romanian formations, in an operation to occupy Romania and destroy the German formations in the sector. The result of the battle was complete victory for the Red Army, and a switch of Romania from the Axis to the Allied camp. Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Liberationofbucharest. ... Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Fedor Tolbukhin Fyodor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (June 16, 1894 - October 17, 1949) (Russian: Фёдор Иванович Толбухин), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family in the rural... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Johannes Friessner (March 22, 1892-June 26, 1971) was a German general during World War II. Born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Friessner enlisted in the German army in 1911 and, after seeing extensive duty during World War I, served in the Reichswehr following the war. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Axis Powers Flag of Romania Categories: Flag images ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Ernst Busch Georg von Küchler Wilhelm List Erich von Manstein Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe Italo Gariboldi Mikl... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry and supporting troops 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schorner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin-Brest Offensive is covered in the... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... Status Municipality Founded 1436 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] - density 1,114 inh/km² - rank 1st Localities (total): 35 - cities 7 - communes 12 - unincorporated 16 Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Council 51 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 16 - Liberal Party (Moldova... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Ukrainian Front may refer to several Soviet fronts of the Second World War: Ukrainian Front formed during the Polish September Campaign 1st Ukrainian Front 2nd Ukrainian Front 3rd Ukrainian Front 4th Ukrainian Front Category: ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


See also: Romania during World War II In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ...

Contents

Setting the stage

During 1944, the Wehrmacht was pressed back along its entire frontline in the east. By May 1944 the Heeresgruppe Südukraine was pushed back towards the pre-war Romanian frontier, and managed to establish a line on the Dnestr River, which was however breached in two places by Red Army bridgeheads. After June, calm returned to the sector, allowing the rebuilding of the German formations.


While up to June 1944 Heeresgruppe Südukraine was one of the most powerful German formations in terms of armour, it had been denuded during the summer, with most of its armoured formations moved to the northern and central front, in order to stem Red Army advances in the Baltics, Byelorussia, northern Ukraine, and Poland. On the eve of the offensive, the only armoured formations left were 1st Romanian Armoured Division, and German 13.Panzerdivision and 10.Panzergrenadierdivision. The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. ... Motto none Anthem Мы, беларусы(Belarusian) My, Belarusy(transliteration) We Belarusians Belarus() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Minsk Official languages Belarusian, Russian Government Presidential republic  -  President Alexander Lukashenko  -  Prime Minister Sergey Sidorsky Independence from the Soviet Union   -  Declared July 27, 1990   -  Established August 25, 1991   -  Completed December 25, 1991...

See also: Battle of Târgul Frumos

The Battle of Târgul Frumos (May 2-4, 1944) was fought at Iaşi, Romania between Nazi Germany and its Romanian allies on one side and the Soviet Red Army. ...

A failure of Intelligence

Soviet deception operations prior to the attack worked well, and the German commander Generaloberst Friessner stated on 21 August, the day before the attack, that he did not expect an attack, and if there were one, it would be a minor attack.


The Soviet Plan

STAVKA's plan for the battle was based on a double envelopment by 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts. Stavka (Ставка) was the General Headquarters of armed forces in late Imperial Russia and in the Soviet Union. ...


2nd Ukrainian Front was to break through north of Jassy, and then commit mobile formations to seize the Prut River crossings before the withdrawing German formations of 6. Armee could make it there. It was then to introduce 6th Tank Army into the battle to seize the Siret river crossings and the Focşani Gap, a fortified line between the Siret river and the Danube. County Status Municipality Mayor Gheorghe Nichita, Social Democratic Party, since 2003 Area 93. ... The Prut river (also known as Pruth) is 950 km long, originating in the Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and flowing southeast to join the Danube river near Reni, east of Galaţi. ... The Siret River is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of the Ukraine, flows southward into Romania for 470 km before it joins Danube. ... County Vrancea County Status County capital Mayor Decebal Bacinschi, Social Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 48. ... The Siret River is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of the Ukraine, flows southward into Romania for 470 km before it joins Danube. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ...


3rd Ukrainian Front was to attack out of its bridgehead across the Dnestr River near Tiraspol, and then insert mobile formations with a mission to head north and meet the mobile formations of 2nd Ukrainian Front. This would lead to the encirclement of the German forces near Chişinău. Status Municipality Founded 1436 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] - density 1,114 inh/km² - rank 1st Localities (total): 35 - cities 7 - communes 12 - unincorporated 16 Mayor Dorin Chirtoacă, since 2007 Council 51 members, since 2007 - Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova 16 - Liberal Party (Moldova...


Following the successful encirclement, 6th Tank Army and 4th Guards Mechanized Corps were to be launched towards Bucharest and the Ploieşti oil fields. Status Capital of Romania Mayor Adriean Videanu, since 2005 Area 238 km² Population (2005) 1,924,959[1] Density 8,088 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ... County Prahova County Status County seat Mayor Emil Calotă, Social Democratic Party, since 2000 Area 58. ...


Progress of the battle

General

Both 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Front undertook one major effort, leading to a double envelopment of German 6. Armee and parts of 8. Armee. The German/Romanian frontline collapsed within two days of the start of the offensive, and 6th Guards Mechanized Corps was inserted as the main mobile group of the offensive. The initial break-in in 6th Army sector was 40km deep and destroyed rear-area supply installations by the evening of the 21st. By 23 August, 13.Panzerdivision had dissolved as a coherent fighting force, and 6. Armee had been encircled to a depth of 100km. The Red Army mobile group managed to cut off the retreat of the German formations into Hungary. Isolated pockets of German formations were trying to fight their way through, but only small remnants managed to escape the encirclement. The Steppe Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... The Southwestern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x956, 203 KB) [edit] Info Originally uploaded by en:User:Andreas1968 [edit] Licensing Webpage: World War II File is under US Government Copyright File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1256x956, 203 KB) [edit] Info Originally uploaded by en:User:Andreas1968 [edit] Licensing Webpage: World War II File is under US Government Copyright File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are...

Detailed Study of Soviet Breakthrough

Operations of 3rd Ukrainian Front (Commander Army General Tolbukhin)


Main effort of the front is in the sector of the 37th Army (Commander Lieutenant General Scharochin). Main effort of 37th Army is 66th Rifle Corps and 6th Guards Rifle Corps. The 37th Army has a 4km wide breakthrough frontage assigned to it. It is divided in two groupings, two corps up, one corps reserve. According to plan, it is supposed to break through the depth of the German/Romanian defense in 7 days, to a distance of 110-120km, with the distance to be covered in the first four days 15km each.


66th Rifle Corps (Commanded by Major General Kuprijanow) consisting of two groupings (61st Guards Rifle Division, 333rd Rifle Division up, 244th Rifle Division in reserve). Attached are 46th Gun Artillery Brigade, 152nd Howitzer Artillery Regiment, 184th and 1245th Tank Destroyer Regiment, 10th Mortar Regiment, 26th Light Artillery Brigade, 87th Recoilless Mortar Regiment, 92nd and 52nd Tank Regiment, 398th Assault Gun Regiment, two Pioneer Assault Battalions, and two Light Flamethrower Companies.


Corps frontage 4km
Corps breakthrough frontage 3.5km (61st Rifle Division 1.5km, 333rd Rifle Division2km)


Densities per kilometer of frontage:

  • Rifle battalions 7.7
  • Guns/mortars 248
  • Tanks and assault guns 18

Superiority

  • Infantry 1:3
  • Artillery 1:7
  • Tanks and assault guns 1:11.2

There is no man-power information for the divisions, but expect them to have between 7,000 - 7,500 men each, 61st Guards Rifle Division maybe 8,000-9,000. The soldiers were prepared over the course of August by exercising in areas similar to those they had to attack, and being brought up to speed on special tactics needed to overcome the enemy in their sector.


Density in 61st Guards Rifle Division sector per kilometer of frontage:

  • Rifle battalions 6.0
  • Guns/mortars 234
  • Tanks and assault guns 18

Density in 333rd Rifle Division sector per kilometer of frontage:

  • Rifle battalions 4.5
  • Guns/mortars 231
  • Tanks and assault guns 18

The initial attack 333rd Rifle Division did not establish a reserve and put three regiments up in the first line. 61st Guards Rifle Division attacked in a classic two regiment up, one reserve formation. This proved to be lucky, since its right wing of 188th Guards(?) Rifle Regiment got stuck in front of the strongpoint Ploptuschbej. 189th Guards Rifle Regiment on the left wing made good progress though, as did 333rd Rifle Division on its left. The commander of 61st Guards Rifle Division therefore inserted his reserve (187th Guards Rifle Regiment ) behind 189th Guards Rifle Regiment to exploit the break-in. When darkness came, 244th Rifle Division was inserted to break through the second line of defense. It lost its way though, and only arrived at 2300, by which time elements of 13. Panzerdivision were counterattacking.


The German/Romanian opposition was XXX. and XXIX. AK, with 15th, 306th German ID, 4th Romanian Mountain Division, and 21st Romanian ID. 13. Panzerdivision was in reserve. At the end of day one, 4th Romanian Mountain, and 21st Romanian Divisions were almost completely destroyed, while German 15. and 306. Infanteriedivision were heavily damaged (according to a German source: 306. ID lost 50% in the barrage, and was destroyed apart from local strongpoints by evening). Almost no artillery survived the fire preparation.


13. Panzerdivision counter-attacked 66th Rifle Corps on day one, and tried to stop it on day two but to no avail. A study on the division's history says 'The Russian dictated the course of events.' 13. Panzerdivision at the time was a materially understrength, but high manpower unit, with a high proportion of recent reinforcements. It only had Panzer IV, Sturmgesschütze and self-propelled anti-tank guns. The division was at the end of the second day in a condition that it was incapable to attack or of meaningful resistance.


At the end of day two, the Red Army stood deep in the rear of German 6th Army. No more organised re-supply of forces would be forthcoming, and 6th Army was doomed to be encircled and destroyed. Franz-Josef Strauss, who was to become a very important German politician after the war, served with the Panzerregiment of 13. Panzerdivision. He comments that the division had ceased to exist as a tactical unit on day three of the Soviet offensive: 'The enemy was everywhere.' Franz Josef Strau Dr. h. ...


The comment on the result of 66th Rifle Corps operations in Mazulenko is: 'Because of the reinforcement of the Corps and the deep battle arrangements of troops and units the enemy defenses were broken through at high speed.'


Comments by German survivors on the initial attack were: 'By the end of the barrage, Russian tanks were deep into our position.' (Hoffmann). A German battalion commander (Hauptmann Hans Diebisch, Commander II./IR579, 306.ID) commented: 'The fire assets of the German defense were literally destroyed by the Soviet fighter bombers attacking the main line of resistance and the rear positions. When the Russian infantry suddenly appeared inside the positions of the battalion and it tried to retreat, the Russian air force made this impossible. The battalion was dispersed und partly destroyed through the fire of the air force, mortars and machine guns.'


German-Romanian Combat

Concurrently, a coup d'état deposed the Romanian leader Marshal Ion Antonescu. German military formations tried to intervene, but were unable to achieve anything due to the Soviet attacks. German military formations guarding the Ploieşti oil fields were then attacked by Romanian troops, and attempted to withdraw to Hungary, again suffering heavy losses in the process. In June of 1941, after a brief period of nominal neutrality under King Carol, Romania joined the Axis Powers. ... Office Prime Minister, Conducător of Romania Term of office from September 4, 1940 until August 23, 1944 Profession Soldier, politician Political party none, formally allied with the Iron Guard Spouse Rasela Mendel Date of birth June 15, 1882 Place of birth PiteÅŸti, Romania Date of death June 1...


The alleged Romanian collapse

It is often alleged that the speed and totality of the German collapse were caused by Romanian betrayal. A study of the combat operations indicates that this is probably not correct. Romanian formations did resist the Soviet attack in many cases, but were ill-equipped to defend themselves effectively against a modern army, due to a lack of modern anti-tank, artillery, and anti-air weapons. In contrast to German claims, it appears that Romanian 1st Armoured Division did offer resistance against the Soviet breakthrough, but was quickly defeated. The actual surrender of Romania took place at a time when the Red Army already stood deep inside Romania, and German 6th Army had been cut off. Anti-tank refers to any method of combating military armored fighting vehicles, notably tanks. ... Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ... American troops mount an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defence, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ...


Consequences

The German formations suffered very high irrecoverable losses of ca. 200,000 men, while Soviet losses were extremely low for an operation of this size. The Soviet advance into Yugoslavia which was possible following the battle forced the rapid withdrawal of German formations in Greece and Yugoslavia to rescue them from being cut off.


On the political level, the attack led to a coup d'état in Romania, and the switch of Romania from the Axis to the Allies. Almost immediately, a small border war between Romania and Germany's ally Hungary erupted over territory that Romania was forced to cede to Hungary in 1940, as a result of the Second Vienna Award. The Second Vienna Award was the second of two Vienna Awards. ...


Losses

Soviet losses

Men:

  • 13,197 irrecoverable
  • 53,933 wounded/sick.

Material

  • 75 tanks and self-propelled guns
  • 108 guns and mortars
  • 111 aircraft

German losses

Men:

  • >250,000 men irrecoverable losses, unknown number of wounded.

Material:

  • 83 tanks and self-propelled guns (other sources [attribution needed] claim 830)
  • 3,500 guns
  • 3,300 motor vehicles (other sources [attribution needed] claim 35,000)
  • 330 planes

Formations and commands completely or largely destroyed:

  • 6. Armee
    • Command Staffs
      • IV. Armeekorps
      • VII. Armeekorps
      • XXX. Armeekorps
      • XXXXIV. Armeekorps
      • LII. Armeekorps
    • Divisions
      • 13. Panzerdivision
      • 9. Infanteriedivision
      • 15. Infanteriedivision
      • 62. Infanteriedivision
      • 76. Infanteriedivision
      • 79. Infanteriedivision
      • 106. Infanteriedivision
      • 161. Infanteriedivision
      • 257. Infanteriedivision
      • 258. Infanteriedivision
      • 282. Infanteriedivision
      • 294. Infanteriedivision
      • 302. Infanteriedivision
      • 306. Infanteriedivision
      • 320. Infanteriedivision
      • 335. Infanteriedivision
      • 370. Infanteriedivision
      • 376. Infanteriedivision
      • 384. Infanteriedivision
      • 153. Feldausbildungsdivision
  • 8. Armee
    • 10. Panzergrenadierdivision
  • Luftflotte 4
    • 5. Flakdivision

Romanian losses

  • 8,305 KIA
  • 24,989 WIA
  • 153,883MIA and POW

Formations and units involved

Soviet

  • 2nd Ukrainian Front - Army General Rodion Malinovsky
    • 6th Guards Tank Army - Major General A.G. Kravchenko
    • 18th Tank Corps - Major General V.I. Polozkov
    • Cavalry-Mechanized Group Gorshkov - Major General S.I. Gorshkov
      • 5th Guards Cavalry Corps
      • 23rd Tank Corps - Lieutenant General A.O. Akhmanov
    • 4th Guards Army - Galanin
    • 27th Army - Lieutenant General S.G. Trofimenko
    • 52nd Army - Koroteev
    • Seventh Guards Army - Shumilov
    • 40th Army - Lieutenant General F.F. Zhmachenko
    • 53rd Army - Lieutenant General I.M. Managarov
  • 3rd Ukrainian Front - Army General F.I. Tolbukhin
    • 5th Shock Army - Berzarin
    • 4th Guards Mechanized Corps - Major General V.I. Zhdanov
    • 7th Mechanized Corps - Major General F.G. Katkov
    • 57th Army - Lieutenant General N.A. Gagen
    • 46th Army - Lieutenant General I.T. Shlemin
    • 37th Army - Major General M.N. Scharokhin
      • 6th Guards Rifle Corps
      • 66th Rifle Corps
  • Black Sea Fleet

The Steppe Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Rodion Malinovsky Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Russian: , Rodion Jakovlevič Malinovskij; November 23, 1898-March 31, 1967) was a Soviet military commander, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s, who played a key role in World War II, including the major defeat... The Red Armys Seventh Guards Army, was redesignated from the Soviet 64th Army on 16 April 1943. ... The Southwestern Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ...

German

  • Army Group South Ukraine
    • 6. Armee
      • 13. Panzerdivision
      • 306. Infanteriedivision
      • 76. Infanteriedivision
    • 8. Armee
      • 10. Panzergrenadierdivision

The 6. ... Symbol of the 13th Panzer Division The 13th Panzer Division was created in 1934 or 1935 under the cover name Infanterieführer IV; it was unveiled as the 13th Infantry Division when the creation of the Wehrmacht was announced. ... The German Eighth Army (German: ) was a World War I and World War II field army. ...

Romanian

The Romanian Third Army was a field army that fought as part of the German Army Group B during World War II. It along with the Romanian Fourth Army bore the brunt of the Soviet Operation Uranus which saw the German Sixth Army encircled and destroyed during the Battle of... The Romanian Fourth Army was a field army that fought on the Axis side as part of the German Army Group B and later it fought on the Alliess side as part of the Soviet First Ukrainian Front during World War II. In August 1944, the Red Army entered...

Sources

  • Glantz, D., House, J. 'When Titans Clashed'
  • Glantz, D. 'Notes from the Art of War Symposium on the Iassy-Kishinev Operation'
  • Mazulenko, A. 'Die Zerschlagung der Heeresgruppe Südukraine'
  • Hoffmann, D. 'Die Magdeburger Division'
  • Kissel, H. 'Die Katastrophe in Rumänien'
  • Ziemke, E.F. 'Stalingrad to Berlin'
  • Website dedicated to the Romanian Army in WW II
  • Soldiers of the Great War
  • Link to external map of Eastern Front

 
 

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