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Encyclopedia > Battle of Prestonpans
Battle of Prestonpans
Part of Jacobite Rising

Depicts the Jacobite forces at the Battle of Prestonpans
Date: September 21, 1745
Location: Prestonpans (near Edinburgh), Scotland
Result: Jacobite victory
Combatants
British Army Jacobites
Commanders
John Cope Charles Edward Stuart
Strength
ca. 2500 men ca. 2300 men
Casualties
300 killed, 500 wounded, 1500 captured 30 killed, 70 wounded
Second Jacobite Rising
PrestonpansFalkirkCulloden

The Battle of Prestonpans was the first significant conflict in the second Jacobite Rising. The battle took place on September 21, 1745. The Jacobite army loyal to James Francis Edward Stuart and led by his son Charles Edward Stuart defeated the army loyal to the Hanoverian George II led by Sir John Cope. It is also known as the Battle of Gladsmuir. The battle was fought at Prestonpans, Lothian, Scotland. The victory was a huge morale boost for the Jacobites, and a heavily mythologized version of the story entered art and legend. Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones claimed by his... Image File history File links Battle_of_Prestonpans. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (including after 1707,when the de facto government deemed those thrones to... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Prestonpans is a small town found to the East of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the unitary council area of East Lothian . ... Edinburgh (pronounced ), Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic, is the second-largest city in Scotland and its capital city. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (including after 1707,when the de facto government deemed those thrones to... Sir John Cope (1690 - 1760) was a British general. ... Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart who was in turn the son of King James... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones claimed by his... During the Second Jacobite Rising, the Battle of Falkirk was the last noteworthy Jacobite success. ... Combatants Royal Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus Bonnie Prince Charlie Strength ca. ... Each Jacobite Rising formed part of a series of military campaigns by Jacobites attempting to restore the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (and after 1707, Great Britain) after James VII of Scotland and II of England was deposed in 1688 and the thrones claimed by his... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... // Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Frederick the Great destroys Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, is) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland (including after 1707,when the de facto government deemed those thrones to... Prince James Francis Edward Stuart or Stewart (June 10, 1688 – January 1, 1766) was a claimant of the thrones of Scotland and England (September 16, 1701 – January 1, 1766) who is more commonly referred to as The Old Pretender. ... Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Silvester Maria Stuart (December 31, 1720 – January 31, 1788), was the exiled claimant to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, commonly known as Bonnie Prince Charlie. Charles was the son of James Francis Edward Stuart who was in turn the son of King James... George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Sir John Cope (1690 - 1760) was a British general. ... Prestonpans is a small town found to the East of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the unitary council area of East Lothian . ... Lothian (Lowden in Scots, Lodainn in Gaelic) forms a traditional region of Scotland, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills. ... Motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within Europe Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ... // The word mythology (Greek: μυθολογία, from μυθος mythos, a story or legend, and λογος logos, an account or speech) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use supernatural events or characters to explain the nature of the universe and humanity. ...

Contents


The road to Prestonpans

In the summer of 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, commonly known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie," mounted a campaign to take Scotland with an eye towards reclaiming what he considered to be his throne. Against long odds, and aided by the early support of Donald Cameron of Lochiel, XIX chief of Clan Cameron,[1] his party of ten raised an army which eventually numbered over 2000 Scots as they marched to Glenfinnan and then to Edinburgh. About half-way along the picturesque Scottish West Highland Railway line between Fort William and Mallaig lies Glenfinnan station. ... Edinburgh (pronounced ), Dùn Èideann () in Scottish Gaelic, is the second-largest city in Scotland and its capital city. ...


The British respond

Sir John Cope, the general commanding government forces in Scotland, was commanded to raise forces to stop the rising. He did so, but the vast majority of his recruits had no experience whatsoever, and he was hampered by a variety of other issues including the sickness of his principal cavalry officer. Despite this, the officers apparently believed that the rebels would never attack a single force including both infantry and cavalry. They assured locals during their march that there would be no battle. [2] Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ...


Charles's army took Edinburgh with little or no fighting on the 16th of September; Cope, travelling by ship from Aberdeen, arrived too late to challenge them. This article is about the Scottish city. ...


The battle

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Cope's speech

On 20 September Cope's forces encountered Charles's advance guard. Cope decided to stand his ground and engage the Jacobite army. He drew up his army with a ditch to their front, and the park walls around Preston House protecting their right flank. Charles's Lieutenant General, Lord George Murray, knew the area well, and during the night he moved the Jacobite army across the ditch far to the left of Cope's army.[3] Cope kept fires burning and moved his forces during the night as the Highlanders advanced under cover of darkness. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Lord George Murray Lord George Murray (4 October 1694-11 October 1760) was a Scottish Jacobite general, most noted for his 1745 campaign under Bonnie Prince Charlie into England. ...


At the crack of dawn on 21 September 1745, Cope's dragoons beheld the spectacle of 1400 charging Highlanders accompanied "by wild Highland war cries and the bloodcurdling skirl of the pipes....".[2] It has been suggested that mounted infantry be merged into this article or section. ... Pipe Major Probably the most well known variety of bagpipes are the Great Highland Bagpipes (abbreviated GHBs, and commonly referred to simply as pipes), which were developed in Scotland and Ireland. ...


Cope's inexperienced army fled, despite Cope and his officers attempting to force them to charge at pistol point. Cope's army had faced to its left to meet the Jacobites, but the ditch and park walls were now blocking their retreat. The "battle" was over in five minutes with hundreds of government troops killed or wounded and 1500 held prisoner. The Highlanders suffered only around 100 troops killed or wounded. The wounded and prisoners were given the best care possible, to the Jacobites' merit.


Cope exonerated at court-martial

Despite the cowardice of his inexperienced troops and the humiliating fact that Cope had to report his overwhelming defeat personally to the garrison commander at Berwick, 50 miles away, the frequent accusations that Cope himself fled the battlefield appear to be incorrect. Cope and his officers were exonerated at court-martial. Martin B. Margulies, writing in History Scotland magazine, notes: North Berwick is a small Scottish seaside town in East Lothian, on the south shore of the Firth of Forth, about 25 miles east of Edinburgh. ...

The Report of the board's proceeding was published in 1749. Anyone who scrutinizes it closely can only conclude that the board was correct. What emerges from the pages is not, perhaps, the portrait of a military genius, but one of an able, energetic and conscientious officer, who weighed his options carefully, and who anticipated - with almost obsessive attention to detail - every eventuality except the one which he could not have provided for in any case: that his men would panic and flee.[4] Events While in debtors prison, John Cleland writes Fanny Hill (Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure). ...

The battle in art and legend

Subsequent public perception of the battle in general and General Cope in particular has been influenced by Adam Skirving's popular songs. Skirving was a local farmer who did not see the battle itself, but visited the battlefield later that afternoon where he was, by his own account, mugged by the victors. Skirving wrote two songs, "Johnnie Cope," and "Tranent Muir"; the former is quite well-known, and is a short, catchy, and mostly historically inaccurate insult to Cope. While Cope's troops fled the battle, he himself did not; nor is it true that he slept the night before. Poet Robert Burns later wrote his own words to the song, but these are not as well-known as Skirving's. Adam Skirving (1719 – April, 1803), Scottish song writer, was born in Haddington. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Robert Burns Robert Burns, preeminent Scottish poet Burns redirects here. ...


"Tranent Muir," on the other hand, is a long and graphically violent description of the battle, and some of the events depected are historically accurate. Myrie and Gardiner, mentioned in verses seven and eight, did in fact die in the battle. Lieutenant Smith, described in verse nine as fleeing the battle in dread, challenged Skirving to a duel after the song was published.[2]


The second Jacobite rising continues

The battle highly boosted the morale of Stuart's supporters, and more recruits were soon gained. At this point, the war was on Stuart's side but this would change at the Battle of Culloden, near Inverness. Combatants Royal Army Jacobite Forces Commanders William Augustus Bonnie Prince Charlie Strength ca. ... Inverness (Inbhir Nis in Scottish Gaelic) is the only city in the Scottish Highlands. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Cameron
  2. ^ a b c Brander
  3. ^ Thomasson
  4. ^ Marguiles

References

August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Template:Diffgggtgerent calendars 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... Template:Diffgggtgerent calendars 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Prestonpans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (863 words)
The Battle of Prestonpans was the first significant conflict in the second Jacobite Rising.
The battle was fought at Prestonpans, Lothian, Scotland.
The "battle" was over in five minutes with hundreds of government troops killed or wounded and 1500 held prisoner.
Prestonpans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (733 words)
Prestonpans is a small town to the East of Edinburgh, Scotland, in the unitary council area of East Lothian.
Salt panning was a very important industry in the early history of Prestonpans, indeed by the beginning of the 15th century there were ten salt works belonging to the town capable of producing between 800 and 900 bushels of salt per week.
The Battle of Prestonpans (also known as the Battle of Gladsmuir) was the first significant conflict in the second Jacobite Rising.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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