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Encyclopedia > Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
Part of the Seven Years' War

Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, by Francis Hayman (c. 1762).
Date June 23, 1757
Location Palashi, West Bengal, India
Result Decisive victory for British East India Company
Territorial
changes
Bengal annexed by British East India Company
Combatants
British East India Company Siraj Ud Daulah (Nawab of Bengal),
La Compagnie des Indes Orientales
Commanders
Colonel Robert Clive
(later Governor of Bengal and Baron of Plassey)
Mir Jafar Ali Khan, defected (Commander-in-chief of the Nawab),
M. Sinfray (French Secretary to the Council)
Strength
2,200 European soldiers,
2,100 Indian sepoys,[1]
100 gunners,[1]
9 cannon (eight six-pounders and a howitzer)
5,000 soldiers,a
53 cannon
Casualties
22 killed
(7 Europeans, 16 natives),
53 wounded
(13 Europeans and 36 natives) [1]
500 killed and wounded
a Out of the initial 35,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry, 45,000 of them were witheld by Mir Jafar, leaving 5,000 men to participate in the battle.[1]

The Battle of Plassey (Bengali: পলাশীর যুদ্ধ, Pôlashir Juddho) took place on June 23, 1757, at Palashi, West Bengal, India, on the banks of the Bhagirathi River, about 150 km north of Calcutta, near Murshidabad, then the capital of the Nawab of Bengal.The opponents were Siraj Ud Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, and the British East India Company. The battle was waged during the Seven Years' War in Europe (17561763); the French East India Company sent a small contingent to fight against the British East India Company. The naval Battle of Cuddalore took place on 29 April 1758 during the Seven Years War near Cuddalore off the Carnatic coast of India and was an indecisive battle between a British squadron under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and French squadron under Comte dAché. British casualties were 29 killed... The Battle of Negapatam was an indecisive battle between a British squadron under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and French squadron under Comte dAché off the Carnatic coast of India near Negapatam during the Seven Years War. ... The Battle of Pondicherry was an indecisive battle between a British squadron under Vice-Admiral George Pocock and French squadron under Comte dAché off the Carnatic coast of India near Pondicherry during the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Britain Philippines Spain Commanders William Draper Archbishop Manuel Rojo Strength 1,750 regulars, 4,500 sailors and marines 4,000 Filipino troops 1,000 regulars, 9,000 natives East Indies Campaign 1757–1763 Plassey – Cuddalore – Negapatam – Pondicherry – Manila The Battle of Manila of 1762 was fought in the Seven... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Palashi is a small hamlet type town located some 25 kilometres from Murshidabad in West Bengal India. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... Riverbank is a city located in Stanislaus County, California. ... The Bhagirathi is one of the two major tributaries of the Ganga. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Murshidabad is a city in West Bengal, India as well as a district in the state. ... siraj-ud-daula was the last independent nawab of bengal, he lost his state bengal to mir Quasim because he was busy in his luxurious life of a king ... Mîrzâ Mah. ... Nawab (Urdu: نواب ) was originally the subadar (provincial governor) or viceroy of a subah (province) or region of the Mughal empire. ... For other uses, see Bengal (disambiguation). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Combatants Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Great Britain and its American Colonies Electorate of Hanover Iroquois Confederacy Kingdom of Portugal Electorate of Brunswick Electorate of Hesse-Kassel Philippines Archduchy of Austria Kingdom of France Empire of Russia Kingdom of Sweden Kingdom of Spain Electorate of Saxony Kingdom of Naples and... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... French and other European settlements in India. ...


Siraj-ud-Daulah's army commander defected to the British, causing his army to collapse. As a result, the entire province of Bengal fell to the Company. The enormous wealth gained from the Bengal treasury allowed the Company to significantly strengthen its military might. Today, Plassey is judged to be one of the pivotal battles leading to the formation of the British Empire in India. The British Raj is an informal term for the British colonial administration of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, also included from 1886 was Burma. ...


Pôlash (Bengali: পলাশ), an extravagant red flowering tree (Flame of the forest), gives its name to a small village near the battlefield. A phonetically accurate romanization of the Bengali name would be Battle of Palashi, but the spelling "Plassey" is now conventional. Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Species See text. ...

Contents

Background

The ostensible reason for the Battle of Plassey was Siraj-ud-Daulah's capture of Fort William, Calcutta (which he renamed Alinagar) during June, 1756, but the battle is today seen as part of the geopolitical ambition of the East India Company and the larger dynamics of colonial conquest. Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


This conflict was precipitated by a number of disputes [2]:

  • The illegal use of Mughal Imperial export trade permits (dastaks) granted to the British in 1717 for engaging in internal trade within India. The British cited this permit as their excuse for not paying taxes to the Bengal Nawab.
  • British interference in the Nawab's court, and particularly their support for one of his aunts, Ghaseti Begum. The son of Ghaseti's treasurer had sought refuge in Fort William, and Siraj demanded his return.
  • Additional fortifications with mounted guns had been placed on Fort William without the consent of the Nawab; and
  • The British East India Company's policy of favouring Hindu Marwari merchants such as Jagat Sheth .

During this capture of Fort William, in June 1756, an event occurred that came to be known as the Black Hole of Calcutta. A narrative by one John Zephaniah Holwell, plus the testimony of another survivor, Cooke, to a select committee of the House of Commons, coupled with subsequent verification by Robert Orme, placed 146 British prisoners into a room measuring 18 by 15 feet, and only 23 survived the night. The story was amplified in colonial literature, but the facts are widely disputed[3]. In any event, the Black Hole incident, which is often cited as a reason for the Battle at Plassey, was not widely known until James Mill's History of India (1817), after which it became the grist of schoolboy texts on India. // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Birthplace of Marwari Clans Marwaris are the people from the Marwar region of Rajasthan in India. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small dungeon where troops of the Nawab of Bengal held British prisoners of war after the capture of Fort William on June 20, 1756. ... John Zephaniah Holwell (1711-1798) was a survivor of the so-called Black Hole of Calcutta and gained fame for his account of the incident. ... James Mill James Mill (April 6, 1773 - June 23, 1836), Scottish historian, economist and philosopher, was born at Northwater Bridge, in the parish of Logie-Pert, Angus, Scotland, the son of James Mill, a shoemaker. ...


As the forces for the battle were building up, the British settlement at Fort William sought assistance from Presidency of Fort St. George at Madras, which sent Colonel Robert Clive and Admiral Charles Watson. They re-captured Calcutta on January 2, 1757, but the Nawab marched again on Calcutta on February 5, 1757, and was surprised by a dawn attack by the British [4]. This resulted in the Treaty of Alinagar on February 7, 1757 [5]. Madras Presidency, also known as Madras Province and known officially as Presidency of Fort St. ... , “Madras” redirects here. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Charles Watson (1714 – August 16, 1757) naval officer and colonial governor of Newfoundland, Canada, died at Calcutta, India. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The treaty of Alinagar between Robert Clive of the british East India Company and the Bengal Nawab Mirza Muhammad Sirajuddaula, provided that: The nawab would recognize all the provisions of Farrukh Siyars Farman of 1717, English goods that passed through Bangal would be exempt from duties, The English would... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Growing French influence

At the connivance of the enterprising French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix, French influence at the court of the Nawab was growing. French trade in Bengal was also increasing in volume. The French also lent the Nawab some soldiers to operate heavy artillery pieces. Joseph François Dupleix // Joseph François Dupleix (January 1, 1697 — November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India, and was the great rival of Robert Clive. ...


Ahmad Shah Abdali

Siraj-Ud-Daulah faced conflicts on two fronts simultaneously. In addition to the threat posed by the British East India Company, he was confronted on his western border by the advancing army of the Afghan, Ahmad Shah Abdali, who had captured and looted Delhi in 1756. So, Siraj sent the majority of his troops west to fight under the command of his close friend and ally, the Diwan of Patna, Ram Narain. Ahmad Shah Abdālī (c. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Patna (disambiguation). ...


Court intrigue

In the midst of all of this, intrigues were occurring at Siraj Ud Daulah's court at Murshidabad. Siraj was not a particularly well-loved ruler. Young (he succeeded his grandfather in April, 1756 at the age of 23) and impetuous, he was prone to make enemies quickly. The most dangerous of these was his wealthy and influential aunt, Ghaseti Begum (Meherun-Nisa), who wanted another nephew, Shawkat Jang, installed as Nawab. 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Siraj's grand-Uncle and Commander-In-Chief of his army, Mir Jafar Ali Khan was also uneasy with Siraj, and was courted assiduously by Ghaseti Begum. Eventually, through the connivance of traders such as Amichand (who had suffered as a result of the siege of Calcutta), and William Watts, Mir Jafar was brought into the British fold. Syed Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan, or Mir Jafar (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ...


Company policy

The Company had long since decided that a change of regime would be conducive to their interests in Bengal. In 1752, Robert Orme, in a letter to Clive, noted that the company would have to remove Siraj's grandfather, Alivardi Khan, in order to prosper [6]. 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Orme (1728 - 1801), historian, son of an Indian army doctor, born at Travancore, and after being at Harrow, entered the service of the East India Company. ... Ali Vardi Khan was the independent nawab or ruler of Bengal between 1740 and 1756. ...


After the premature death of Alivardi Khan in April, 1756, his nominated successor was Siraj-ud-Daulah, a grandson whom Alivardi had adopted. The circumstances of this transition gave rise to considerable controversy and the British began supporting the intrigues of Alivardi's eldest daughter, Ghaseti Begum against that of his grandson, Siraj. 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Instructions dated October 13, 1756 from Fort St. George instructed Robert Clive, "to effect a junction with any powers in the province of Bengal that might be dissatisfied with the violence of the Nawab's government or that might have pretensions to the Nawabship". Accordingly, Clive deputised William Watts, chief of the Kasimbazar factory of the Company, who was proficient in Bengali and Persian, to negotiate with two potential contenders, one of Siraj's generals, Yar Latif Khan, and Siraj's grand-uncle and army chief, Mir Jafar Ali Khan. is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Syed Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan, or Mir Jafar (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ...


On April 23, 1757 the Select Committee of the Board of Directors of the British East India Company approved Coup d'état as its policy in Bengal. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Coup redirects here. ...


Mir Jafar, negotiating through an Armenian merchant, Khojah Petrus Nicholas, was the Company's final choice. Finally, on June 5, 1757 a written agreement was signed between the Company, represented by Clive, and Mir Jafar. It ensured that Mir Jafar would be appointed Nawab of Bengal once Siraj Ud Daulah was deposed. The Armenian Church in Armanitola Entrance to the Armenian Church The Armenian community of Dhaka played a significant role in Bengali trade and commerce in the 17th and 18th centuries. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Troops

The Honourable East India Company's army was vastly outnumbered, consisting of 950 Europeans and 2,100 native Indian sepoys and a small number of guns. The Nawab had an army of about 50,000 with some heavy artillery operated by about 40 French soldiers sent by the French East India Company. Out of the initial 50,000 army, however, 45,000 of them were withheld and only 5,000 men participated in the battle.[1] The companys flag initially had the flag of England, the St Georges Cross, in the canton The Honourable East India Company (HEIC), often colloquially referred to as John Company, and Company Bahadur in India, was an early joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... French and other European settlements in India. ...

Principal officers - British
  • Major Killpatrick
  • Major Grant
  • Then Major Eyre Coote, later Lieutenant-General, and then Sir Eyre Coote
  • Captain Gaupp
  • Captain Richard Knox, 1st CO of the 1st Bengal Native Infantry
Principal officers - Nawab
  • Mir Jafar Ali Khan - commanding 16,000 cavalry
  • Mir Madan
  • Manik Chand
  • Rai Durlabh
  • Monsieur Sinfray - French artillery officer
British East India Company Regiments

For his nephew, also a general, see Eyre Coote (the Younger) Sir Eyre Coote (1726 - April 28, 1783), was a British soldier. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Dorset Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... Five regiments of the British Army have been numbered the 103rd Regiment of Foot: 103rd Regiment of Foot (Volunteer Hunters), raised in 1760 103rd Regiment of Foot (Kings Irish Infantry), raised in 1782 103rd Regiment of Foot, raised in 1794 103rd Regiment of Foot, formed from garrison units in... The 102nd Regiment of Foot (Royal Madras Fusiliers) was an infantry regiment of the British Army, originally raised by the British East India Company and absorbed by the British Army in 1862. ... The 102nd Regiment of Foot (Royal Madras Fusiliers) was an Irish volunteer infantry regiment of the British India for the British East India Company. ... Six regiments of the British Army have been numbered the 101st Regiment of Foot: 101st Regiment of Foot, or Johnstones Highlanders, raised in 1760 101st Regiment of Foot, raised in 1780 101st Regiment of Foot, raised in 1794 101st Regiment of Foot (Duke of Yorks Irish), raised in... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ...

Battle details

The battle opened on a very hot and humid morning at 7:00 a.m. on June 23, 1757 where the Nawab's army came out of its fortified camp and launched a massive cannonade against the British camp. The 18th Century historian Ghulam Husain Salim describes what followed: is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

Mīr Muhammad Jafar Khān, with his detachment, stood at a distance towards the left from the main army; and although Sirāju-d-daulah summoned him to his side, Mīr Jafar did not move from his position. In the thick of the fighting, and in the heat of the work of carnage, whilst victory and triumph were visible on the side of the army of Sirāju-d-daulah, all of a sudden Mīr Madan, commander of the Artillery, fell on being hit with a cannon-ball. At the sight of this, the aspect of Sirāju-d-daulah’s army changed, and the artillerymen with the corpse of Mīr Madan moved into tents. It was now midday, when the people of the tents fled. As yet Nawāb Sirāju-d-daulah was busy fighting and slaughtering, when the camp-followers decamping from Dāūdpūr went the other side, and gradually the soldiers also took to their heels. Two hours before sun-set, flight occurred in Sirāju-d-daulah’s army, and Sirāju-d-daulah also being unable to stand his ground any longer fled.

[9]


At around 11:00 a.m., Mir Madan, one of the Nawab's most loyal officers, launched an attack against the fortified grove where the East Indian Company was located, and was mortally wounded by a British cannonball. This cannonade was essentially futile in any case; the British guns had greater range than those of the French.


At noon, a heavy rainstorm fell on the battlefield, wherein the tables were turned. The British covered their cannons and muskets for protection from the rain, whereas the French did not.


As a result, the cannonade ceased by 2:00 p.m. and the battle resumed where Clive's chief officer, Kilpatrick, launched an attack against the water ponds in between the armies. With their cannons and muskets completely useless, and with Mir Jafar's cavalry who were closest to the English refusing to attack Clive's camp, revealing his treachery, the Nawab was forced to order a retreat.


By 5:00 p.m., the Nawab's army was in full retreat and the British had command of the field.


The battle cost the British East India Company just 22 killed and 50 wounded (most of these were native sepoys), while the Nawab's army lost at least 500 men killed and wounded [10].


Aftermath

The Battle of Plassey is considered as a starting point to the events that established the era of British dominion and conquest in India.


Mir Jafar's fate

Mir Jafar, for his betrayal of the Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah and alliance with the British, was installed as the new Nawab, while Siraj Ud Daulah was captured on July 2 in Murshidabad as he attempted to escape further north. He was later executed on the order of Mir Jafar's son Miran. Ghaseti Begum and other powerful women were transferred to a prison in distant Dhaka, where they eventually drowned in a boat accident, widely thought to have been ordered by Mir Jafar. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Syed Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan, or Mir Jafar (born 1691 – died February 5, 1765) was a monarchical ruler (Nawab) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. ...


Mir Jafar as Nawab chafed under the British supervision, and so requested the Dutch East India Company to intervene. They sent seven ships and about 700 sailors up the Hoogley to their settlement, but the British led by Colonel Forde managed to defeat them at Chinsura on November 25, 1759. Thereafter Mir Jafar was deposed as Nawab (1760) and they appointed Mir Kasim Ali Khan, (Mir Jafar's son-in-law) as Nawab. Mir Kasim showed signs of independence and was defeated in the Battle of Buxar (1764), after which full political control shifted to the Company. This article is about the trading company. ... Hugli-Chinsura (also commonly known as Hooghly-Chinsura) is a town in West Bengal, India. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Bengal, British East India Company Commanders Mir Kasim, Hector Munro Strength 40,000 infantry, 18,000 infantry, Casualties high low Battle of Buxar (October 1764) was a significant battle fought between the forces under the command of the British East India Company on the one side, and the combined...


Mir Jafar was re-appointed and remained the titular Nawab until his death in 1765, while all actual power was exercised by the Company. Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Rewards

As per their agreement, Clive collected £ 2.5 million for the company, and £ 234,000 for himself from the Nawab's treasury [11]. In addition, Watts collected £ 114,000 for his efforts. The annual rent of £ 30,000 payable by the Company for use of the land around Fort William was also transferred to Clive for life. To put this wealth in context, an average British nobleman could live a life of luxury on an annual income of £ 800 [12].


Robert Clive was appointed Governor of Bengal in 1765 for his efforts. William Watts was appointed Governor of Fort William on June 22, 1758. But he later resigned in favour of Robert Clive, who was also later appointed Baron of Plassey in 1762. Clive later committed suicide in 1774, after being addicted to opium. Year 1765 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Watts (1722 - 04 Aug 1764) was chief of the Kasimbazar (or Cossimbazar) factory of the British East India Company. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Chesma Column in Tsarskoe Selo, commemorating the end of the Russo-Turkish War. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Terms of agreement

These were the terms agreed between the new Nawab and the Company:

  1. Confirmation of the mint, and all other grants and privileges in the Alinagar treaty with the late Nawab.
  2. An alliance, offensive and defensive, against all enemies whatever.
  3. The French factories and effects to be delivered up, and they never permitted to resettle in any of the three provinces.
  4. 100 lacs of rupees to be paid to the Company, in consideration of their losses at Calcutta and the expenses of the campaign.
  5. 50 lacs to be given to the British sufferers at the loss of Calcutta
  6. 20 lacs to Gentoos, Moors, & black sufferers at the loss of Calcutta.
  7. 7 lacs to the Armenian sufferers. These three last donations to be distributed at the pleasure of the Admiral and gentlemen of Council.
  8. The entire property of all lands within the Mahratta ditch, which runs round Calcutta, to be vested in the Company: also, six hundred yards, all round, without, the said ditch.
  9. The Company to have the zemindary of the country to the south of Calcutta, lying between the lake and river, and reaching as far as Culpee, they paying the customary rents paid by the former zemindars to the government.
  10. Whenever the assistance of the British troops shall be wanted, their extraordinary charges to be paid by the Nawab.
  11. No forts to be erected by the Nawab's government on the river side, from Hooghley downwards.

A lakh (Hindi: लाख, Urdu: Ù„Ú©Ú¾, Bengali: , Tamil : இலட்சம்) is a unit in the Indian numbering system, widely used both in official and other contexts in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan. ... The Hoogli River (alternatively spelled Hooghly) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ...

Trivia

  • One of members of Clive's entourage at Plassey was a young volunteer called Warren Hastings. He was appointed the British Resident at the Nawab's court in 1757. Warren later became the first Governor-General of India for the British East India Company from 1773 to 1786, he was impeached for corruption.
  • Clive was later awarded the title Baron of Plassey and bought lands in County Limerick and County Clare, Ireland naming part of his lands near Limerick City, Plassey. It retains this name to this day and is now the site of the University of Limerick.
  • The French guns captured at this battle can still be visited at the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta.
  • The infamous meeting between Mir Jafar and Watts took place at Jaffarganj, a village close to Murshidabad. Mir Jafar's palace now stands in ruins at the place, but close to it is a gate called Nemak Haramer Deori (literally traitor's gate) where Watts is supposed to have entered the palace disguised as a purdanasheen (Urdu for veiled) lady in a palanquin.
  • One of the unseen protagonists of the court drama was a wealthy Marwari trader who went by the family name Jagat Sheth (Hindi: World Banker (actual name - Mahtab Chand)). He was a hereditary banker to the Mughal Emperor and the Nawab of Bengal and thus well conversant with court intrigues. He negotiated a 5% commission from Clive for his assistance with the court intrigue to defeat Siraj. However, when Clive refused to pay him after his success, he is supposed to have gone mad. The family (i.e. Jagat Sheths) remained bankers to the Company until the transfer of the British head quarters to Calcutta in 1773 [13].
  • The Indian rebellion of 1857 began almost exactly a century later during May, 1857
  • Plassey Day is still celebrated by 9(Plassey) Battery, Royal Artillery

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Warren Hastings (December 6, 1732 - August 22, 1818) was the first governor-general of British India, from 1773 to 1786. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive, meeting with Mir Jafar after Plassey, by Francis Hayman Major-General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey, KB (29 September 1725 - 22 November 1774), also known as Clive of India, was the soldier of fortune and commander who established the military supremacy of the... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... County Clare (Contae an Chláir in Irish) is in the Irish province of Munster. ... For other uses, see Limerick (disambiguation). ... Plassey is an area of County Limerick on the River Shannon, near Castletroy and Limerick. ... The University of Limerick (UL) was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989. ... Facade of the Victoria Memorial The Victoria Memorial, located in Kolkata, India is a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom who also carried the title of Empress of India. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Marwari may refer to: Marwari Site, Connecting Marwaris :TheMarwari. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of Oudh and Jhansi. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

Quotes

  • "A great prince was dependent on my pleasure, an opulent city lay at my mercy; its richest bankers bid against each other for my smiles; I walked through vaults which were thrown open to me alone, piled on either hand with gold and jewels! Mr. Chairman, at this moment I stand astonished at my own moderation" - Baron Robert Clive commenting on accusations of looting the Bengal treasury after Plassey, at his impeachment trial in 1773 [14] [15]
  • "Heaven-born general" - British Prime Minister William Pitt 'The Elder', Earl of Chatham referring to Robert Clive
  • "It is possible to mention men who have owed great worldly prosperity to breaches of private faith; but we doubt whether it is possible to mention a state which has on the whole been a gainer by a breach of public faith." - Thomas Babington, Lord Macaulay, later British Secretary at War, who condemned Clive's actions

Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Macaulay Thomas Babington Macaulay at the age of forty-nine — after an engraving by W. Holl, from a drawing by George Richmond Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay, PC (25 October 1800 – 28 December 1859) was a nineteenth-century English poet, historian and Whig politician. ... The Secretary at War was a position with some responsibility over the administration of the British military. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d Paul K. Davis (1999). 100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present, p. 240-244. Santa Barbara, California. ISBN 1-57607-075-1.
  2. ^ Dirks, Nicholas. Scandal of the Empire - India and the creation of Imperial Britain London, Harvard University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-674-02166-5
  3. ^ Dalley, JanThe Black Hole: Money, Myth and Empire,London, Fig Tree, June 2006, ISBN 0-670-91447-9
  4. ^ Robert Clive reports to his father on his victory over Sirajuddaulah, 23 February 1757
  5. ^ Bad Link
  6. ^ Hill,S.C. The Indian Record Series, Bengal in 1756-7., 3 vols. London, 1895-1905, Vol. 2:307
  7. ^ The British Army
  8. ^ 9 (PLASSEY) BATTERY ROYAL ARTILLERY, THE BATTLE OF PLASSEY, 23 JUNE 1757
  9. ^ Ghulam Husain Salim Riyazu-s-Salatin (Calcutta) 1902 Fasc. IV Available Here
  10. ^ Robert Clive's letter to the Select Committee of the Board of Directors of the British East India Company reporting on the battle, 26 July 1757 - at the Project South Asia
  11. ^ This requested article does not exist
  12. ^ Prices & Money, The Salacious Historian's Lair
  13. ^ Macaulay, Thomas Babbington Critical and Historical Essays, London, 1828, Part III
  14. ^ Bad Link
  15. ^ Dirks, Nicholas. Scandal of the Empire - India and the creation of Imperial Britain London, Harvard University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-674-02166-5

Further reading

  • Chaudhury, S. The Prelude to Empire; Palashi Revolution of 1757,, New Delhi, 2000.
  • Datta, K.K. Siraj-ud-daulah,, Calcutta, 1971.
  • Gupta, B.K. Sirajuddaulah and the East India Company, 1756-1757, Leiden, 1962
  • Harrington, Peter. Plassey 1757, Clive of India's Finest Hour, Osprey Campaign Series #35, Osprey Publishing, 1994.
  • Hill, S.C. The Three Frenchmen in Bengal or The Commercial Ruin of the French Settlement in 1757, 1903
  • Landes, David S. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York: Norton and Company, 1999.
  • Marshall, P.J. Bengal - the British Bridgehead, Cambridge, 1987.
  • Raj, Rajat K. Palashir Sharajantra O Shekaler Samaj, Calcutta, 1994.
  • Sarkar, J.N. The History of Bengal, 2, Dhaka, 1968.
  • Spear, Percival Master of Bengal. Clive and His India London, 1975
  • Strang, Herbert. In Clive's Command, A Story of the Fight for India, 1904

External links


 
 

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