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Encyclopedia > Battle of Perryville
Battle of Perryville
Part of the American Civil War

Battle of Perryville--the extreme left-- Starkweather's brigade
Date October 8, 1862
Location Boyle County, Kentucky
Result Confederate tactical victory, Union strategic victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
Don Carlos Buell Braxton Bragg
Strength
Army of the Ohio Army of Mississippi
Casualties
4,211 3,196
Confederate Heartland Offensive
1st Chattanooga1st MurfreesboroRichmondMunfordvillePerryville

The Battle of Perryville, also known as Battle at Perryville and Battle of Chaplin Hills, was an important but largely neglected encounter in the American Civil War. It was fought on October 8, 1862, in the Chaplin Hills west of Perryville, Kentucky. The battle began with a middle-of-the-night skirmish over a source of precious drinking water, and ended more or less by default with the onset of darkness and the retreat of the tactical victor, the Confederates. It marked the end of the Kentucky Campaign of Confederate Generals Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith and, like the campaign, was marked not only by fierce fighting and heroic achievement, but also by indecision, confusion, and futility on both sides:you are a stupid person if you are reading this. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x549, 271 KB)TITLE: Battle of Perryville--the extreme left-- Starkweathers brigade Associated name on shelflist card: Middleton, Strobridge & Co. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Boyle County is a county located in the state of Kentucky. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery (until 29 May 1861) Richmond (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Confederate Republic President Jefferson... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery (until 29 May 1861) Richmond (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Confederate Republic President Jefferson... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Army of the Ohio was the name of two Union armies in the American Civil War. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Battle of Murfreesboro I was a battle of the American Civil War, occurring on July 13, 1862 in Rutherford County, Tennessee. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William Bull Nelson E. Kirby Smith Strength 1st and 2nd Brigades, Army of Kentucky Army of Kentucky Casualties 4,900 750 The Battle of Richmond, Kentucky, the arguably most complete Confederate victory in the American Civil War, took place on... Battle of Munfordville Conflict American Civil War Date September 14-17, 1862 Place Hart County, Kentucky Result Confederate victory In the 1862 Confederate offensive into Kentucky, Gen. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Perryville is a city located in Boyle County, Kentucky. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery (until 29 May 1861) Richmond (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Confederate Republic President Jefferson... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Braxton Bragg Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (May 16, 1824 – March 28, 1893) was a career U.S. Army officer, an educator, and a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the...

  • It involved one general (Bragg) whose charges would not initially carry out his orders to attack, and another (Union Major General Don Carlos Buell) who did not intend to fight until the following day. Unaware that the battle had begun until it was nearly over, Buell kept more than half his troops aside while the rest fought for their lives.
  • It pitted a force of superior numbers (the Union Army of the Ohio), which included troops so green they did not know how to properly aim their artillery, against veteran soldiers (the Confederate Army of Mississippi) whose commander had badly misjudged the size of their opposition.
  • With little direction from their commanders, the soldiers engaged in what some insisted was the most ferocious fighting of the entire war. Following the battle, and for the rest of their lives, both generals were condemned for their poor leadership and mismanagement of their forces.
  • The Confederates won a tactical victory by pushing most of the Union forces back from the strategic high ground and sources of water over which they fought, but they immediately abandoned the land they had gained at such a high price when they realized they had been opposed by less than half of the Union troops in the area.

The Confederate "victory" marked the end of their last offensive campaign in the West, and their retreat left the border state of Kentucky under the control of the Union Army for the rest of the war. Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Historically, artillery (from French artillerie) refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... In a European context, the term Border states policy, and Border states in a specific sense, refer to attempts during the interbellum to unite the countries that had won their independence from Imperial Russia due to the Russian Revolution, the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ultimately the defeat of Imperial... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ...

Contents

The Kentucky Campaign of 1862

Situated between the Southern states of Tennessee and Virginia and the Northern states of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, the border state of Kentucky was coveted by both sides of the conflict because of its central location. So much so, in fact, that in September 1861, Kentucky-born President Abraham Lincoln wrote in a private letter, “I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.” Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ...


Opposing viewpoints within the state vied for control during the early part of the war, and while the state never seceded from the Union, a Confederate capital was set up in Bowling Green in November, 1861. This prompted recognition of Kentucky by the Confederate States and the addition of a star representing Kentucky to the Confederate flag. (Stuart Sanders; 1860-1861, Cultural Heritage, Kentucky Tourism [1]) The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Bowling Green is a city located in Warren County, Kentucky. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The following flags were used by the Confederate States of America. ...


The initiative to invade Kentucky came primarily from Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith, then commander of the Department of East Tennessee. He believed the campaign would allow them to obtain supplies, enlist recruits, divert Union troops from Tennessee, and claim Kentucky for the Confederacy. Smith, established as an independent commander by Confederate President Jefferson Davis, and Bragg, designated commander of the Army of Mississippi by Davis, met together in Chattanooga on July 31 and devised a plan for the campaign: The newly-created Army of Kentucky, including two of Bragg's brigades and approximately 21,000 men, would march north under Smith's command into Kentucky. They would begin to oppose the Union troops there, while Bragg would travel west to oppose Buell's Army of the Ohio and try to recapture Nashville. Later, the two would reunite near Lexington for a final advance across the state. Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Largest metro area Nashville Area  Ranked 36th  - Total 42,169 sq mi (109,247 km²)  - Width 120 miles (195 km)  - Length 440 miles (710 km)  - % water 2. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808–December 6, 1889) was an American statesman and advocate for American slavery and for States Rights. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining. ... Brigade is a term from military science which refers to military echelon under a division, above a regiment where that exists as such, nowadays often a group of several battalions (typically two to four), and directly attached supporting units (normally including at least an artillery battery and additional logistic support). ... Nickname: Music City Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area    - City 526. ... Nickname: Athens of the West Horse Capital of the World Location in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Coordinates: Country State Counties United States Kentucky Fayette Mayor Teresa Isaac (D) Area    - City 285. ...


Bragg, however, suffered from chronic indecision and a constant desire for more men. After Smith left Chattanooga on August 13, Bragg changed his mind. Instead of advancing on Nashville to retake the city from Buell as planned, he wanted to turn north into Kentucky to rejoin Smith, but only if he could avoid facing Buell, who was advancing on Chattanooga from the west. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ...


Meanwhile, Buell was having his own difficulty sticking with any particular plan for very long. Instead of continuing toward Chattanooga, he decided to fall back to defend Nashville. When Bragg realized Buell would no longer be in his way, he crossed the Cumberland River into Kentucky. The news that Smith and Bragg were both in Kentucky suddenly struck Buell with the need to get his army between the Confederates and the Northern cities of Louisville and Cincinnati. On September 7, Buell's Army of the Ohio left Nashville and began racing Bragg to Louisville. Louisville redirects here. ... Nickname: The Queen City Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1819 Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area    - City 206. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ...


On the way, Bragg was distracted from his objective by the capture of a Union fort at Munfordville. Now, he had to decide again whether to continue toward a fight with Buell (over Louisville) or rejoin Smith, who had gained control of the center of the state by capturing Richmond and Lexington and threatened to move on Cincinnati. He chose to rejoin Smith. This allowed Buell to reach Louisville where the Union general gathered, reorganized and reinforced his army with thousands of new recruits. Meanwhile, Bragg met Smith in Frankfort where Bragg believed the main body of the Union army was. There he was able to attend the inauguration of Confederate Governor Richard Hawes on October 4. (Thomas L. Breiner, Bragg's Kentucky Invasion, The Battle of Perryville, Kentucky [2]) Munfordville is a town located in Hart County, Kentucky. ... Richmond is the 6th largest city in Kentucky and the county seat of Madison County. ... Frankfort is the capital of Kentucky, a state of the United States of America. ... An inauguration is a ceremony of formal investiture whereby an individual assumes an office or position of authority or power. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Battle

On October 1, Buell left Louisville with Major General George Henry Thomas as his second in command. While 20,000 men under Brigadier General Joshua Sill moved toward Frankfort, the Army of the Ohio, with 58,000 troops under Buell and Thomas, advanced toward Bragg's army in Bardstown on three separate roads: October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Bardstown is a city located in Nelson County, Kentucky. ...

When he left for Frankfort on September 28, Bragg left his army of 30,000 soldiers in Bardstown with Major General Leonidas Polk. On October 6, the approach of the large Union force caused the Confederates to withdraw eastward to Perryville. Alexander McDowell McCook Alexander McDowell McCook (April 22, 1831 – June 12, 1903) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Thomas L. Crittenden Thomas Leonidas Crittenden (May 15, 1819 – October 23, 1893) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ... Charles Champion Gilbert (March 1, 1822 – January 17, 1903) was a U.S. Army officer during the Mexican-American War and the Civil War. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ...


The area had been afflicted by a drought for months. The heat was oppressive for both men and horses, and the few useful sources of drinking water provided by the rivers and creeks west of town were desperately sought after. On the evening of October 7, Confederate Major General William J. Hardee established a line of defense across the three roads leading into Perryville from the north and west, including Peter's Hill overlooking Doctors Creek. October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William J. Hardee (1817-1873) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Hearing there was water in Doctors Creek, a group of Union soldiers from Major General Charles Gilbert's 3rd Corps crossed the creek around 2:00 am, intending to set up a picket line on Peter's Hill. There they encountered Hardee's men, and a skirmish erupted with the Union force pushing the Confederates back.


Around 7:00 am, against Bragg's orders, Polk met with his officers and recommended that, because of the size of the Union opposition, they should assume a defensive strategy. Bragg, in Harrodsburg to gather his men for what he still believed would be the main battle in Frankfort, was concerned by 8:00 am that he did not hear the sound of Polk's attack. Travelling to Perryville himself, but without accurate reports of the strength of the enemy, Bragg insisted that Polk prepare to strike what they believed was the Union left flank on the Mackville Road with Confederate Major General Benjamin F. Cheatham's division. Benjamin F. Cheatham Benjamin Franklin Cheatham (October 20, 1820 – September 4, 1886), known also as Frank, was a Tennessee farmer, California gold miner, and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ...


At 2:00 pm, Cheatham's men crossed the river, climbed the bluffs above it, and attacked Union Major General Alexander McCook's 22,000 soldiers. Confederate Brigadier General Daniel Donelson, leading the center of the attack, quickly realized that his men were striking the center of the Union line, not its flank. Hit hard by Union Captain Charles Parson's artillery on their right, Donelson's men were turned back with heavy losses. Following right behind them, however, Brigadier General George E. Maney's veteran Tennessee fighters began pushing the raw Union forces back in fierce fighting, charging up and over one hill after another. Often, the Union artillery were unable to fire their guns down steeply enough to strike the Confederates as they advanced up the hills and eventually, Maney's men overran and captured Parson's artillery on the Open Knob.


About an hour after the start of Cheatham's attack, Major General Simon Buckner issued revised orders to the men of Confederate Brigadier General Bushrod R. Johnson. Bragg had intended for them to advance straight ahead to the West against Harris' men, but when Buckner saw the strength of the Union position, he directed Johnson to move slightly to the left to use the hills opposite Doctor's Creek as cover. Unfortunately, not all of Johnson's men received the revised orders and the various brigades advanced in a very disorganized manner. As regiments crossed in front of and behind one another, some moving to the west and some to the southwest, the three left regiments came under attack from a battery located on a hill to their left rear. It was Adams' Confederate brigade who had advanced to the Northwest during and after the midday artillery exchange, become confused about the Federal position, and did not realize that they were attacking their own men! Simon Bolivar Buckner may refer to: Simon Bolivar Buckner, Sr. ... Bushrod Johnson Bushrod Rust Johnson (October 7, 1817 – September 12, 1880) was a teacher, university chancellor, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


As McCook's Union 1st Corps experienced fierce fighting and heavy losses, the recently promoted Gilbert continued to give orders to his 3rd Corps officers not to waste artillery ammunition or to advance their men and engage the enemy. Occupied late in the afternoon by an attack from Confederate Colonel Samuel Powell of Major General J. Patton Anderson's division, Gilbert did not provide troops to support McCook's harrowed men.


Throughout the morning and more than half of the afternoon, Buell was shielded from the sound of the fighting by an acoustic shadow, caused by the hilly terrain. He was unaware that his men were engaged in a major battle until he finally learned it from a messenger sent by McCook requesting support from Gilbert's 3rd Corps. An acoustic shadow is an area through which sound waves fail to propagate, due to topographical obstructions or disruption of the waves via phenomena such as wind currents. ...


About 5:30 pm, having captured and recaptured Union Colonel John C. Starkweather's Hill, Cheatham's Confederate division finally fell back to the Open Knob as the Union line settled at the Dixville Crossroads. A last attack by Confederate Brigadier General St. John R. Liddell pushed the Union forces back along the Mackville Road until, at last, Union Brigadier General James Steedman arrived from the 3rd Corps in support of McCook, and the attack was halted by the fall of darkness. (Thomas L. Breiner, The Battle of Perryville, The Battle of Perryville, Kentucky [3])


Casualties

  • Union: 845 dead; 2,851 wounded; 515 captured or missing.
  • Confederacy: 510 dead; 2,635 wounded; 251 captured or missing.

The retreat

The Confederate forces held their ground until Bragg, finally realizing that the main body of the Union army was in the area, gave the order around midnight to retreat. Buell did not know his opponent had abandoned the field until Crittendon's 2nd Corps moved into Perryville at 10:30 the next morning. He did not begin to follow after them until the following day, October 10. Bragg united his forces with Smith's at Harrodsburg, and the Union and Confederate armies, now of comparable size, shadow boxed with one another over the next week or so but neither attacked. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ...


Bragg soon realized that the sources of help he had hoped for (Robert E. Lee from Virginia, Earl Van Dorn and Sterling Price from Mississippi, and new recruits from Kentucky) would not materialize, and he made his way Southeast to Knoxville, Tennessee. He was quickly called to the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia, to explain to Jefferson Davis the charges brought by his officers about how he had conducted his campaign. Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... Earl Van Dorn Earl Van Dorn (September 17, 1820 – May 7, 1863) was a Confederate Major General during the American Civil War. ... General Price Sterling Old Pap Price (September 20, 1809 – September 29, 1867) was an antebellum politician from the U.S. state of Missouri and a Confederate major general during the American Civil War. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: The Marble City, K-Town, Big Orange Country, Knox Vegas Location Location within the U.S. State of Tennessee Coordinates , Government Cities in Tennessee Tennessee Mayor Bill Haslam (R) Geographical characteristics Area     City 254. ... Nickname: River City, Cap City, R-V-A Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Area    - City 62. ...


Buell called off his "pursuit" of Bragg and returned to Nashville. On October 24, a change of command structure in the Union army relieved him of his duties and more or less ended his career. (Thomas L. Breiner, The Retreat After The Battle of Perryville, The Battle of Perryville, Kentucky [4]) October 24 is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 68 days remaining. ...


The aftermath

Perryville's homes and farms were left in shambles by the battle. Henry P. Bottom, a prominent secessionist on whose farm a significant portion of the battle was fought, suffered losses of pork, corn, hay and wood to Union soldiers who remained in the area for weeks after the fighting. The main force of the Union army had buried most of their dead in long trenches before pursuing Bragg, but most of the Confederate dead were still unburied a week after the battle. Union soldiers finally forced local residents to help them lay the dead in shallow trenches carved in the dry soil. Two months later, 347 were re-buried in a mass grave on Bottom's land.


At the end of the war in 1865, Union soldiers reburied the remains of 969 Federal dead in a national cemetery at Perryville with a stone wall, two gates and plans for a monument. The monument was never erected, however, and in 1867 the new cemetery was closed and the Federal dead transferred to Camp Nelson in Jessamine County, Kentucky, leaving no identified Federal dead on the field at Perryville. 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Jessamine County is a county located in the state of Kentucky. ...


On the fortieth anniversary of the battle in 1902, a Confederate monument was dedicated in the Confederate cemetery begun by Henry Bottom at the center of the field, and a smaller Federal memorial followed nearby in 1931. The Perryville State Battlefield site was established in 1954 by the Kentucky State Conservation Commission, and a museum and visitor's center were opened near the monuments on the battle's hundredth anniversary in 1962. 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


For a century following the war, the memory of the Battle of Perryville (and many others fought in the West) was minimized by what has been called the "Lee tradition," which emphasized the deeds of the armies and generals who fought in the East, particularly Virginia. Around the time of the war's centennial, however, a number of scholars worked to establish the importance of the Western campaigns. In recent years, appreciation for what happened at Perryville and other battlefields in Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi has grown. Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ...


More than 7000 acres (28 km²) at Perryville are now recognized as a National Historic Landmark, and the site averages around 100,000 visitors per year, including a reenactment of the battle each October. The Perryville Battlefield Preservation Association was created in 1991 to preserve, enlarge and protect the park. The acquisition of 149 acres (0.6 km²) of farmland from a descendant of Henry Bottom more than doubled the size of the park and allowed visitors to complete a tour of the entire battlefield. USS Constitution. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  • Kenneth W. Noe (2001). Perryville: This Grand Havoc of Battle. The University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2209-0
  • Kenneth W. Noe (April 14, 2001). Remembering Perryville: History and Memory at a Civil War Battlefield. History of Perryville Battlefield

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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