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Encyclopedia > Battle of Notium
Battle of Notium
Part of the Peloponnesian War
Date: 406 BC
Location: Near Ephesus and Notium
Result: Spartan Victory
Combatants
Sparta Athens
Commanders
Lysander Antiochus
Strength
70 ships 80 ships
Casualties
none 22 ships
Peloponnesian War
SybotaPotidaeaChalcisNaupactusTanagraOlpaePylosSphacteriaDeliumAmphipolisMantineaSicilian ExpeditionSymeCynossemaCyzicusNotiumArginusaeAegospotami

Th Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War. Prior to the battle, the Athenian commander, Alcibiades, left his helmsman, Antiochus, in command of the Athenian fleet, which was blockading the Spartan fleet in Ephesus. In violation of his orders, Antiochus attempted to draw the Spartans into battle by tempting them with a small decoy force. His strategy backfired, and the Spartans under Lysander scored a small but symbolically significant victory over the Athenian fleet. This victory resulted in the downfall of Alcibiades, and established Lysander as a commander who could defeat the Athenians at sea. Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC - 406 BC - 405 BC 404 BC... Ephesus ( Turkish: Efes, Greek: Έφεσσος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... At the Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, the Spartan fleet of Lysander defeated a part of the Athenian fleet, resulting in the recall of Alcibiades, the Athenian admiral. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Lysander (d. ... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Battle of Sybota Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 433 BC Place Off Corcyra Result Indecisive The Battle of Sybota took place in 433 BC between Corcyra and Corinth. ... Battle of Potidaea Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 432 BC Place Potidaea Result Athenian victory The Battle of Potidaea was, with the Battle of Sybota, one of the catalysts for the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Chalcis Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 429 BC Place Chalcis Result Athenian defeat The Battle of Chalcis took place in 429 BC between Athens and the Chalcidians and their allies, in the early part of the Peloponnesian War. ... The naval Battle of Naupactus took place over the course of a week in 429 BC, in the early part of the Peloponnesian War, between the Athenian fleet under Phormio and a combined Spartan and Corinthian fleet. ... Battle of Tanagra Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 426 BC Place Tanagra Result Athenian victory The Battle of Tanagra was a battle in the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC between Athens and Tanagra. ... Battle of Olpae Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 426 BC Place Olpae Result Athenian victory The Battle of Olpae was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 426 BC, between armies led by Athens and Sparta. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Thrasymelidas Brasidas Strength 50 ships Hundreds of troops 60 ships Unknown troops Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Demosthenes Cleon Epitadas† Styphon Strength About 3000 440 Casualties Very few (about 230) 148 The Battle of Sphacteria was a battle of the Peloponnesian War in 425 BC, between Athens and Sparta. ... The Battle of Delium took place in 424 BC between the Athenians and the Boeotians, and ended with the siege of Delium in the following weeks. ... Combatants Athens Sparta Commanders Cleon† Nicias Thucydides Brasidas† Clearidas Strength About 2000 About 2500 Casualties About 600 8 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Amphipolis was fought in 422 BC during the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta. ... The Battle of Mantinea took place in 418 BC between Sparta and its allies, and an army led by Argos and Athens. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Syme Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Syme Result Indecisive The Battle of Syme was a naval battle in 411 BC between Sparta and Athens, during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Cynossema Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 411 BC Place Off Cynossema Result Athenian victory The Battle of Cynossema was a naval battle in the Hellespont in 411 BC between Athens and Sparta, around the same time the Athenian democracy was overthrown in favour of a short_lived oligarchy. ... The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ... The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BCE during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Aegospotami Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 405 BC Place Aegospotami Result Spartan victory The battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC was the destruction of the Athenian navy in the Peloponnesian War, and led directly to Athens final defeat by Sparta in the following year. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC - 406 BC - 405 BC 404 BC... Map of the Greek world at the start of the Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian War began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína (IPA: )) is the capital of Greece and one of the most famous cities in the world, named after goddess Athena. ... Alcibiades Alcibiades Cleiniou Scambonides (also Alkibiades) (ancient Greek: Αλκιβιαδες Κλεινιου Σκαμβωνιδες)¹ (c. ... Sparta (Σπάρτη) was a city in ancient Greece, whose territory included, in Classical times, all Laconia and Messenia, and which was the most powerful state of the Peloponnesus. ... Ephesus ( Turkish: Efes, Greek: Έφεσσος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was one of the great cities of the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster river flows into the Aegean Sea (in modern day Turkey). ... Lysander (d. ...

Contents


Prelude

In 407 BC, Lysander was appointed as navarch, commander of the Spartan fleet. Gathering a fleet as he went, he sailed west across the Aegean from Sparta and eventually reached Ephesus, where he established his base, with 70 triremes, which he increased to 90 through shipbuilding efforts at Ephesus. In Ephesus, he established diplomatic relations with Cyrus, a Persian prince. Lysander built a personal friendship with Cyrus, and the prince agreed to provide funds out of his own purse to increase the pay of Spartan rowers to 4 obols a day from 3.[1] With this increased funding, the Spartan fleet could attract experienced rowers from the Athenian fleet. Navarch is a Greek word meaning leader of the ships. ... The Aegean Sea. ... A Greek trireme A Roman trireme Triremes were ancient war galleys with three rows of oars on each side. ... Cyrus the Younger, son of Darius II and Parysatis, was a Persian prince and general. ... The obolus (or obol) is a Greek silver coin worth a sixth of a drachma. ...


Alcibiades, needing to force a battle with Lysander, brought his fleet to Notium, where he could closely watch the Spartan fleet across the water. Merely sitting at Notium, however, failed to bring Lysander out to fight. Accordingly, Alcibiades sailed north with a few troopships to assist Thrasybulus in the siege of Phocaea. The bulk of the fleet, which remained behind him, was placed under the command of Alcibiades' kybernetes, or helmsman; a fleet of this size (80 ships remained at Notium after Alcibiades' departure) would traditionally have been commanded by several generals, or at the least by a trierarch; Alcibiades' unconventional decision has been widely criticized by both ancient and modern authors.[2] Antiochus was given one simple order to govern his actions; "Do not attack Lysander's ships."[3] For some reason, he chose not to obey this order, and attempted to implement a stratagem that he thought would give the Athenians a victory. At the Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, the Spartan fleet of Lysander defeated a part of the Athenian fleet, resulting in the recall of Alcibiades, the Athenian admiral. ... Thrasybulus (d. ... Satellite photo showing location of the ancient cities of Phocaea, Cyme and Smyrna Phocaea (modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. ... A Greek trireme Triremes were ancient war galleys with three rows of oars on each side. ...


The battle

Seeking to draw the Spartans out to fight, Antiochus sailed out towards Ephesus with 10 triremes.[4] His plan was to draw the Peloponnesians out in pursuit of his small force, after which the rest of the Athenian force would ambush them. This plan was very similar to that which had produced the stunning Athenian victory at Cyzicus, but conditions at Notium were utterly different than they had been at that battle.[5] In practice, Antiochus' ship was sunk, and he was killed, by a sudden Spartan attack; the remaining nine ships of the decoy force were then chased headlong back toward Notium, where the main Athenian force was caught unprepared by the sudden arrival of the whole Spartan fleet. In the ensuing fighting, 15 Athenian triremes were captured and seven more were sunk. The Spartans sailed back to Ephesus, having won an unexpected victory, while the Athenians returned to Notium to regroup. The Battle of Cyzicus in 410 BC was a small-scale naval battle during the Peloponnesian War between an Athenian fleet led by Alcibiades and a Peloponnesian fleet led by Sparta. ...


Aftermath

Upon receiving news of the battle, Alcibiades lifted the siege of Phocaea and returned south to reinforce the fleet at Notium; this restored rough numerical parity between the two fleets. Further attempts to draw Lysander out into a battle proved unsuccessful, however, and the two fleets continued to watch each other across the water.


The defeat at Notium caused the complete downfall of Alcibiades in Athenian politics. Restored to favor after the victory at Cyzicus, he had been placed in command with great expectations. When his unorthodox appointment of Antiochus led to a messy defeat, his political enemies saw their chance, and he was removed from office. Never again returning to Athens, he sailed north to land he owned in the Thracian Chersonese; except for a brief appearance at Aegospotami, his involvement in the war was over. Battle of Aegospotami Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 405 BC Place Aegospotami Result Spartan victory The battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC was the destruction of the Athenian navy in the Peloponnesian War, and led directly to Athens final defeat by Sparta in the following year. ...


The commands of both fleets changed hands after Notium. Because of term limits on the position of navarch, Lysander was replaced by Callicratidas; on the Athenian side, the fall of Alcibiades also brought down his friends Thrasybulus and Theramenes, and the overall command was given to Conon. Over the next year, the fleets clashed twice, first in a battle where, with twice as many ships as Conon, Callicratidas defeated the Athenians and trapped them in Mytilene; an Athenian relief fleet then decisively defeated and killed Callicratidas at Arginusae. These Athenian victories proved useless, however, for in 405 BC Lysander returned to unofficial command and destroyed the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami, ending the war. Callicratidas was a Spartan naval commander in the Peloponnesian War. ... Theramenes (d. ... Conon was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, in charge during the decisive loss of the navy at the battle of Aegospotami. ... This city is not ot be confused with a village in the island of Samos named Mytilinii Mytilene (Μυτιλήνη in Greek) is the capital city of Lesbos, a Greek island in the Aegean Sea. ... The naval Battle of Arginusae took place in 406 BCE during the Peloponnesian War. ... Battle of Aegospotami Conflict Peloponnesian War Date 405 BC Place Aegospotami Result Spartan victory The battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC was the destruction of the Athenian navy in the Peloponnesian War, and led directly to Athens final defeat by Sparta in the following year. ...


Notium, although not terribly significant in the number of ships won or lost by either side (the gains made by the Spartan fleet were more than erased by their defeat at Arginusae), had the significant effect of launching the career of Lysander and ending that of Alcibiades. Lysander would go on to end the Athenian empire and contend for several years for rulership of the Spartan empire that replaced it; Alcibiades, meanwhile, would be assassinated in 403 BC, having never returned to his native city. Donald Kagan, meanwhile, has suggested that the most important effect of the battle on the Athenian side was the removal from command of Thrasybulus, the talented commander who had helped plan all the Athenian naval victories of 411 and 410 BC[6].


Notium, then, although not decisive in itself, had large political ramifications, and played a significant role in determing who would lead the forces of Athens and Sparta in the upcoming decisive battles of the war.


References

Diodorus Siculus (ca. ... Donald Kagan (born 1932) is a Yale historian specializing in ancient Greece, notable for his four-volume history of the Peloponnesian War. ... Plutarch Mestrius Plutarchus (c. ... Xenophon (In Greek , c. ...

Notes

  1. Xenophon, Hellenica 1.5.7
  2. Donald Kagan, The Peloponnesian War
  3. Xenophon, Hellenica, 1.5.7
  4. Modern scholarship prefers the account of this battle given by Diodorus Siculus and the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia to that of Xenophon, and that account will accordingly be followed here.
  5. Donald Kagan, The Peloponnesian War
  6. Donald Kagan, The Peloponnesian War

  Results from FactBites:
 
Peloponnesian War - Academic Kids (2458 words)
After the battle, Brasidas, a Spartan general, raised an army of allies and helots and went for one of the sources of Athenian power, capturing the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which happened to control several nearby silver mines which the Athenians were using to finance the war.
In 411 BC this fleet defeated the Spartans at the Battle of Syme.
In the battle, the Athenians obliterated the Spartan fleet, and succeeded in reestablishing the financial basis of the Athenian empire.
Battle of Notium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (903 words)
Th Battle of Notium (or Ephesus) in 406 BC, was a Spartan naval victory in the Peloponnesian War.
Prior to the battle, the Athenian commander, Alcibiades, left his helmsman, Antiochus, in command of the Athenian fleet, which was blockading the Spartan fleet in Ephesus.
Notium, although not terribly significant in the number of ships won or lost by either side (the gains made by the Spartan fleet were more than erased by their defeat at Arginusae), had the significant effect of launching the career of Lysander and ending that of Alcibiades.
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