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Encyclopedia > Battle of Norway
Norway and World War II
Key events
Norwegian Campaign · Weserübung
Elverum Authorization

Midtskogen · Vinjesvingen
Occupation and Resistance
Camps · Telavåg
Festung Norwegen
Heavy water sabotage
Post-war purge Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... The Elverum Authorization (Elverumsfullmakten) was approved unanimously by the Norwegian Parliament on April 9, 1940 in the town of Elverum in Norway after the Norwegian royal family, executive branch, and parliament had evacuated Oslo to evade capture by German troops in the course of Operation Weserübung during World War... Combatants Norway Germany Commanders Oliver Møystad Eberhard Spiller Strength 100+ 100 Casualties 3 wounded 2 killed, ? wounded Midtskogen farm is situated approximately 5 kilometers west of the town Elverum at the mouth of the Østerdalen valley in southern Norway. ... The Battle of Vinjesvingen took place in May of 1940 in Telemark county, Norway. ... Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... Norwegian resistance to the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1945 took several forms: Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled Norwegian government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of the Quisling regime and Terboven administration The initial defense in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganized, but... During the German occupation of Norway in World War II the civilian occupying authorities with the Quisling regime and the German Wehrmacht operated a number of camps in Norway. ... TelavÃ¥g is a small village in the municipality of Sund, located 39 km south west of Bergen, Norway, with a population of about 600. ... Festung Norwegen (Fortress Norway) was the German term for the heavy defense and fortification system of Norway during the occupation of Norway in World War II. By some, including Reichskommissar Josef Terboven, it was thought that these fortifications would serve effectively as a last perimeter of defense of the Third... The Vemork hydroelectric plant, site of ammonia production with a militarily important byproduct, heavy water. ... Following the general capitulation of Germany in Europe and in Norway on May 10, 1945, the legitimate Norwegian government moved quickly to prosecute individuals who were suspected of treason or war crimes during the German occupation. ...

People
Haakon VII · Nygaardsvold · CJ Hambro
CG Fleischer · Otto Ruge · Max Manus
Jens Chr. Hauge · Gunnar Sønsteby
Quisling · Jonas Lie · Henry Rinnan
Josef Terboven · Wilhelm Rediess
Organizations
Milorg · XU · Linge · Nortraship
Nasjonal Samling
German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940
German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940

The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the AlliesUnited Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. King Haakon VII King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872 - September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ... Campaign poster of Johan Nygaardsvold Johan Nygaardsvold (September 6, 1879 - March 13, 1952) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party. ... Carl Joachim Hambro (usually C.J. Hambro) (January 5, 1885 – 15 December 1964) was a leading politician from the Norwegian Conservative Party. ... Carl Gustav Fleischer (1883-1942) was a Norwegian general and the first allied general(actually not allied, as the allies and Norway never had any official cooperation, in writing) to win a major victory against the Germans in World War II. In 1940, as commander of the Norwegian 6th division... Otto Ruge (January 9, 1882 - 1961) was a Norwegian general. ... Max Manus was a famous Norwegian World War II resistance fighter. ... Jens Christian Hauge (born 1915) was the leader of the secret military organisation Milorg in WWII occupied Norway. ... Gunnar Sønsteby (born 11 January 1918) is known as a Norwegian resistance fighter during World War II. Known also as Kjakan and , he participated in the resistance effort from 1940. ... Vidkun Quisling Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian officer and fascist politician. ... Jonas Lie (1899-1945) was a Norwegian councillor of state in the NS government of Vidkun Quisling in 1940, then acting councillor of state 1940-1941, and minister between 1941 and 1945. ... Born May 14, 1915 in Levanger, Norway Died Executed on February 1, 1947 by shooting. ... Josef Terboven Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (May 23, 1898 - May 8, 1945) was a Nazi leader most known for his brutal leadership during the Nazi occupation of Norway. ... Wilhelm Rediess (October 10, 1900 – May 8, 1945) was the German chief of secret police (General der Polizei) during the German occupation of Norway in the Second World War. ... Milorg was a secret military organization under World War II in Norway. ... Xu can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames: 徐 (pinyin Xú, also spelled Hsu or Tsui or Eu) 許 (traditional) or 许 (simplified), (pinyin XÇ”, also spelled Hui or Hii) In this context it is pronounced somewhat like Shoo or simply Shh. ... Norwegian Independent Company 1 (NOR.I.C.1, also Norisen) was a SOE group formed in March of 1941 for the purpose of perfoming commando raids in occupied Norway. ... The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administrate the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German controlled areas. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... Image File history File links Norway Campaign, 1940 German warships in a Norwegian port, probably Trondheim, in June 1940. ... Image File history File links Norway Campaign, 1940 German warships in a Norwegian port, probably Trondheim, in June 1940. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germany's dependence on Swedish iron ore shipped from the Norwegian port of Narvik. By securing access to Norwegian ports, Germany could obtain the iron ore supply it needed for war production in spite of the British naval blockade of Germany. Additionally it allowed both the German and Allied forces to confront each other without the risk of large scale trench warfare occurring, something both sides dreaded. Of particular importance as the Battle of the Atlantic escalated, Norwegian airbases, like that at Stavanger, allowed German reconnaissance aircraft to operate far out over the North Atlantic, without having to fly over, or near to, Britain. The Swedish iron ore was important to the German war effort during World War two, as Germany had an inadequate domestic supply, and other sources were cut off by the British sea blockade. ... County Nordland District Ofoten Municipality NO-1805 Administrative centre Narvik Mayor (2004) Olav Sigurd Alstad (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 29 2,023 km² 1,905 km² 0. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Battle of the Atlantic can refer to either of two naval campaigns, depending on context: World War I - First Battle of the Atlantic World War II - Second Battle of the Atlantic A Third Battle of the Atlantic was envisioned to be be part of any Third World War that arose... County Rogaland District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (2005) Leif Johan Sevland Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ...


Though Germany was decisively victorious in the conflict, the Norwegian invasion tied down most of the German Navy and several land divisions.

Contents

Background

Value of Norway

Both the United Kingdom and France had signed military assistance treaties with Poland, and two days after Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, both western nations declared war against Germany. However, neither country opened up a western front, and no shots were fired between the sides for several months in what became known as the Phony War. Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German...


During this time, both sides were looking for secondary fronts. For the Allies, in particular the French, it was based on a desire to avoid repeating the trench warfare of World War I along the Franco-German border. For the Germans, most of the military high command did not believe that they had the resources to launch an assault on France so soon. Norway was an area that both sides strongly considered. Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... Combatants Belgium, British Empire, France, United States, other Western Allies of WWI Germany Commanders No unified command until 1918, then General Ferdinand Foch Kaiser Wilhelm II Casualties ~4,800,000 Unknown though considerably higher Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, the German army opened the Western...


Norway, though neutral, was considered strategically important for both sides of the war for two main reasons. First was the importance of the port of Narvik, from which large quantities of Swedish iron ore, on which Germany depended, were exported; this route was especially important during the winter months when the Baltic Sea was frozen over. Narvik became of greater significance to the British when it became apparent that a plan to gain control of the Baltic Sea, Project Catherine, was not practical. Second, the ports in Norway could serve as a hole in the blockade of Germany, allowing access to the Atlantic Ocean. The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Project Catherine was the name of a proposed Baltic Sea offensive by the Royal Navy to be undertaken in the spring of 1940 whith the aim of interdicting German sea borne commerce with the Soviet Union, Finland, Sweden and the Baltic States. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ...


The Winter War

Main article: Winter War

When the Soviet Union invaded Finland on 30 November 1939, the Allies found themselves aligned with Norway and Sweden in support of Finland against the much larger aggressor. Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


This presented an opportunity to the Allies who, while genuinely sympathetic to Finland, also saw an opportunity to use the pretense of sending troop support to additionally occupy orefields in Sweden and ports in Norway. The initially planned two divisions had the potential to grow to approximately 150,000 Allied troops fighting a large campaign in central Sweden.


This movement was something the Germans were concerned with. The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had placed Finland within the Soviet sphere of interest and the Germans therefore claimed neutrality in the conflict. This policy caused a rise in anti-German sentiment throughout Scandinavia, as it was commonly believed that the Germans were allied with the Soviets. Fears began to crop up in German high command that Norway and Sweden would then allow Allied troop movement to aid Finland. Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country. ...


Such deployments never occurred though as Norway and Sweden, wary after seeing the lack of Western support for Poland, did not want to risk their neutrality and be seen to be involved in the war by allowing foreign troop movement through their borders. With the Moscow Peace Treaty on 12 March 1940, any such plan by the Allies was dropped. Western betrayal is a popular term in several Central European nations (including Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, the Baltic States) which refers to the foreign policy of several Western countries during the period from the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 through World War II and to the Cold War... Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on March 12, 1940. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...


Vidkun Quisling and initial German investigation

It was originally thought by German high command that having Norway remain neutral was in their interest. So long as the Allies did not enter Norwegian waters, there would be safe passage for merchant vessels traveling along the Norwegian coast to ship the ore that Germany was importing, and a large operation wouldn't be needed.


Grand Admiral Erich Raeder was one of the proponents of an invasion though, as he believed that the Norwegian ports offered the best facilities for German submarines for use in a siege of the British Isles, and that there was a possibility of the Allies landing in Scandinavia. German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... Erich Raeder. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... Location of the British Isles The British Isles is a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe consisting of Great Britain, Ireland, and a number of smaller surrounding islands and islets. ...


On 11 December 1939, Adolf Hitler and Raeder met with Vidkun Quisling, a pro-Nazi former Minister of Defense from Norway. Quisling told them that the threat of a British invasion of Norway was large, and that the Norwegian government would secretly support German occupation (the latter turned out to be a lie). He also informed them that he was in a position to ensure maximum co-operation with German forces, including relaxation of coastal guard and bases made available. Three days later, Hitler ordered OKW (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) to begin investigation of possible invasion plans of Norway. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Vidkun Quisling Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian officer and fascist politician. ... Nasjonal Samling (Norwegian for National Gathering or National Unification) was a fascist party in Norway before and during World War II, founded on May 17, 1933 by Vidkun Quisling and Johan Bernhard Hjort. ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command...


During a second meeting with Quisling on 18 December, Hitler reiterated his desire to keep Norway neutral, but indicated that should Allied forces extend the war to Scandinavia, he would counter appropriately. Suspicions arose that Quisling had overstated his strength for self-gain, and further plans for collaboration with him were dropped. In the Gregorian Calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), at which point there will be 13 days remaining to the end of the year. ...


The Altmark Incident

Main article: Altmark Incident

On 14 February 1940, the German tanker Altmark, carrying 303 British Prisoners of War (POW), was permitted to travel through Norwegian waters. According to international rules any noncombatant vessel from a warfaring nation could seek shelter for some time in neutral waters if permitted. When a group of British destroyers appeared on February 16, Altmark sought refuge in a Norwegian fjord. Ignoring international rules and Norwegian neutrality, the HMS Cossack entered the fjord and attacked the Altmark, boarding it and liberating the prisoners. The German tanker Altmark in Jøssingfjord, Norway, February 1940 The Altmark Incident (Norwegian: Altmark-saken) was a naval skirmish of the Second World War between United Kingdom and Nazi Germany, occurring in at that time neutral Norwegian waters on 16 February 1940. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Altmark was a German tanker / unarmed supply vessel, best known for her support of the Admiral Graf Spee and later involvement in the Altmark Incident. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Fjord in Sunnmøre, Norway A fjord (or fiord) is a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes, which results from marine inundation of a glaciated valley. ... HMS Cossack (L-03/F-03/G-03) was a Tribal-class destroyer which became famous for the boarding of the German supply ship Altmark in Norwegian waters, and the associated rescue of sailors originally captured by the Admiral Graf Spee. ...


While this violation of their neutrality angered the Norwegians, it also led to debate on both sides.


For the Allies, it was seen as a sign of Norwegian inability to prevent German misuse of the supposed neutral area for military purposes, and they nearly undertook a plan, proposed shortly after the fall of Poland by First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill, to mine the area. It was only postponed in the hope that Norway might still agree to permit Allied troop movement to aid Finland. The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Polish wz. ...


For the Germans, the Altmark Incident showed that the British were not in full compliance with Norwegian neutrality and Hitler ordered that the development of invasion plans be sped up. He did so to obtain assurance against Churchill's already existing plans to draw the Norwegians into the war and take control over the important harbour of Narvik. By 21 February, General Nikolaus von Falkenhorst was placed in charge of planning the invasion and command of the land-based forces. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Nikolaus von Falkenhorst, (January 17, 1885 - June 18, 1968), German General that planned the attack on Denmark and Norway in 1940, Weserübung. ...


Initial plans

Allied plans

With the end of the Winter War, the Allies determined that any occupation of Norway or Sweden would likely do more harm than good, possibly driving the neutral countries into alliance with Germany. The new Prime Minister of France, Paul Reynaud, took a more aggressive stance than his predecessor though, and wanted some form of action taken against Germany. The Prime Minister of France (Premier ministre de la France) is the functional head of the Cabinet of France. ... Paul Reynaud (October 15, 1878 - September 21, 1966) was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. ...


It was agreed to utilize Churchill's naval mining offense Operation Wilfred, designed to remove the sanctuary of the Leads and force transport ships into international waters where the Royal Navy could engage and destroy them. Accompanying this would be Plan R4, an operation where, upon almost certain German counteraction to Operation Wilfred, the Allies would then proceed to occupy Trondheim and Bergen and destroy the Sola airfield. Operation Wilfred was a British scheme to mine the waters between Norway and her islands in order to prevent German convoys fom using the neutral waters to transport high grade Swedish iron ore. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... County Sør-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... County Rogaland District Jæren Municipality NO-1124 Administrative centre Sola Mayor (2005) HÃ¥kon Rege (H) Official language form {{{language}}} Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 408 70 km² 69 km² 0. ... For other uses, see Airport (disambiguation). ...


The Allies disagreed over the additional Operation Royal Marine, where mines would also be placed in the Rhine River. While the British supported this operation, the French were against it, as they also depended on the Rhine and they feared German reprisals on French soil. Because of this delay, Operation Wilfred, originally scheduled for 5 April, was delayed until 8 April when the British agreed to perform the Norwegian operations separately from those on the continent. The Rhine canyon (Ruinaulta) in Graubünden in Switzerland Length 1. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ...


German plans

Main article: Operation Weserübung

Already in low-priority planning for considerable time, Operation Weserübung[1] found a new sense of urgency after the Altmark Incident. The main goals of the invasion were to secure the ports and ore fields, with Narvik as a priority, and to establish firm control over the country to prevent collaboration with the Allies. It was to be presented as an armed protection of Norway's neutrality. Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ...


One of the subjects of some internal debate by the German military planners was the need to occupy Denmark as part of the greater plan. Denmark was considered vital due to its location, as it facilitated greater air and naval control of the area. While some wanted to simply pressure Denmark to acquiesce, it was eventually determined that it would be safer for the operation if Denmark were captured by force.


Another matter that caused additional rework of the plan was Fall Gelb, the proposed invasion of northern France and the Low Countries, which would require the bulk of German forces. Because some forces were needed for both invasions, Weserübung could not occur at the same time as Gelb, and due to the shortening of nights as spring approached, which were vital cover for the naval forces, it therefore had to be sooner. Eventually, 9 April was decided to be the day of the invasion (Wesertag) and 04:15 (Norwegian time) would be the hour of the landings (Weserzeit). Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ...


In Norway, the plan called for the capture of six primary targets by amphibious landings: Oslo, Kristiansand, Egersund, Bergen, Trondheim and Narvik. Additionally, supporting paratroops (Fallschirmjäger) were to capture other key locations such as airfields at Fornebu outside of Oslo and Sola outside of Stavanger. The plan was designed to quickly overwhelm the Norwegian defenders and occupy these vital areas before any form of organized resistance could be mounted. The following forces were thus organized: This article is about a military strategy involving land troops dispatched from naval ships. ... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... County Vest-Agder District Sørlandet Municipality NO-1001 Administrative centre Kristiansand Mayor (2004) Jan Oddvar Skisland (KrF) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 287 277 km² 259 km² 0. ... Egersund is a coastal town in the municipality of Eigersund in the county of Rogaland, Norway. ... An American Paratrooper using a T-10C series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and formed into an airborne force. ... Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940 , often rendered Fallschirmjager in English, is the German word for paratrooper. ... Fornebu (archaic form Fornebo) is a peninsular area in the suburban municipality of Bærum in Norway, close to the countrys capital Oslo. ... County Rogaland District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (2005) Leif Johan Sevland Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ...

  • Gruppe 1: Ten destroyers to Narvik
  • Gruppe 2: The heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper and four destroyers to Trondheim
  • Gruppe 3: The light cruisers Köln and Königsberg, with several smaller support vessels to Bergen
  • Gruppe 4: The light cruiser Karlsruhe and several smaller support vessels to Kristiansand
  • Gruppe 5: The heavy cruisers Blücher and Lützow, the light cruiser Emden and several smaller support vessels to Oslo
  • Gruppe 6: Four minesweepers to Egersund

Additionally, the battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau would escort Gruppe 1 and Gruppe 2 as they travelled together and there would also be several echelons of tankers carrying additional troops, fuel and military equipment. USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... The term heavy cruiser is used to refer to large cruisers, a form of warship. ... The German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper fought as part of the German Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was named after Admiral Ritter von Hipper, commander of the German battlecruiser squadron during the Battle of Jutland in 1916 and later commander-in-chief of the German High Seas Fleet. ... A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... Köln was a German cruiser during World War II. She was part of the K-Class cruisers because of the the name of the ship is named after a town with the letter K. This ship was named after Cologne, the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city... Königsberg was a light cruiser of the K class in the German Kriegsmarine. ... Karlsruhe was a light cruiser of the German K class in WWII, the other ships in class being Königsberg and Köln. ... The German heavy cruiser Blücher ¹ was the German Kriegsmarines newest ship at the outbreak of World War II. The Blücher is most notable for being sunk on April 9, 1940, less than three years after her launch, on the first day of the invasion of Norway (Operation... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... The German light cruiser DKM Emden was the only ship of its class. ... HMS Hood (left) and the battleship HMS Barham (right), in Malta, 1937. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 tonne Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst. ... Gneisenau was a 31,100 ton Scharnhorst class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine. ...


Against Denmark, two motorized brigades would be used to capture bridges, troops and the Luftwaffe sent to capture Copenhagen, and paratroops would be used to capture the airfields in the north. While there were also several groups organized for this invasion, none of them contained any large ships. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the name of the capital in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish   IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)). It is also the name of the...


It was hoped that Germany could avoid armed confrontation with the native populations in both regions, and German troops were instructed only to fire if fired upon.


German invasion

Movement of the fleets

Naval movements from April 7-9
Naval movements from April 7-9

The German invasion first started on 3 April 1940 when supply vessels began to head out in advance of the main force. The Allies initiated their plans on the following day, with sixteen Allied submarines ordered to the Skagerrak and Kattegat to serve as a screen and advance warning for a German response to Operation Wilfred, which was launched the following day when Admiral William Whitworth in the HMS Renown set out from Scapa Flow for the Vestfjords with twelve destroyers. Download high resolution version (804x1181, 176 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... Download high resolution version (804x1181, 176 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... The Skagerrak strait runs between Norway and the southwest coast of Sweden and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat strait, which leads to the Baltic Sea. ... The Baltic Sea The Kattegat (Danish), or Kattegatt (Swedish), is a bay of the North Sea and a continuation of the Skagerrak, bounded by Denmark and Sweden. ... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... HMS Renown was the lead ship of the three 26,500-ton Renown class battlecruisers of the Royal Navy, the other two were HMS Repulse and the cancelled HMS Resistance. ... Aerial Photo of Scapa Flow Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. ... Vestfjord is a Norwegian fjord, which would be described as a firth or an open bight of sea between the Lofoten archipelago and mainland Norway, northwest of Bodø. The term fjord (from the old Norse fjördr meaning firth or inlet) is used more generally for bodies of water in...


On 7 April, bad weather began to develop in the region, blanketing the area with a thick fog, and causing rough seas making travel difficult. Renown's force soon got caught in a heavy snowstorm, and HMS Glowworm, one of the destroyer escorts, had to drop out of formation to search for a man swept overboard. However, the weather aided the Germans, providing a screen for their forces and in the early morning they sent out Gruppe 1 and Gruppe 2, who had the largest distance to travel. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... HMS Glowworm (H92) was a G-class destroyer laid down by John I. Thornycroft and Company at Woolston in Southampton on 15 August 1934, launched on 22 July 1935 and completed on 22 January 1936. ...


Though the weather did make reconnaissance difficult, the two German groups were discovered 105 miles south of the Naze (the southernmost part of Norway) slightly past 08:00 by RAF patrols and reported as one cruiser and six destroyers. A trailing squad of bombers sent out to attack the German ships found them 78 miles farther north than they had been before. No damage was done during the attack, but the German groups strength was reassessed as being one battlecruiser, two cruisers and ten destroyers. Due to a strict enforcement of radio silence, the bombers were not able to report this until 17:30. The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... In telecommunications, radio silence is a status maintained where all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area stop transmitting. ...


On learning of the German movement, the Admiralty came to the conclusion that the Germans were attempting to break the blockade that the Allies had placed on Germany and use their fleet to disrupt Atlantic trade routes. Admiral Sir Charles Forbes, Commander-in-Chief of the British Home Fleet, was notified of this and set out to intercept them at 20:15. Old Admiralty House, Whitehall, London, Thomas Ripley, architect, 1723-26, was not admired by his contemporaries and earned him some scathing couplets from Alexander Pope The Admiralty was historically the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A trade route is a commonly used path of travel for those (e. ... Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Ohio Gang is a misnomer, applied to a group of officials within the administration of Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States of America. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Home Fleet is the traditional name of the fleet of the Royal Navy that protects the United Kingdoms territorial waters. ...


With both sides unaware of the magnitude of the situation, they proceeded as planned. The Renown arrived at the Vestfjords late that night and maintained position near the entrance while the minelaying destroyers proceeded to their task. Meanwhile, the Germans launched the remainder of their invasion force. The first direct contact between the two sides occurred the next morning without either side's intention.


The Glowworm, on its way to rejoin the Renown, happened to come up behind the Z 11 Bernd von Arnim and then the Z 18 Hans Lüdemann in the heavy fog around 8:00. Immediately a skirmish broke out and the German destroyers fled, signalling for help. The request was soon answered by the Admiral Hipper, which quickly crippled the Glowworm. Being too damaged to outrun the larger German ship, the Glowworm proceeded to ram it instead. Significant damage was done to Hipper's starboard and Glowworm was destroyed by a close range salvo immediately afterwards. During its fight Glowworm had broken radio silence and informed the Admiralty of her situation. She was not able to complete her transmission though, and all the Admiralty knew was that the Glowworm had been confronted by a large German ship, shots were fired, and contact with the destroyer could not be reestablished. In response, the Admiralty ordered the Renown and its single destroyer escort (the other two had gone to friendly ports for oil) to abandon its post at the Vestfjords and head to the Glowworm's last known location. At 10:45, the remaining eight destroyers of the minelaying force were ordered to join as well.


At noon, the Polish submarine Orzeł confronted and sunk the German troop transport ship Rio de Janeiro in the Skagerrak. In the wreckage it discovered uniformed German soldiers and various military supplies. Though the Orzeł reported the incident to the Admiralty, they were too concerned by the situation with the Glowworm and the presumed German breakout to give it much thought and did not pass the information along. Many of the German soldiers from the wreck were rescued by Norwegian fishing boats and on interrogation disclosed that they were assigned to protect Bergen from the Allies. This information was passed on to Oslo where Storting, the Norwegian Parliament, dismissed it as ignorance on the part of the German soldiers and did not set about any defensive measures other than to alert the coastal guard. ORP Orzeł was a Polish Navy submarine in service during the World War II. The ship was built in the Dutch shipyard De Schelde in 1937-1938 together with her sister ship ORP Sęp (Vulture). A modern design (designed by Polish and Dutch engineers), albeit a bit... This article is part of the Politics of Norway series. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


At 14:00, Admiralty received word that aerial reconnaissance had located a group of German ships a considerable distance WNW of Trondheim, bearing west. This reinforced the notion that the Germans were indeed intending a break out and the Home Fleet changed direction from north east to north west to again try and intercept. Additionally, Churchill cancelled Plan R4 and ordered the four cruisers carrying the soldiers and their supplies to disembark their cargo and join the Home Fleet. In actuality, the German ships, Gruppe 2, were only performing delaying circling manoeuvres in order to approach their destination of Trondheim at the designated time.


That night, after learning of numerous sightings of German ships south of Norway, Charles Forbes began to doubt the validity of the break out idea, and he ordered the Home Fleet to head south to the Skagerrak. He also ordered the HMS Repulse, along with another cruiser and a few destroyers, to head north and join the Renown. HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ...


At 23:00, as Forbes was just learning of the incident with the Orzeł, Gruppe 5 was approached by the Norwegian patrol vessel Pol III at the entrance to the Oslofjord. The Pol III quickly sent an alarm to the naval base at Horten and opened fire on the torpedo boat Albatros with its single gun shortly before colliding with it. The Albatros and two of its companions responded with anti-aircraft fire, killing its captain and destroying the ship. Gruppe 5 continued into the Oslofjord and cleared the outer batteries without incident. Several of the smaller German ships then broke off in order to capture the bypassed fortifications along with Horten. This activity did not go unnoticed and soon reports had reached Oslo, leading to a midnight session of the Storting. At this meeting, the assembly issued orders for a partial mobilization (to be delivered by post) and a statement that British and French ships were not to be fired upon. Pol III was a guard vessel of the Royal Norwegian Navy, used for patrolling the inlet of the Oslofjord in early April 1940. ... The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... County Vestfold Landscape Municipality NO-0701 Administrative centre Horten Mayor (2004) Nils Henning Hontvedt Official language form Bokmål Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 407 70 km² 68 km² 0. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ...


At about this time, further north, the Renown was heading back to Vestfjord after reaching the Glowworm's last known location and not finding anything. Heavy seas had caused Whitworth to sail more north than normal and had separated him from his destroyers when he encountered the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. The Renown engaged the two battlecruisers and during the short battle Gneisenau had its fire-control system damaged, causing it and Scharnhorst to flee north. Renown attempted to pursue, but by 4:00 it lost sight of them in the poor weather. A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ...


Weserzeit

In the Ofotfjord leading to Narvik, the ten German destroyers of Gruppe 1 made their approach. With the Renown and her escorts earlier diverted to investigate the Glowworm incident, no British ships stood in their way and they entered the area unopposed. By the time they had reached the inner area near Narvik, most of the destroyers had peeled off from the main formation to capture the outer batteries of the Ofotfjord, leaving only three to contend with the two old Norwegian coastal battleships standing guard, Eidsvold and Norge. Though antiquated, the two coastal defence ships were quite capable of taking on the much more lightly armed and armored destroyers. After a quick parliance with the captain of the Eidsvold, the German ships opened fire preemptively on the coastal defence ship, sinking it after hitting it with three torpedoes. Norge entered into the fray shortly after and began to fire on the destroyers, but her marksmen were inexperienced and she did not hit the Germans ships before being sunk by a salvo of torpedoes from the German destroyers. Ofotfjorden. ... HnoMS Eidsvold, or KNM Eidsvold in Norwegian, was a coastal defense cruiser and lead ship of her class, serving in the Royal Norwegian Navy. ...


At Trondheim, Gruppe 2 also faced only minor resistance to their landings. In the Trondheimsfjord, the Admiral Hipper engaged the defensive batteries while its destroyers sped past them at 25 knots. A well placed shot by the Hipper severed the power cables for the searchlights and rendered the guns ineffective. Only one destroyer received a hit during the landing. Map of the Trondheimsfjord. ...


At Bergen, the defensive fortifications put up stiffer resistance to Gruppe 3's approach and the light cruiser Königsberg and the artillery training ship Bremse were damaged, the former seriously. The lack of working lights reduced the effectiveness of the guns though, and the landing ships were able to dock without much opposition. The fortifications were surrendered soon after, when Luftwaffe units arrived.


The fortifications at Kristiansand put up an even more resolute fight, twice repulsing the landing and damaging the Karlsruhe, nearly running the cruiser aground. Confusion soon sprung up though when the Norwegians received the order not to fire on British and French ships and the Germans began to use Norwegian codes they had captured at Horten. The Germans used this opportunity to quickly reach the harbour and unload their troops, capturing the town by 11:00.

Gruppe 5 encountered the most serious resistance at the inner defensive fortifications of the Oslofjord, in the vicinity of Drøbak. Blücher, leading the group, approached the forts assuming that they were unmanned like many others in the outer fjord. It was not until the cruiser was at point blank range that fortress Oscarborg opened fire, connecting with every shot. Within a matter of minutes, Blücher was crippled and burning heavily. The damaged cruiser was soon finished off by a salvo from land-based torpedo tubes, sinking the ship which carried much of the administrative personnel intended both for the occupation of Norway and also for the headquarters of the army division assigned to seize Oslo. The cruiser Lützow, also damaged in the attack, was forced to retreat, with Gruppe 5, twelve miles south to Sonsbukten where it unloaded its troops. This distance delayed the arrival of the main German invasion force for Oslo by over 24 hours, though Oslo would still be captured less than twelve hours later by troops flown into the Fornebu airfield. Own edited graphic File links The following pages link to this file: Oslofjord Norwegian Campaign Operation Weserübung/temp Categories: GFDL images ... Own edited graphic File links The following pages link to this file: Oslofjord Norwegian Campaign Operation Weserübung/temp Categories: GFDL images ... The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... Drøbak in Norway is the centre of the municipality of Frogn, in Akershus county. ... Oscarsborg festning is a coastal fortress in the Oslofjord, close to the small city of Drøbak. ... Torpedo tubes of the French SNLE Redoutable A torpedo tube is a device for launching torpedoes in a horizontal direction. ...


Nonetheless, the delay induced by the Norwegian forces gave time for the King, Parliament, and with them the national treasury, to flee to the north and eventually escape to Great Britain. As a result, Norway never surrendered, the Quisling government was rendered illicit, and Norway, with its large merchant marine, remained as an ally in the war, not a conquered territory.


Fornebu was originally supposed to be secured by paratroops an hour before the first troops were flown in, but the initial force became lost in the fog and did not arrive. Regardless, the airfield was not heavily defended and the German soldiers who did arrive captured it promptly. The Norwegian Fighter Wing based on Fornebu resisted with their Gloster Gladiator bi-plane fighters until ammunition ran out and then flew off to whatever secondary airfields available. The ground personnel of the fighter wing soon ran out of ammunition for their anti aircraft machine guns as well, and resistance at Fornebu came to an end. Norwegian attempts to mount a counter-attack was half-hearted and effectively came to nothing. On learning of this, Oslo itself was declared an open city and soon fully surrendered. In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the country that owns the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts. ...


For Gruppe 6 at Egersund and the paratroops at Stavanger, there was no significant opposition and they quickly captured their targets.


Capture of Denmark

The Wehrmacht crossed the Danish border around 4:15 in the morning of 9 April. In a coordinated operation, German troops disembarked at the docks of Langelinie in Danish capital, Copenhagen, and began occupying the city. German Paratroops also captured the Aalborg airport. Simultaneously, an ultimatum was presented by the German ambassador to King Christian X. Reports describing the German plans had been submitted to the government a few days earlier but were ignored. The Danish army was small, ill-prepared and used obsolete equipment but resisted in several parts of the country; most importantly, the Royal Guards located at Amalienborg Palace in Copenhagen, and forces in the vicinity of Haderslev in South Jutland. By 6:30, King Christian X, having consulted with Prime Minister Thorvald Stauning, decided to capitulate, believing that further resistance would only result in a useless loss of Danish lives. The Danish public was taken completely by surprise by the occupation, and was instructed by the government to cooperate with the German authorities. Germany's occupation of Denmark was completed on 10 April and lasted until 5 May 1945. Wehrmacht troops of the Heer (military land forces) marching at a military parade in honour of the 50th birthday of Adolf Hitler, on April 20, 1939. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the name of the capital in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish   IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)). It is also the name of the... Fallschirmjäger photo taken from The Hague, Bezuidenhout during the invasion of the Low Countries, morning of May 10, 1940 , often rendered Fallschirmjager in English, is the German word for paratrooper. ... View of Aalborg railroad station from J.F. Kennedys Square, 2004 Aalborg (help· info) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in North Jutland County on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. ... Christian X of Denmark (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm) (September 26, 1870 – April 20, 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and of Iceland between 1918 and 1944. ... Amalienborg seen from the Copenhagen Operahouse. ... Map of the future municipality Haderslev (German: Hadersleben) is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in South Jutland County on the east coast of the Jutland peninsula in south Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county in southern Denmark, on the peninsula of Jutland. ... Thorvald Stauning (26 October 1873 - 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark. ... Headquarters of the Schalburgkorps, a Danish SS unit, after 1943. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


An important part of the Danish commercial navy escaped the occupation, as Arnold Peter Møller, President of the Mærsk shipping company, on 8 April instructed his 36 ships on the high seas to move to Allied or neutral ports if at all possible. The A.P. Moller-Maersk Group (Danish: A.P. Møller-Mærsk Gruppen) is an international business consortium involved in a variety of business sectors, primarily transportation. ...


In a pre-emptive move to prevent a German invasion, on 12 April 1940 British forces occupied the Faroe Islands, then a Danish amt (county). See: British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... AMT or amt, a three-letter abbreviation, may refer to: An abbreviation of the word amount. The Agence métropolitaine de transport, a public transportation organization Montreal Amt, an administrative unit in several European countries Anxiety Management Training a form of treatment for anxiety. ... Immediately following the German invasion of Denmark and Norway in April 1940, the United Kingdom occupied the stragically important Faroe Islands to pre-empt a German invasion. ...


Allied response

Naval movements from April 9-13
Naval movements from April 9-13

Soon after this, the German invasions at Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger, as well as the skirmishes in the Oslofjords became known. Not willing to disperse too thinly due to the unknown location of the two German battlecruisers, the Home Fleet chose to focus on the nearby Bergen and dispatched an attack force. RAF reconnaissance soon reported stronger opposition than anticipated, and this, along with the possibility that the Germans might be controlling the shore defenses, caused them to recall the force and instead use the aircraft carrier HMS Furious to launch torpedo bombers at the enemy ships. The attack never commenced though, as Luftwaffe bombers launched an assault of their own against the Home Fleet first. This attack sank the destroyer HMS Gurkha and then forced the Home Fleet to withdraw north when their anti-aircraft measures proved ineffective. This German air superiority in the area led the British to decide that all southern regions had to be left to submarines and the RAF, while surface vessels would concentrate on the north. Download high resolution version (800x1171, 158 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... Download high resolution version (800x1171, 158 KB) Image taken from HyperWar. ... Four aircraft carriers, Principe-de-Asturias, USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and HMS Invincible (front-to-back), showing the difference in size between a supercarrier, light V/STOL carriers, and an amphibious carrier. ... HMS Furious was a modified Courageous class large light cruiser (an extreme form of battlecruiser) converted into an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... HMS Gurkha (L-20/F-20) was a Tribal-class destroyer laid down by the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Limited, at Govan in Scotland on 6 July 1936, launched on 7 July 1937 and commissioned on 21 October 1938. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ...


In addition to the German landings in south and central Norway, the Admiralty was also informed via press reports that a single German destroyer was in Narvik. In response to this they ordered the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla, mostly consisting of ships previously serving as escort destroyers for Operation Wilfred, to engage. This flotilla, under the command of Captain Bernard Warburton-Lee, had already detached from the Renown during its pursuit of the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, being ordered to guard the entrance to the Vestfjord. At 16:00 on 9 April, the flotilla sent an officer ashore at Tranøy fifty miles west of Narvik and learned from the locals that the German force was 4-6 destroyers and a submarine. Warburton-Lee sent these findings back to the Admiralty, concluding with his intention to attack the next day at "dawn, high water", which would give him the element of surprise and protection against any mines. This decision was approved by the Admiralty in a telegram that night. This article concerns the rank and title of Captain. ... Photo submitted by Simon Manchee Bernard Armitage Warburton Warburton-Lee (September 13, 1895 - April 10, 1940) was a Welsh recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... County Troms Landscape Municipality NO-1927 Administrative centre Stonglandseidet Mayor (2003) Odd Arne Andreassen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 201 524 km² 499 km² 0. ...


Early the following morning, Warburton-Lee led his flagship, the HMS Hardy, and four other destroyers into the Ofotfjord. At 4:30, he arrived at Narvik harbour and entered along with the HMS Hunter and HMS Havock, leaving HMS Hotspur and HMS Hostile to guard the entrance and watch the shore batteries. The fog and snow were extremely heavy, allowing Warburton-Lee's force to approach undetected. When they arrived at the harbour itself they found five German destroyers and opened fire, starting the First Battle of Narvik. Warburton-Lee's ships made three passes on the enemy ships, being joined after the first by Hotspur and Hostile, and sank two of the destroyers, disabled one more, and sank six tankers and supply ships. The German commander, Commodore Friedrich Bonte, lost his life when his flagship Wilhelm Heidkamp was sunk. Warburton-Lee's flotilla then left the harbour, almost untouched. HMS Hardy A British destroyer that was sunk April, 10 in a Norwegian fiord. ... HMS Hunter (H35) was an H-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson Limited at Wallsend-on-Tyne on 26 March 1935, launched on 25 February 1936 and commissioned on 20 September 1936. ... HMS Havock (H43) was an H-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by William Denny, Brothers and Company, Limited, of Dumbarton in Scotland on 15 May 1935, launched on 7 July 1936 and commissioned on 18 January 1937. ... HMS Hotspur (H01) was an H-class destroyer of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Hostile (H55) was an H-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering at Greenock in Scotland on 27 February 1935, launched on 24 January 1936 and commissioned on 10 September 1936. ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... Friedrich Bonte (* 19. ...


At 6:00, the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla was making their way back to the entrance of the Vestfjord when from the Herjangsfjord behind them three German destroyers emerged, commanded by Commander Erich Bey, and a few minutes later two more arrived in front of them, surrounding Warburton-Lee's force. The Hardy was the first ship to be hit and was quickly taken out of action, beached by one of her officers after she was crippled. Hunter was the next ship put out of commission, coming to a dead halt in the water after several hits. Hotspur was then hit and received damage to her steering system, causing her to crash into the Hunter. Several more hits were registered on the pair until Hotspur was able to reverse out of the wreck. The Hostile and Havock meanwhile had raced ahead, but turned about and came back to aid the retreat of the Hotspur. The German ships having received a few hits and, more importantly, being critically short of fuel, were not able to pursue. As they exited the Ofotfjord, the three British destroyers managed to sink the German supply ship Rauenfels. Erich Bey with Ritterkreuz Konteradmiral Erich Bey (23 March 1898-26 December 1943) was a German naval officer who most notably served as a commander of Nazi Germanys destroyer flotillas and who led the German force in the Battle of North Cape on 26 December 1943, during which the...


Shortly after the First Battle of Narvik, two more German ships were sunk by British forces. A long range attack by Fleet Air Arm from their base at Hatston in the Orkney Islands was made against Bergen and destroyed the disabled German light cruiser Königsberg; recorded as the first major warship sunk by aircraft. Additionally, the submarine HMS Truant sunk the light cruiser Karlsruhe on the night of 9 April shortly after it had left Kristiansand. The next day, 10 April, the Furious and the battleship HMS Warspite joined the Home Fleet and another air attack was made against Trondheim in hopes of sinking the Admiral Hipper. Admiral Hipper, however, had already managed to escape through the watch set up outside of the port and was on her way back to Germany when the attack was launched; none of the remaining German destroyers or support ships were hit in the assault. Better luck was had in the south when the HMS Spearfish severely damaged the heavy cruiser Lützow at midnight on 11 April, putting the German ship out of commission for a year. The Fleet Air Arm is the operational group of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... HMS Warspite was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the British Royal Navy. ... April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ...


With it becoming more evident the German fleet had slipped out of Norwegian waters, Home Fleet continued north to Narvik in the hopes of catching the remaining destroyers. En route the ships suffered further harassment from German bombers, forcing them to divert course west away from the shoreline. By 12 April, they were in range of Narvik and an aerial attack on Narvik from Furious was attempted, but the results were disappointing. It was instead decided to send in the battleship Warspite and a powerful escort force, to be commanded by Whitworth. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...

Battles of Narvik
Battles of Narvik

On the morning of 13 April, Whitworth's force entered the Vestfjord using the Warspite's scouting aircraft to guide the way. Aside from locating two of the German destroyers, the scouting aircraft also sunk an enemy submarine, the first such occurrence. Warspite's destroyers travelled three miles in advance of the battleship and were the first to engage their German counterparts which had come to meet them, thus starting the Second Battle of Narvik. Though neither side inflicted notable damage, the German ships were running low on ammunition and were gradually pushed back to the harbour. By that afternoon, most attempted to flee up the Rombaksfjord, the only exception being the Künne which beached itself as it made for the Herjangsfjord and was destroyed by the HMS Eskimo. Four British destroyers continued to chase the German ships up through the Rombaksfjord, the Eskimo soon damaged by the waiting opposition. However, the German situation was hopeless, having run out of fuel and ammunition, and by the time the remaining British ships arrived their crews had abandoned and scuttled their ships. By 18:30 the British ships were making their way out of the now cleared fjord. Image taken from Hyperwar. ... Image taken from Hyperwar. ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... HMS Eskimo (L-75/F-75/G-75) was a Tribal-class destroyer laid down by the High Walker Yard of Vickers Armstrong at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 5 August 1936, launched on 3 September 1937 and commissioned on 30 December 1938. ...


Norwegian situation

The German invasions for the most part achieved their goal of simultaneous assault and caught the Norwegian forces off guard, a situation not aided by the Norwegian Governments' order for only a partial mobilization. Not all was lost though, as the repulsion of German Gruppe 5 in the Oslofjord gave a few additional hours of time which the Norwegians used to evacuate the Royal family and the Norwegian Government to Hamar. With the government now fugitive, Vidkun Quisling used the opportunity to take control of a radio broadcasting station and announce a coup, with himself as the new Prime Minister of Norway. His first official act, at 19:30 that day, was to cancel the mobilization order. County Hedmark District Hedemarken Municipality NO-0403 Administrative centre Hamar Mayor (2004) Einar Busterud (By- og bygdelista - The City and Rural areas Party) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 257 351 km² 338 km² 0. ... Vidkun Quisling Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian officer and fascist politician. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... This is a list of Viceroys (Rigsstatholder) and Prime Ministers (statsminister) of Norway. ...


That evening, the Norwegian Government settled at Elverum, believing Hamar to be insecure. All German demands were rejected and the Elverum Authorization was passed should the need for a government-in-exile arise. However, the bleakness of the situation prompted them to agree to continued negotiations with the Germans, set for the following day. As a precaution Colonel Otto Ruge, Inspector General of the Norwegian Infantry, set up a roadblock about 70 miles north of Oslo, at Midtskogen, and soon encountered a small detachment of troops, led by the Air Attaché for the German Embassy, who were racing north in an attempt to settle the matter instantly by capturing King Haakon VII. A skirmish broke out and the Germans turned back after their air attaché was killed by Norwegian Royal Guards. On April 10, the final negotiations between the Norwegians and Germans failed after the Norwegian delegates, led by Haakon VII, refused to accept the German demand for recognition of Quisling's new government. County Hedmark District Østerdalen Municipality NO-1101 Administrative centre Elverum Mayor (2003) Terje Røe (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 80 1,229 km² 1,209 km² 0. ... The Elverum Authorization (Elverumsfullmakten) was approved unanimously by the Norwegian Parliament on April 9, 1940 in the town of Elverum in Norway after the Norwegian royal family, executive branch, and parliament had evacuated Oslo to evade capture by German troops in the course of Operation Weserübung during World War... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Otto Ruge (January 9, 1882 - 1961) was a Norwegian general. ... Midtskogen farm is situated approximately 5 kilometers west of the town Elverum at the mouth of the Østerdalen valley in southern Norway. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Haakon VII, King of Norway, (born as Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel or Prince Carl of Denmark) (August 3, 1872 – September 21, 1957), was the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the personal union with Sweden. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ...


One of the final acts of the Norwegian authorities before dispersement was the promotion of Otto Ruge to the rank of Major General and appointment to Commander-in-Chief of the Norwegian Army, responsible for overseeing the resistance to the German invasion. With the Germans in control of the largest cities, ports and airfields, as well as most of the arms depots and communication networks, repulsing them outright would be impossible. Ruge instead decided that his only chance lay in playing for time, stalling the Germans until reinforcements from the United Kingdom and France could arrive. Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Ranks Norwegian military ranks The Norwegian Army (Norwegian: Hæren) is Norways military land force. ...


On 11 April, after receiving reinforcements in Oslo, General Falkenhorst's offensive began; its goal was to link up Germany's scattered forces before the Norwegian's could effectively mobilize or any major Allied intervention could take place. His first task was to secure the general Oslofjord area, then to use the 196th and 163rd infantry divisions to establish contact with the forces at Trondheim. April 11 is the 101st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (102nd in leap years). ... The German 163rd Infantry Division was raised in November 1939. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to fifteen thousand soldiers. ...


By 14 April, the Norwegian 1st Division, located east of the Oslofjord in the Østfold, had evacuated into Sweden and the Norwegian 3rd Division, based at Kristiansand, had surrendered. The Norwegian 4th Division, stationed around Bergen, evaded the initial German landings and were soon engaged in slowing the German troops moving eastward from the city; their effort was soon hampered by the fact that the main force of the division had to be transferred to Valdres to shore up for the critical situation on Østlandet. The Norwegian 5th Division at Trondheim had lost almost all of its stores when the invasion began and its commander had decided to remain at Steinkjer instead of attacking the Germans. The Norwegian 6th Division was located far to the north, close to the Finnish border and not in contact with any of the German occupied areas. April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Østfold is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden (Västra Götaland County and Värmland), while Vestfold is on the other side of the bay. ... County Nord-Trøndelag District Innherred Municipality NO-1702 Administrative centre Steinkjer Mayor (2005) Per Sverre Rannem (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 45 1,564 km² 1,423 km² 0. ... The 6. ...


For General Ruge, only the Norwegian 2nd Division was available and he thus built his army around the unit. While a surge of volunteers grew the division from 3,000 to roughly 12,000 troops, and Ruge was further aided with 11.1 million kroner (4.5 million USD) smuggled to him, it would never be a force capable of direct offensive action against the Germans. Instead, he chose to focus the division at the head of the Gudbrandsdal and Østerdalen valleys which led from Oslo to Trondheim. From here he engaged the Germans where the terrain was favourable and used hit-and-run tactics, along with ambushes and selective demolitions to hinder the two German divisions northward movement. These could never hope to completely halt the Germans, who were soon using air support and small tank units to break Norwegian positions. By 20 April, the German forces had managed to advance to Elverum, 190 miles south of Trondheim. The constant combat had rendered the Norwegian forces exhausted and critically low on supplies. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... ISO 4217 Code NOK User(s) Norway Inflation rate 2. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 3. ... Gudbrandsdalen is a valley and traditional district in the Norwegian fylke (county) of Oppland. ... Østerdalen is a valley and landscape in the eastern part of Norway, consisting of the municipalities Rendalen, Alvdal, Folldal, Tynset, Tolga and Os in the north, Elverum, Engerdal, Stor-Elvdal, Trysil and Ã…mot in the south. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ...


Ground campaign

Main article: Allied campaign in Norway

When the nature of the German invasion became apparent to the British military, it began to make preparations for a counterattack. Dissension amongst the various branches was strong though, as the British Army, after conferring with Otto Ruge, wanted to assault Trondheim in Central Norway while Churchill insisted on reclaiming Narvik. It was decided to send troops to both locations as a compromise. The Allied campaign in Norway took place from April 1940 until early June 1940. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


Campaign in Central Norway

Operations in Norway in April and May of 1940.
Operations in Norway in April and May of 1940.

The original plans for the campaign in Central Norway called for a three pronged attack against Trondheim by Allied forces while the Norwegians contained the German forces to the south. It was called Operation Hammer, and would land Allied troops at Namsos to the north (Mauriceforce), Åndalsnes to the south (Sickleforce), and around Trondheim itself (Hammerforce). This plan was quickly changed though, as it was felt that a direct assault on Trondheim would be far too risky and therefore only the northern and southern forces would be used. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (598x924, 556 KB)Source: Department of History, United States Military Academy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (598x924, 556 KB)Source: Department of History, United States Military Academy. ... In April and early May, 1940 Namsos was the scene of heavy fighting in World War Two between Anglo-French naval and military forces and German military and air forces. ... Ã…ndalsnes is a Norwegian town in the municipality of Rauma, of which it is also the administrative center. ...


On 17 April, Mauriceforce, comprised primarily of the British 146th Infantry Brigade and commanded by Major General Adrian Carton de Wiart made their initial landings at Namsos. During the trip the force had been transferred to destroyers instead of bulky transport ships due to the narrow waters of the fjord leading to Namsos; in the confusion of the transfer a great deal of their supplies and even the brigade commander were misplaced. Another great problem for Mauriceforce was the lack of air support, something the Luftwaffe took full advantage off. Shortly after General de Wiart moved his forces out of Namsos, German bombers arrived and destroyed it, leaving the Norwegian without a base. Regardless, de Wiart moved 80 miles inland to Steinkjer where he was able to link up with the Norwegian 5th Division. Constant aerial harassment prevented any kind of offensive from taking place though, and on 21 April Mauriceforce was attacked by the German 181st Division from Trondheim. The Norwegian was forced to fall back from these assaults, leaving Steinkjer for the Germans. April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Lieutenant General Sir Adrian Carton de Wiart VC, KBE, CB, CMG, DSO, (May 5, 1880 - June 5, 1963), was a British officer of Belgian and Irish descent. ... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ...


Sickleforce, consisting primarily of the British 148th Infantry Brigade and commanded by Major General Bernard Paget, landed at Åndalsnes on 18 April. From Åndalsnes, the British force traveled via train to the village of Dombås with the intention of then traveling north to Trondheim; they were instead met there by General Ruge who informed them that the Norwegian forces could not contain the Germans travelling up the valleys for much longer. Knowing that a German breakthrough would both cut off supplies and leave Sickleforce surrounded, Paget diverted his force south to Lillehammer. They did not stay long though, as the 148th Brigade was soon attacked by Pellengahr's forces and forced to withdraw. As they retreated through the Tretten Valley, the 148th again came under attack and were effectively eliminated as a fighting unit. By this time, the British 15th Infantry Brigade had landed in Åndalsnes and had started to move south to relieve the 148th. The British encountered the pursuing German forces at Kvam, a municipality between Trettin and Dombås, and were pushed back to Kjorem, where they weathered further heavy assault. April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... The village of DombÃ¥s lies in the Dovre municipality and serves as an administrative center in the upper Gudbrandsdalen, Norway. ... County Oppland District Gudbrandsdal Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... Tretten is the administrative centre of Øyer municipality, Norway. ... // History This Second World War British Army brigade was part of the regular British 5th Infantry Division . ... County Hordaland Landscape Municipality NO-1238 Administrative centre Norheimsund Mayor (2003) Astrid Kristin Selsvold (Ap) Official language form Nynorsk Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 180 616 km² 580 km² 0. ...


By 28 April, with both groups checked by the Germans, it was decided to withdraw all Allied forces from Central Norway. Sickleforce, with the help of General Ruge, managed to return to Åndalsnes and escape by 2 May at 2:00 a.m., only a few hours before the German 196th Division captured the port. Mauriceforce, their convoys delayed by thick fog, were evacuated on 3 May, though two of their rescue ships, the French destroyer Bison and the British destroyer Afridi were sunk by Junkers Ju 87 dive bombers. April 28 is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 247 days remaining. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... The second HMS Afridi (L-07/F-07) was a Tribal-class destroyer of the Royal Navy laid down by the High Walker Yard of Vickers Armstrong at Newcastle-on-Tyne on 9 June 1936, launched on 8 June 1937 by Lady Foster and commissioned on 3 May 1938. ... Junkers Ju 87 Dive-Bombers The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka was the best known Sturzkampfflugzeug (German dive bomber) in World War II, instantly recognisable by its inverted gull wings, fixed undercarriage and siren. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ...


The failure of the central campaign is considered one of the direct causes of the Norway Debate, which resulted in the resignation of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and the appointment of Winston Churchill to the office. The Norway Debate was a famous debate in the British House of Commons that took place on May 7 and May 8, 1940. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a Conservative British politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ...


Campaign in Northern Norway

Along with the action against Trondheim, a second campaign was launched in the north with the objective of recapturing Narvik. Like the Central campaign, the Narvik expedition also faced numerous obstacles.


One of the first problems faced by the Allies was the fact that the command was not unified, or even truly organized. Naval forces in the area were led by Admiral of the Fleet William Boyle, 12th Earl of Cork who had been ordered to rid the area of the Germans as soon as possible. In contrast, the commander of the ground forces, Major General Pierse Mackesy, was ordered not to land his forces in any area strongly held by the Germans and to avoid damaging populated areas. The two met on April 15 to determine the best course of action. Boyle argued for an immediate assault on Narvik and Mackesy countered that such a move would lead to the decimation of his attacking troops. Boyle eventually conceded to Mackesy's viewpoint. Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... Admiral of the Fleet The Right Honourable William Henry Dudley Boyle, 12th Earl of Cork and 12th Earl of Orrery (November 30, 1873 - April 19, 1967) was a career Royal Navy officer who had achieved the rank of full Admiral before succeeding a cousin in 1934 to the family titles...


Mackesy's force, codenamed Rupertforce, consisted of the 24th Guards Brigade as well as French and Polish units. The main force began landing at Harstad, a small town on the island of Hinnøya, on 15 April, but due to confusion, bad weather, inadequate facilities, untactically packed transports and constant attacks by German bombers, unloading took well over a week to complete. In the meantime, the Royal Navy had started off on a considerably better note. On the 15 April, it captured a German U-boat (U-49) which contained documents detailing the dispositions of all U-boats in the Norwegian Sea, effectively removing them as a threat. Municipality of Harstad (In the county of Troms) County Troms District HÃ¥logaland Municipality NO-1901 Administrative centre Harstad Mayor (2005) Halvar Hansen (Ap) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 249 372 km² 355 km² 0. ... Hinnøya is with 2. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ...


After the Allied failure in Central Norway, more preparation was given to the northern forces, including two squadrons of carrier-based fighters, one of them consisting of Hurricanes. The Hawker Hurricane is a fighter design from the 1930s which was used extensively by the Royal Air Force during the Battle of Britain. ...


By 28 May, the Allies had succeeded in recapturing Narvik from German forces, but the German invasion of France and the Low Countries had immensely altered the overall situation of the war and the importance of Norway was considerably lessened. Operation Alphabet, the general Allied retreat from Norway, had been approved on 24 May and by 8 June, after destroying rail lines and port facilities, all Allied troops had been evacuated. The Germans had launched Operation Juno to relieve pressure on the Narvik garrison and, after discovering the evacuation, shifting the mission to a hunt and sunk two British destroyers and the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious. May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Operation Alphabet was the evacuation, authorized on May 24, 1940, of British troops from the harbour of Narvik in northernmost Norway marking the success of Nazi Germanys Operation Weserübung of April 6 and the end of the British campaign in Norway during World War II. The evacuation was... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Operation Juno was a German naval offensive late in the Norwegian Campaign. ... HMS Glorious was a warship of the Royal Navy. ...


Occupation

With the Allies having left the country, Norway soon surrendered to the German forces and an occupation began. There was a fairly prominent resistance movement though, in the form of the Norwegian merchant fleet, civil disobedience, and Norwegian volunteers in British forces, such as the Royal Air Force and British Commandos. The Norwegian King and Cabinet established itself in exile in London and directed a Norwegian resistance movement which proved increasingly efficient during the later years of occupation. Starting with the invasion of April 9, 1940, Norway was under military occupation of German forces and civil rule of a German commissioner in collaboration with a Pro-German puppet government. ... The Norwegian Shipping and Trade Mission (Nortraship) was established in London in April 1940 to administrate the Norwegian merchant fleet outside German controlled areas. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but unregimented raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ...


A Norwegian Navy and Air Force was established in England - based on the remnants of forces saved from the Norwegian campaign - and soon saw extensive combat in the convoy-battles of the North Atlantic and in the air-war over Europe. The ranks of the Navy and Air Force was swollen by a steady trickle of refugees making their way out of occupied Norway, and their equipment brought up to standard by British and American planes and ships. Norwegian squadrons flew with the RAF Fighter and Coastal Commands operating Spitfire and Mosquito fighter planes and Sunderland and Catalina flying boats. Individual Norwegians flew with RAF Bomber Command.


A Norwegian Army was also reestablished in Scotland. However, with the exception of a small number of special forces, it saw little or no action for the rest of the war. Parts of the Scotland-based Norwegian Army participated in the liberation of Finnmark (the northernmost province of Norway) during the winter of 1944-45 after the area had been evacuated by the Germans in a scorched earth operation before the anticipated onslaught of the Red Army. In the course of this operation there were some minor skirmishes with German rear guards and patrols.


In neutral Sweden there was also a Norwegian buildup of forces in the last two years of the war through the so called "police troops" established with the support of Swedish authorities. The term "police" served as a cover up for what in reality was pure military training of a force mustering around 10,000 well trained and equipped troops by VE-day.


Analysis

The operation as planned was a decisive success for Germany. Both Denmark and Norway were occupied with relatively light casualties: 3,800 Germans killed and 1,600 wounded. Surprise was almost complete, particularly in Denmark, and only in the Narvik area did the invasion prove problematic. The Luftwaffe lost about 100 aircraft, or roughly 10% of the force committed. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


At sea, however, the invasion proved a significant setback. The Kriegsmarine lost 1 heavy cruiser, 2 light cruisers, 10 destroyers, and 6 submarines, leaving the navy weakened during the summer months when Hitler was pursuing plans for an invasion of Great Britain. The Kriegsmarine (or War Navy) was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. ...


The British did achieve a partial success at Narvik. Shipping from the port was stopped for a period of six months, although the Allies had believed it would be out of operation for a year.


The British also took some damage to their fleet, losing an aircraft carrier, 2 cruisers, 7 destroyers, and a submarine, but with their much larger fleet, they could absorb the naval losses to a much greater degree than Germany. Britain also gained use of the Norwegian merchant navy, one of the largest in the world.


The German occupation of Norway was to prove a thorn in the side of the Allies during the next few years. Long-range aircraft based there meant that several squadrons of British fighters had to be kept in the north during the Battle of Britain and German commerce raiders used Norway as a staging base to reach the North Atlantic with impunity. After Germany invaded Russia in 1941, air bases in Norway were also used to interdict the Allied arctic convoys there, inflicting painful losses to shipping. Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the USA and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the USSR - Archangel and Murmansk. ...


The occupation of Norway would also come to be a burden for Germany, as the long, exposed coastline provided opportunities for commando raids later in the year. In addition, the country would require a sizeable occupation force. This troop commitment would peak with 400,000 men by 1944, troops that could not be put to use during the Allied landings in France that year or on the Russian Front.


See also

January 1940 27: German planners assign the code name Weserübung to the operation. ... The German operation for the invasion of Denmark and Norway in April, 1940 was code-named Weserübung, or Exercise Weser. Opposing the invasion were the partially mobilized Norwegian military, and an allied expeditionary force composed of British, French, and Polish formations. ...

Notes

  Operation Weserübung, as part of common military disinformation procedure, was codenamed after the German river Weser, while Übung means "exercise" in German. Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... Weser watershed Orthographic projection centred over Bremen The Weser is a river of north-western Germany. ...

References

  • Derry, T. K., The Campaign in Norway, 1954, H.M.S.O.
  • Dickens, Captain Peter, Narvik, 1974, H.M.S.O.
  • Elting, John R., Battles for Scandinavia, ISBN 0-8094-3397-4.

Further reading

  • Hubatsch, Prof.Dr. W., Weserübung Göttingen 1960
  • Moulton, Major-General J.L., The Norwegian campaign of 1940. A study of warfare in three dimensions
  • Ottmer, H.M., Weserübung. Der deutsche Angriff auf Dänemark und Norwegen im April 1940. Oldenburg 1994 ISBN 3-486-56092-1
  • Ziemke, E.F. 'The German Northern Theatre of Operations'

External links


U-boats U-47
U-boat • Battle of the Atlantic (1914-1918) • Battle of the Atlantic (1939-1945) • Operation Deadlight
CommandersSir Percy NobleSir Max K. HortonErich RaederKarl Dönitz
Combats - Convoy SC-7 • Convoy PQ-17 • Mediterranean U-boat Campaign • Battle of the St. Lawrence • Stalingrad of the U-boat arm • Bismarck Chase
The boats • List of U-boats • List of successful U-boats
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Capital ships sunk - HMS Royal Oak • HMS Barham • HMS Courageous • HMS Ark Royal • HMS Audacity

HMS AvengerHMS Eagle • USS Block Island U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... U-47 returning to port after sinking the Royal Oak. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The First Battle of the Atlantic (1914–1918) was a naval campaign of World War I, largely fought in the seas around the British Isles and in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W.Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines... Operation Deadlight was the code name for the scuttling of U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of World War II. Of the 154 U-boats surrendered, 121 were scuttled in deep water off Lisahally, Northern Ireland or Loch Ryan, Scotland in late... Sir Percy Lockhart Harnam Noble (1880-1955) was a British Naval Officer who rose to the rank of Admiral and was the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy’s Western Approaches Command for two crucial years during the Second World War. ... Admiral Sir Max Kennedy Horton, GCB, DSO and two bars, (November 29, 1883 - July 30, 1951) was a British submariner in World War I and commander-in-chief of the Western Approaches in the latter half of World War II, responsible for British participation in the Second World Wars... Erich Raeder. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ); September 16, 1891–December 24, 1980) was a German naval leader, famous for his command of the Kriegsmarine during World War II and for his twenty-day term as President of Germany after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... SC-7 was a World War II convoy of 35 merchant ships which sailed eastbound from Sydney, Nova Scotia for Liverpool, England and other British ports on October 4, 1940. ... PQ-17 was a World War II convoy carrying war materiel from Britain and the USA to the USSR. PQ-17 sailed in June-July 1942 and suffered the heaviest losses of any Russia-bound (PQ) convoy, with 25 vessels out of 36 lost to enemy action. ... Combatants Royal Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Strength 62 U-boats Casualties 95 merchant ships sunk 24 warships sunk 62 U-boats lost The Mediterranean U-boat Campaign went on and off from September 21, 1941 to May 1944 during World War II. The Nazi Kriegsmarine aimed at isolating Gibraltar, Malta... The Battle of the St. ... May, 1943 is often called Stalingrad of the U-boat arm, because of the immense losses of U-boats[41] to Allied shipping in World War II. Categories: | | | ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Operation Rheinübung. ... The list of U-boats includes all U-boats built or operated by Germany. ... Categories: U-boats ... The term wolf pack refers to the mass-attack tactics against convoys used by U-boats of the Kriegsmarine during the Battle of the Atlantic and submarines of the United States Navy against Japanese shipping in the Pacific Ocean in World War II. Karl Dönitz used the term Rudel... Endrass was a wolfpack of German U-boats during World War II. It was operational from 12 June to 21 June 1942 attacking the Convoy HG-84 that comprised 23 ships. ... Blücher was a wolfpack of German U-boats in World War II. Named after Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (1742 - 1819) who led Germany in the wars against Napoleon Bonaparte, this pack was operational from 12 August to 20 August 1942. ... Hecht was a Wolfpack of German U-boats that sank 13 Allied ships [ 12 May 1942 to 18 June 1942 ] in World War II Categories: | | ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... HMS Barham was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy named after Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, built at the John Brown shipyards in Clydebank, and launched in 1914. ... HMS Courageous was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Ark Royal (91), was the third ship of the Royal Navy to carry the name and the second to be an aircraft carrier. ... Originally a German Banana boat named Hanover and captured by the Royal Navy during 1939/40, HMS Audacity was the very first escort carrier. ... HMS Avenger (D 14) was an escort aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy during World War II. Avenger was one of four motorships laid down under Maritime Commission contract (Hull Sun-59), by the Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Company at Chester, Pennsylvania, and launched on 27 November 1940. ... HMS Eagle was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy sunk during World War II. The Eagle was laid down at the Armstrong yards at Newcastle-on-Tyne on February 20, 1913. ... The second USS Block Island (CVE-21) (previously AVG-21 then later ACV-21) was launched 6 June 1942 by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp. ...

Technology - AsdicLeigh LightQ-shipSchnorkel edit


The F70 type frigates (here, Motte-Picquet) are fitted with VDS (Variable Depth Sonar) type DUBV43 or DUBV43C tugged sonars Sonar (sound navigation and ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation under water to navigate or to detect other watercraft. ... The Leigh Light (abbreviated L/L) was a British World War II era anti submarine device used in the Second Battle of the Atlantic. ... A hidden gun on a Q-ship in World War I. The Q-ship or Q-boat was a weapon used against German U-boats during World War I primarily by Britain and during World War II primarily by the United States. ... Swimmers snorkel A snorkel is a tube about a 30 cm / 12 inches long, usually J-shaped, fitted with a reasonably comfortable mouthpiece, and constructed of rubber or plastic. ...

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Causes
in Europe
in Asia Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War , or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1, Italy (from June, 22, 1941 to 1943) Romania (from June, 22) Finland (from June, 26 to 1944), Hungary (from June, 27) Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai... Combatants  Finland Germany  Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Strength 250,000 (total 530,000) Finns[1] + 100,000 (total 220,000) Germans 650,000 (total ???) [2] Casualties 58,715 dead or missing 158,000 wounded 1,500 civilian casualties[3] 200,000 dead or missing 385,000 wounded... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Combatants Soviet Union Japan Commanders Alexandr Vasilevskij Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... The East African Campaign refers to the battles fought between British Empire and Commonwealth forces and Italian Empire forces in Italian East Africa during World War II. This campaign is often seen as part of the North African Campaign. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Anthem: Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit Nuna asiilasooq Capital (and largest city) Nuuk (GodthÃ¥b) Greenlandic, Danish Government Parliamentary democracy (within constitutional monarchy)  - Monarch Margrethe II  - Prime Minister Hans Enoksen 2002 Autonomous province (Kingdom of Denmark)   - Home rule 1979  Area  - Total 2,166,086 km² (13th) 836,109 sq mi   - Water (%) 81. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping to the east and south-east of the United States. ... The Battle for Australia was a series of battles fought in 1942 and early 1943 to defend Australia against Japanese attack. ... Combatants Chinese Nationalists Chinese Communists Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese... Combatants Soviet Union Mongolia Japan Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded The Battle of Khalkhin Gol, sometimes spelled Halhin Gol or Khalkin Gol after the Halha River passing through the battlefield and known... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead... Combatants Vichy France (first phase), Free France, British and Commonwealth nations (second phase) Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000(First Phase), 150,000 (Second Phase) 60,000(First Phase), 120,000 (Second Phase) Casualties 489 military (First Phase), 12,900+ military (Second Phase) 583 military (First Phase... Combatants Iraq United Kingdom Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 1,200 The Anglo-Iraqi War was a short war fought between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist government, from April 18 to May 30, 1941. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 100,000 men 20,000 men and women[] Casualties 12,777 killed 37,732 wounded 4,527 missing 38,000 killed[] 40,000 captured or surrendered The... There were two wars known as the Sino-Japanese War (between China and Japan): The First Sino-Japanese War occurred between 1894 and 1895, primarily over control of Korea. ... Combatants Germany Finland Commanders Lothar Rendulic Hjalmar Siilasvuo Strength 200,000 60,000 Casualties 950 killed 2,000 wounded 1,300 captured 774 killed 3,000 wounded 262 missing The Lapland War is a name used for the hostilities between Finland and Germany between September 1944 and April 1945. ... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... This article is concerned with the events that preceded World War II in Asia. ...


Main theatres:
Europe
Eastern Europe
Africa
Middle East
Mediterranean
Asia & Pacific
China
• Atlantic The European Theatre was an area of heavy fighting across Europe, during World War II, from 1 September 1939 to 8 May 1945. ... Combatants Soviet Union1 Poland Germany1, Italy (from June, 22, 1941 to 1943) Romania (from June, 22) Finland (from June, 26 to 1944), Hungary (from June, 27) Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W.Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines...


General timeline:
Timeline This is a timeline of events in World War II. // German soldiers supposedly destroying a Polish border checkpoint. ...

  

1939:
Invasion of Poland
Winter War
Combatants Poland Nazi Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front) Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front) Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolak) Strength Poland: 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 3,000 tanks 3,800 aircraft[3][4] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[5] 126,875 dead...


1940:
Invasion of Denmark and Norway
Battle of France
Battle of Britain
Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Hugh Dowding Hermann Göring Albert Kesselring Strength initially 700; grew to nearly 1000 by the end of the Battle. ...


1941:
Invasion of Soviet Union
Battle of Moscow
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler General (later MareÅŸal) Ion Antonescu Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Georgi Zhukov Strength ~ 1,500,000 ~ 1,500,000 Casualties 250,000 700,000 The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS) (1st aerial wave), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) (2nd aerial wave) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 3 cruisers, 9...


1942:
Battle of Midway
Battle of Stalingrad
Second Battle of El Alamein
Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto, Chuichi Nagumo, Tamon Yamaguchi † Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants Germany Italy Romania Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army German SS 9th Anti-Aircraft Division Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army Unknown number of Germans Unknown... Combatants British 8th Army German Panzer Army Africa Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength 250,000 men 1,030 tanks 900 guns 530 aircraft 90,000 men 500 tanks 500 guns 350 aircraft Casualties 13,500 dead and wounded 13,000 dead 46,000 wounded or captured The Second Battle...


1943:
Battle of Kursk
Guadalcanal campaign
Invasion of Italy
Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Hans von Kluge, Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov, Konstantin Rokossovskiy, Nikolay Vatutin Strength 800,000 infantry, 2,700 tanks, 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry, 3,600 tanks, 2,400 aircraft Casualties 500,000 dead, wounded, or captured 900 tanks... Combatants United States Australia New Zealand United Kingdom Tonga[1] Solomon Islands[2] Empire of Japan Commanders Robert Ghormley William Halsey, Jr. ... This article covers the invasion of mainland Italy by the World War II Allies in September 1943 during the Italian Campaign. ...


1944:
Battle of Normandy
Operation Bagration
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann () Strength 326,000 (by June 11) Unknown, probably some 1,000,000 in... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


1945:
Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Berlin
End in Europe
Atomic bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Surrender of Japan
more...
Combatants United States U.K. Canada New Zealand Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner, Jr. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The raising of the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin, May 1945. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The surrender of Japan in August 1945 brought World War II to a close. ... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ...

  

Blitzkrieg
Cryptography
Equipment
Home Front
Military Engagements
Production
Resistance
Technology
The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Cryptography was used extensively during World War II, with a plethora of code and cipher systems fielded by the nations involved. ... // Aircraft List of aircraft of World War II List of World War II military aircraft of Germany List of aircraft of the Armée de lAir, World War II List of aircraft of the USAAF, World War II List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force, World War II... Publicity photo of American machine tool worker in Texas. ... USS Lexington explodes during the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... Resistance during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns. ... Technology during World War II played a crucial role in determining the outcome of the war. ...


Civilian impact and atrocities:
Holocaust
Siege of Leningrad
Allied war crimes
Dutch famine of 1944
Hiroshima & Nagasaki
German war crimes
Japanese war crimes
Strategic bombings
This article is becoming very long. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada... Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or the soldiers of the Axis Armed Forces. ... After the landing of the Allied Forces on D-Day, conditions grew worse in the Nazi occupied Netherlands. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Germany committed war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust, where millions of people, about half of which were Jews, were murdered. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ...


Aftermath:
Effects
Casualties
Expulsion of Germans
Cold War Note: This section was copied from the article World War II and removed from that article in order to reduce the size of the article. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the mass deportation of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche, Volksdeutsche, Sorbs, many Upper Silesians and Kashubians) from European countries with large German-speaking minorities, primarily Soviet-occupied areas of Eastern Europe in the final months of... The Cold War was the period of protracted conflict and competition between the United States and the Soviet Union and their allies from the late 1940s until the late 1980s. ...

  

The Allies
United Kingdom
Soviet Union
United States
Republic of China
Poland
Free France
Netherlands
Belgium
Canada
Norway
Greece
Yugoslavia
Czechoslovakia
India
Australia
New Zealand
South Africa
Egypt
Philippines
Brazil
more...
The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Free_France_1940-1944. ... France, along with the United Kingdom, was one of the first participants in World War II after declaring war on Nazi Germany following its invasion of Poland in 1939. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium. ... Image File history File links Canadian_Red_Ensign_1921. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt_1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...


The Axis
Germany
Japan
Italy
France of Vichy
Hungary
Bulgaria
Romania
Finland
Croatia
Slovakia
Thailand
more... Area under Axis control over the course of the war shown in black The Axis Powers were those states opposed to the Allies during the Second World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vichy_France. ... For other uses of Vichy, see Vichy (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary_1940. ... Image File history File links Bulgaria_flag. ... Image File history File links Romania_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia_Ustasa. ... Image File history File links Slovakia_WW2_flag. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

• Category: World War II
Topics
Conferences
Total war
WWII in contemporary culture
Military awards of World War II
Attacks in North America
Comparative military ranks of World War II // Military engagements For military topics (land, naval, and air engagements as well as campaigns, operations, defensive lines and sieges), please see List of military engagements of World War II. Political and social aspects of the war Causes of World War II Appeasement Occupation of Denmark Netherlands in World War II... List of World War II conferences of the Allied forces In total Churchill attended 14 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 5. ... This article is about the military doctrine of total war. ... The influence of World War II has been profound and diverse, having an impact on many parts of life. ... Military awards of World War II were presented by most of the combatants. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... The following table shows comparative officer ranks of major Allied and Axis powers during World War II. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks. ...


More information on World War II:

 World War II from Wiktionary
 WWII Textbooks from Wikibooks
 WWII Quotations from Wikiquote
 WWII Source texts from Wikisource
 WWII Images and media from Commons
 WWII News stories from Wikinews
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ...


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