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Encyclopedia > Battle of Normandy
D-Day
Part of World War II

Assault landing one of the first waves at Omaha Beach as photographed by Robert F. Sargent. The U.S. Coast Guard caption identifies the unit as Company E, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division.
Date June 6, 1944
Location Normandy, France
Result Decisive Allied victory
Combatants
 Canada
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Commanders
Flag of the United States Dwight Eisenhower
(Supreme Allied Commander)
Flag of the United Kingdom Bernard Montgomery (land)
Flag of the United Kingdom Bertram Ramsay (sea)
Flag of the United Kingdom Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air)
Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army)
Flag of the United States Omar Bradley (U.S. 1st Army)
Flag of the United Kingdom Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army)
Flag of Nazi Germany Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST)
Flag of Nazi Germany Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B)
Flag of Nazi Germany Friedrich Dollmann (7.Armee Oberkommando)
Strength
155,000[1] 380,000 (by July 23)[2]
Casualties
United States: 1,465 dead, 5,138 wounded, missing or captured;
United Kingdom: 2,700 dead, wounded or captured;
Canada: 340 dead; 621 wounded or captured;[3]
Nazi Germany: Between 4,000 and 9,000 dead, wounded or captured (By August, The Germans had suffered 420,000 Casualties, including 50,000 dead.)[4][5]

The Battle of Normandy, codenamed Operation Overlord, was the Allied invasion of Normandy, part of the Normandy Campaign. It began on June 6, 1944 (commonly known as D-Day), and is held to end on June 30, 1944, with Operation Cobra[6]. As of 2007, Operation Overlord remains the largest seaborne invasion in history[7], involving over 156,000 troops crossing the English Channel from England to Normandy[1]. Operation Neptune was the codename given to the initial naval assault phase of Operation Overlord; its mission, to gain a foothold on the continent. Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Combatants  Canada  United Kingdom  United States  Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured or wounded; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe... Combatants Croat SS soldiers Germany Commanders Ferid Džanić Unknown Strength 500-1,000 Unknown Casualties 146 N/A The Villefranche-de-Rouergue uprising took place on September 17, 1943, when a division composed of about 500-1000 Croats and Bosnian Muslims from Croatia, which has been sent by force... Combatants United States1 United Kingdom2 Free France3 Germany Commanders Lt. ... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants  United Kingdom  United States  Canada  Poland  Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor StanisÅ‚aw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 11,377 dead, wounded or missing 6,946 British MIA 2,000 Killed 6,000... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walter Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000—16,000 deaths[1] (est. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2,000 dead, 3,000 wounded 5,000 dead or wounded, 5,600 captured The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, that took place in October 1944 in World War... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann (7. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants USA Canada Free France Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton General Philippe Leclerc SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties 1. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ...


Allied land forces that saw combat in Normandy on D-Day itself came from Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Substantial Free French and Polish forces also participated in the battle after the assault phase, and there were also contingents from Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, the Netherlands, and Norway.[8] Other Allied nations participated in the naval and air forces. Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... 1st Polish Armoured Division, Haddington, 1943 Polish Armed Forces in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight along the Western Allies and against Nazi Germany and its allies. ...


The Normandy invasion began with overnight parachute and glider landings, massive air attacks, naval bombardments, and an early morning amphibious phase began on June 6. The "D-Day" forces deployed from bases along the south coast of England, the most important of these being Portsmouth.[6] An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Naval gunfire support (NGFS) comprises the use of naval artillery to provide fire support support for amphibious assault troops. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Allied preparations

Eisenhower speaks with 1st Lt. Wallace C. Strobel and Company E, 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.
Eisenhower speaks with 1st Lt. Wallace C. Strobel and Company E, 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division on the evening of June 5, 1944.
Main article: Normandy Campaign#Allied Preparations

The objective of the operation was to create a lodgement that would be anchored in the city of Caen (and later Cherbourg when its deep-water port would be captured). As long as Normandy could be secured, the Western European campaign and the downfall of Nazi Germany could begin. About 6,900 vessels would be involved in the invasion, under the command of Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay (who had been directly involved in the North African and Italian landings), including 4,100 landing craft. A total of 12,000 aircraft under Air Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory were to support the landings, including 1,000 transports to fly in the parachute troops; 10,000 tons of bombs would be dropped against the German defenses, and 14,000 attack sorties would be flown. General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... General Dwight D. Eisenhower addresses American paratroopers on D-Day. ... During World War II, the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment (502d PIR) was a regiment of the 101st Airborne Division of the United States Army. ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann (7. ... A lodgement is an enclave made by increasing the size of a bridgehead, beachhead or airhead. ... Categories: People stubs | 1883 births | 1945 deaths | Royal Navy admirals | Royal Navy officers | British World War II people ... Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ... An air marshals sleeve/shoulder insignia Air Marshal (Air Mshl or AM) is a rank in the Royal Air Force. ... Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford Leigh-Mallory KCB, DSO and Bar (11 July 1892 - 14 November 1944) was a senior commander in the Royal Air Force in World War II and the highest-ranking British officer to die in the war. ... Sortie is a term for deployment of aircraft or ships for the purposes of a specific mission. ...


Some of the more unusual Allied preparations included armored vehicles specially adapted for the assault. Developed under the leadership of Maj. Gen. Percy Hobart (Montgomery’s brother-in-law), these vehicles (called Hobart’s Funnies) included "swimming" Duplex Drive Sherman tanks, the Churchill Crocodile flame throwing tank, mine-clearing tanks, bridge-laying tanks and road-laying tanks and the Armored Vehicle, Royal Engineers (AVRE)–equipped with a large-caliber mortar for destroying concrete emplacements. Some prior testing of these vehicles had been undertaken at Kirkham Priory in Yorkshire, England. The majority would be operated by small teams of the British 79th Armoured Division attached to the various formations. Major-General Sir Percy Cleghorn Stanley Hobart (14 June 1885-19 February 1957) was a British military engineer and commander of the 79th Armoured Division during World War II. He was responsible for many of the specialised armoured vehicles (Hobarts Funnies) that took part in the invasion of Normandy. ... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ... DD Sherman tank with its flotation screen lowered. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) was a heavy British infantry tank of the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles. ... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk IV (A22) was a heavy British infantry tank of the Second World War, best known for its heavy armour and its use as the basis of many specialist vehicles. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... The ruins of Kirkham priory are situated on the banks of the River Derwent, Yorkshire, at Kirkham, Yorkshire. ... Yorkshire is a historic county of northern England. ... The 79th (Experimental) Armoured Division, Royal Engineers was a British Army armoured unit formed as part of the preparations for the Normandy invasion of 6 June 1944. ...

U.S. soldiers of the 2nd Ranger Battalion march through Weymouth, a southern English coastal town, en route to board landing ships for the invasion of France.
U.S. soldiers of the 2nd Ranger Battalion march through Weymouth, a southern English coastal town, en route to board landing ships for the invasion of France.

Allied forces rehearsed their roles for D-Day months before the invasion. On April 28, 1944, in south Devon on the English coast, 749 U.S. soldiers and sailors were killed when German torpedo boats surprised one of these landing exercises, Exercise Tiger. Photo #: USA C-727 (Color) Normandy Invasion Preparations, 1944 U.S. Soldiers march through a southern English coastal town, en route to board landing ships for the invasion of France, circa late May or early June 1944. ... Photo #: USA C-727 (Color) Normandy Invasion Preparations, 1944 U.S. Soldiers march through a southern English coastal town, en route to board landing ships for the invasion of France, circa late May or early June 1944. ... , Weymouth is a town in Dorset, England, United Kingdom, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Part of the seafront of Torquay, south Devon, at high tide Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, and Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... E-boat is the British and American name for the German Schnellboot (S-boot), a small, fast torpedo boat a little larger than the American PT boat and the British MTB. Specification Length - 34. ... The exercise involved travelling through Lyme Bay to Slapton Sands Sherman DD tank at the memorial A plaque at the memorial, commemorating those who perished Exercise Tiger (also called Operation Tiger) was the code name for an eight-day practice run for the Utah Beach landings of the D-Day...


In the months leading up to the invasion, the Allies conducted a deception operation, Operation Bodyguard. The Allies prepared a massive deception plan, called Operation Fortitude. During World War II, Operation Bodyguard was the overall Allied strategic deception plan in Europe for 1944, carried out as part of the build-up to the invasion of Normandy. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ...


There were several leaks prior to or on D-Day. Through the Cicero affair, the Germans obtained documents containing references to Overlord, but these documents lacked all detail.[9] Double Cross agents, such as Juan Pujol (code named Garbo), played an important role in convincing the German High Command that Normandy was at best a diversionary attack. Another such leak was Gen. Charles de Gaulle's radio message after D-Day. He, unlike all the other leaders, stated that this invasion was the real invasion. This had the potential to ruin the Allied deceptions Fortitude North and Fortitude South. For example, Gen. Eisenhower referred to the landings as the initial invasion. The Germans did not believe de Gaulle and waited too long to move in extra units against the Allies. Elyesa Bazna Elyesa Bazna (Albanian: Iljaz Bazna born 1904 in Kosovo - December 21, 1970 in Munich) was a spy who offered secret documents to Nazi Germany during the Second World War, in what widely became known as the Cicero affair. ... The Double Cross System or XX System, was a World War II anti-espionage and deception operation of the British military intelligence arm, MI5. ... Garbo was the British codename of Juan Pujol García, (1912 – 1988), a double-agent who played a key role in the success of D-Day towards the end of World War II. The false information Pujol supplied to the German command helped persuade Hitler that the main attack would... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Allied Order of Battle

D-day assault routes into Normandy.
D-day assault routes into Normandy.

The order of battle was approximately as follows, east to west: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 188 KB) Allied invasion plans and german positions in the Normandy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x966, 188 KB) Allied invasion plans and german positions in the Normandy. ...


British sector (Second Army)

Overall, the British contingent would consist of 83,115 troops (61,715 of them British)[10]. The 6th Airborne Division was an airborne unit of the British Army during World War II. // The division was formed in the United Kingdom on 3 May 1943, during the Second World War. ... This article is about the device. ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ... Orne is the name of two rivers in France: one in Normandy and one in Lorraine. ... 45 (RM) Commando is a battalion sized formation of the British Royal Marines. ... The British Commandos were first formed by the Army in June 1940 during World War II as a well-armed but non-regimental raider force employing unconventional and irregular tactics to assault, disrupt and reconnoitre the enemy in mainland Europe and Scandinavia. ... Ouistreham is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... The British I Corps has a long history, and was in existence as an active formation in the British Army for longer than any other corps. ... The British 3rd Infantry Division was part of the ill-fated British Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk early in World War II. It was the first British division to land at Sword beach on D-Day. ... The 27th Armoured Brigade was a Second World War British Army formation. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845 Unknown Casualties 630 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Lion-sur-Mer is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... List of military divisions — List of Canadian divisions in WWII The formation of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division was authorized on 17 May 1940. ... Soon after 3rd Canadian Tank Brigade assumed the designation in summer 1943 of the original 2nd Canadian Tank Brigade, the new 2nd Tank was redesignated and reorganized as 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade. ... This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties... Saint-Aubin-sur-Mer is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Courseulles-sur-Mer is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... // 50th Northumbrian Division History This formation was sent to France in 1940 as a Territorial Army division, and was involved in the evacuation at Dunkirk. ... The 8th Armoured Brigade was a Second World War British Army brigade. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, British 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Static Infantry Division Strength 24,970 Unknown Casualties 400 altogether Unknown This article is about a World War II invasion. ... Arromanches-les-Bains or simply Arromanches is a town in Normandy, France, located on the coast in the heart of the area where the Normandy landings took place on D_Day, on June 6, 1944. ... The 79th (Experimental) Armoured Division, Royal Engineers was a British Army armoured unit formed as part of the preparations for the Normandy invasion of 6 June 1944. ... Badge of the 79th Armoured Division Amphibious DD tanks await blowing of breaches in the sea wall on Utah Beach. ...


U.S. Sector (First Army)

General view of a port in England; in foreground, jeeps are being loaded onto LCTs – in background, larger trucks and ducks are being loaded onto LSTs. Undated – June 1944
General view of a port in England; in foreground, jeeps are being loaded onto LCTs – in background, larger trucks and ducks are being loaded onto LSTs. Undated – June 1944

In total, the Americans contributed 73,000 men (15,500 were airborne).[10] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (1269 × 800 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: General view of a port in England; in foreground, jeeps are being loaded onto LCTs - in background, larger trucks and ducks are being loaded onto... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 504 pixelsFull resolution (1269 × 800 pixel, file size: 216 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: General view of a port in England; in foreground, jeeps are being loaded onto LCTs - in background, larger trucks and ducks are being loaded onto... For the V Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see V Corps (ACW) The V Corps (Fifth Corps)—nicknamed the Victory Corps—is a corps of the United States Army. ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed “The Big Red One” after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the United States Army. ... 29th Infantry Division Symbol The U.S. 29th Infantry Division was a United States infantry division that existed during World War I and World War II. Nicknamed Blue and Gray, the divisions motto is 29 Lets Go, taken from General Eisenhowers inspiring speech to the troops preparing... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... Sainte-Honorine-des-Pertes is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Vierville-sur-Mer is a commune and a canton of the Calvados département, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers Task Force Ranger U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... For the VII Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see VII Corps (ACW). ... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ... A regimental combat team was a provisional major infantry unit of the United States Army during the Second World War and Korean War. ... The 90th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War I and World War II. World War I Activated: August 1917. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... There are communes that have the name La Madeleine in France: River Madeleine, in the Territoire de Belfort département Communes La Madeleine, in the Nord département Related La Madeleine-de-Nonancourt, in the Eure département La Madeleine-de-Villefrouin, in the Loir-et-Cher département La... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Vierville is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Vierville, in the Eure-et-Loir département Vierville, in the Manche département Vierville-sur-Mer, in the Calvados département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was constituted in the National Army as the 82nd Division on August 5, 1917, and was organized on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Sainte-Mère-Église is a small town and commune of the Manche département, in the Cotentin Peninsula near the coast of Normandy, France. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... 91st Infantry Division 91st Air Landing Division The 91st Infantry Division was created in early 1944, and converted reorganized as the 91st Air Landing Division ( German luftlande) in the spring. ...


Naval participants

Main article: Operation Neptune
Large landing craft convoy crosses the English Channel on June 6, 1944.
Large landing craft convoy crosses the English Channel on June 6, 1944.

The Invasion Fleet was drawn from 8 different navies, comprising 6,939 vessels: 1,213 warships, 4,126 transport vessels (landing ships and landing craft), and 736 ancillary craft and 864 merchant vessels.[10] Operation Neptune refers to the landing phase of Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... Photo #: 26-G-2333 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 A convoy of Landing Craft Infantry (Large) sails across the English Channel toward the Normandy Invasion beaches on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... Photo #: 26-G-2333 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 A convoy of Landing Craft Infantry (Large) sails across the English Channel toward the Normandy Invasion beaches on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Landing craft Rapière LCU 1656 departs USS Bataan (LHD-5) well deck during Hurricane Katrina relief operations. ...


The overall commander of the Allied Naval Expeditionary Force, providing close protection and bombardment at the beaches, was Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay. The Allied Naval Expeditionary Force was divided into two Naval Task Forces: Western (Rear-Admiral Alan G Kirk) and Eastern (Rear-Admiral Sir Philip Vian). Categories: People stubs | 1883 births | 1945 deaths | Royal Navy admirals | Royal Navy officers | British World War II people ... Alan Goodrich Kirk (born October 30, 1888, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; died October 1963, Washington, DC) was an admiral in the U.S. Navy and an American diplomat. ... Admiral of the Fleet Sir Philip Vian GCB KBE DSO was a British naval officer best known for the incident early in 1940 when a force under his command released captured British merchant sailors from the German supply ship Altmark in Norway. ...


The warships provided cover for the transports against the enemy—whether in the form of surface warships, submarines, or as an aerial attack—and gave support to the landings through shore bombardment. These ships included the Allied Task Force "O". This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


German Order of Battle

The number of military forces at the disposal of Nazi Germany, reached its peak during 1944, tanks on the east front peaked at 5,202 in November 1944, total aircraft in the Luftwaffe inventory peaked at 5,041 in December 1944. By D-Day 157 German divisions were stationed in the Soviet Union, 6 in Finland, 12 in Norway, 6 in Denmark, 9 in Germany, 21 in the Balkans, 26 in Italy and 59 in France, Belgium and the Netherlands.[15] However, these statistics are somewhat misleading since a significant number of the divisions in the east were depleted; German records indicate that the average personnel complement was at about 50% in the spring of 1944.[16]


Atlantic Wall

Main articles: Atlantic Wall and English Channel
A map of the Atlantic Wall.

Standing in the way of the Allies was the English Channel, a crossing which had eluded the Spanish Armada and Napoleon Bonaparte's Navy. Compounding the invasion efforts was the extensive Atlantic Wall, ordered by Hitler as part of Directive 51. Believing that any forthcoming landings would be timed for high tide (this caused the landings to be timed for low tide), Rommel had the entire wall fortified with tank top turrets and extensive barbed wire, and laid a million mines to deter landing craft. The sector which was attacked was guarded by four divisions. German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x804, 60 KB) The File is an image that originated on wikipedia (Image:Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (612x804, 60 KB) The File is an image that originated on wikipedia (Image:Second world war europe 1941-1942 map en. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Elizabeth I of England Charles Howard Francis Drake Philip II of Spain Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive (National Security Presidential Directive NSPD-51/Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-20, sometimes called simply Executive Directive 51 for short), signed by United States President George W. Bush on May 4, 2007, is a Presidential Directive which specifies the procedures for continuity...


Divisional Areas

  • 716th Infantry Division (Static) defended the Eastern end of the landing zones, including most of the British and Canadian beaches. This division, as well as the 709th, included Germans who were not considered fit for active duty on the Eastern Front, usually for medical reasons, and various other nationalities such as conscripted Poles and former Soviet prisoners-of-war who had agreed to fight for the Germans rather than endure the harsh conditions of German POW camps.
  • 352nd Infantry Division defended the area between approximately Bayeux and Carentan, including Omaha beach. Unlike the other divisions this one was well-trained and contained many combat veterans. The division had been formed in November 1943 with the help of cadres from the disbanded 321st Division, which had been destroyed in the Soviet Union that same year. The 352nd had many troops who had seen action on the eastern front and on the 6th, had been carrying out anti-invasion exercises.
  • 91st Air Landing Division (Luftlande – air transported) (Generalmajor Wilhelm Falley), comprising the 1057th Infantry Regiment and 1058th Infantry Regiment. This was a regular infantry division, trained, and equipped to be transported by air (i.e. transportable artillery, few heavy support weapons) located in the interior of the Cotentin Peninsula, including the drop zones of the American parachute landings. The attached 6th Parachute Regiment (Oberstleutnant Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte) had been rebuilt as a part of the 2nd Parachute Division stationed in Brittany.
  • 709th Infantry Division (Static) (Generalleutnant Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben), comprising the 729th Infantry Regiment, 739th Infantry Regiment (both with four battalions, but the 729th 4th and the 739th 1st and 4th being Ost, these two regiments had no regimental support companies either), and 919th Infantry Regiment. This coastal defense division protected the eastern, and northern (including Cherbourg) coast of the Cotentin Peninsula, including the Utah beach landing zone. Like the 716th, this division comprised a number of "Ost" units who were provided with German leadership to manage them.

716th Static Infantry Division 716th Volksgrenadier Division The 716th Static Infantry Division was raised in May 1941 for occupation duties in France. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... 352nd Infantry Division 352nd Volksgrenadier Division The 352nd Infantry Division () was an infantry division of the German Heer during World War II. A western front unit, the 352nd is notable as the defenders of Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... 91st Infantry Division 91st Air Landing Division The 91st Infantry Division was created in early 1944, and converted reorganized as the 91st Air Landing Division ( German luftlande) in the spring. ... Lieutenant-General Wilhelm Falley (b 25 Sept 1897) was the first German General killed in the Normandy Landings. ... The Cotentin Peninsula juts out into the English Channel from Normandy towards England, forming part of the north-west coast of France. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Matthew B. Ridgway Maxwell D. Taylor Erich Marcks Wilhelm Falley Strength (airlifted) 13,100 paratroops 3,900 glider troops 5,700 USAAF aircrew 36,600 (7. ... Oberstleutnant von der Heydt, 1943 Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte was a German Luftwaffe officer who served with the Fallschirmjäger during World War II, reaching the rank of Oberstleutnant. ... The German 2nd Parachute Division is a German military parachute-landing Division that fought during World War II. In German, a division of paratroopers was termed a Fallschirmjäger Division. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... The 709th Static Infantry Division was raised in May 1941 and used for occuation duties in France until the Allied invasion. ...

Adjacent Divisional Areas

Other divisions occupied the areas around the landing zones, including:

  • 243rd Infantry Division (Static) (Generalleutnant Heinz Hellmich), comprising the 920th Infantry Regiment (two battalions), 921st Infantry Regiment, and 922nd Infantry Regiment. This coastal defense division protected the western coast of the Cotentin Peninsula.
  • 711th Infantry Division (Static), comprising the 731th Infantry Regiment, and 744th Infantry Regiment. This division defended the western part of the Pays de Caux.
  • 30th Mobile Brigade (Oberstleutnant Freiherr von und zu Aufsess), comprising three bicycle battalions.

The 243rd Static Infantry Division was raised in July 1943. ... Heinz Hellmich (June 9, 1890, Karlsruhe – June 17, 1944, Normandy, France) was a German Generalleutnant during World War II. Awarded with a Knight’s Cross (on February 9, 1944). ... // Geography Étretat, falaise daval and the needle The Pays de Caux is a plateau of Upper Cretaceous chalk, like that which forms the North and South Downs in southern England. ... Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ...

Armoured reserves

Rommel's defensive measures were also frustrated by a dispute over armoured doctrine. In addition to his two army groups, von Rundstedt also commanded the headquarters of Panzer Group West under General Leo Geyr von Schweppenburg (usually referred to as von Geyr). This formation was nominally an administrative HQ for von Rundstedt's armoured and mobile formations, but it was later to be renamed Fifth Panzer Army and brought into the line in Normandy. Von Geyr and Rommel disagreed over the deployment and use of the vital Panzer divisions. Leo Dietrich Franz Freiherr[1] Geyr von Schweppenburg (2 March 1886 – 27 January 1974) was a German cavalry officer in World War I and a general during World War II. He was particularly noted for his expertise in armoured warfare. ... The German Fifth Panzer Army was created in December of 1942 to help manage the emergency build-up of troops in Tunisia after the Allied Operation Torch landings in Algeria and Morocco. ...


Rommel recognised that the Allies would possess air superiority and would be able to harass his movements from the air. He therefore proposed that the armoured formations be deployed close to the invasion beaches. In his words, it was better to have one Panzer division facing the invaders on the first day, than three Panzer divisions three days later when the Allies would already have established a firm beachhead. Von Geyr argued for the standard doctrine that the Panzer formations should be concentrated in a central position around Paris and Rouen, and deployed en masse against the main Allied beachhead when this had been identified.


The argument was eventually brought before Hitler for arbitration. He characteristically imposed an unworkable compromise solution. Only three Panzer divisions were given to Rommel, too few to cover all the threatened sectors. The remainder, nominally under Von Geyr's control, were actually designated as being in "OKW Reserve". Only three of these were deployed close enough to intervene immediately against any invasion of Northern France, the other four were dispersed in southern France and the Netherlands. Hitler reserved to himself the authority to move the divisions in OKW Reserve, or commit them to action. On June 6, many Panzer division commanders were unable to move because Hitler had not given the necessary authorisation, and his staff refused to wake him upon news of the invasion. The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Army Group B Reserve

  • The 21st Panzer Division (Generalmajor Edgar Feuchtinger) was deployed near Caen as a mobile striking force as part of the Army Group B reserve. However, Rommel placed it so close to the coastal defenses that, under standing orders in case of invasion, several of its infantry and anti-aircraft units would come under the orders of the fortress divisions on the coast, reducing the effective strength of the division.

The other two armoured divisions over which Rommel had operational control, the 2nd Panzer Division and 116th Panzer Division, were deployed near the Pas de Calais in accordance with German views about the likely Allied landing sites. Neither was moved from the Pas de Calais for at least fourteen days after the invasion. The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the Battles of El Alamenein (1942) and Normandy (1944) during World War II. Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... A standing order is a general order of indefinite duration. ... The 2nd Panzer Division () was created in 1935, and stationed in Austria after the Anschluss. ... The 16th Infantry Division of the German Army was created in 1935 and participated in the invasion of Poland (1939) and France (1940) during World War II.. The division later split in 1940, resulting in two independent lineages: The 16th Panzer Division and the 16th Motorized Infantry Division. ...


OKW Reserve

The other mechanized divisions capable of intervening in Normandy were retained under the direct control of the German Armed Forces HQ (OKW) and were initially denied to Rommel: Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ...


Four divisions were deployed to Normandy within seven days of the invasion:

  • The 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend (Brigadeführer Fritz Witt) was stationed to the southeast. Its officers and NCOs (this division had a very weak core of NCOs in Normandy with only slightly more than 50% of its authorised strength[17]) were long-serving veterans, but the junior soldiers had all been recruited directly from the Hitler Youth movement at the age of seventeen in 1943. It was to acquire a reputation for ferocity and war crimes in the coming battle.
  • Further to the southwest was the Panzerlehrdivision (General major Fritz Bayerlein), an elite unit originally formed by amalgamating the instructing staff at various training establishments. Not only were its personnel of high quality, but the division also had unusually high numbers of the latest and most capable armoured vehicles.
  • 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler was refitting in Belgium on the Netherlands border after being decimated on the Eastern Front.
  • 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen (Generalmajor Werner Ostendorff) was based on Thouars, south of the Loire River, and although equipped with Assault guns instead of tanks and lacking in other transport (such that one battalion each from the 37th and 38th Panzergrenadier Regiments moved by bicycle), it provided the first major counterattack against the American advance at Carentan on June 13.

Three other divisions (the 2nd SS Division Das Reich, which had been refitting at Montauban in Southern France, and the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen and 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg which had been in transit from the Eastern Front on June 6), were committed to battle in Normandy around twenty-one days after the first landings. The 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend ( Hitler Youth) was a German Waffen SS armoured division of World War II. It was one of only two German divisions to carry Hitlers name and was formed as an extension of 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler. The 12th SS was... Fritz Witt (1908 - 1944) was a German Waffen-SS officer who served with the 1. ... A non-commissioned officer (sometimes noncommissioned officer), also known as an NCO or noncom, is a non-commissioned member of an armed force who has been given authority by a commissioned officer. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         For the SS division with the nickname Hitlerjugend see; 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend The Hitler Youth (German:   , abbreviated HJ) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party. ... The Panzerlehrdivision (also called Panzer-Lehr-Division), commonly known as Panzer Lehr, was a German armored division during World War II, one of the most élite units in the entire German army. ... General Fritz Bayerlein Fritz Bayerlein (January 14, 1899 - January 30, 1970) was a German Panzer general during the Second World War. ... The Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (German for Adolf Hitlers Bodyguard Regiment) was a unit of the SS. It was a Waffen SS security and combat formation which saw action on both the Eastern and Western fronts during World War II. As its name suggested, the Leibstandarte started life in... The 17. ... Thouars is a town and commune of France, situated in the département of Deux-Sèvres in the Poitou-Charentes région. ... The Loire River (pronounced in French), the longest river in France with a length of just over 1000 km, drains an area of 117,000 km², more than a fifth of France. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SS-Division Verfügungstruppe SS-Division Deutschland SS-Division Reich SS-Division Das Reich 2. ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... The official cuff title worn by men of 9. ... The 10. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


One more armoured division (the 9th Panzer Division) saw action only after the American breakout from the beachhead. Two other armoured divisions which had been in the west on June 6 (the 11th Panzer Division and 19th Panzer Division) did not see action in Normandy. The German 9th Panzer Division (Neunte Panzerdivision) came into existence after 4th Light Division was reorganized in January 1940. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 11. ... The German 19th Panzer Division was created from the 19th Infantry Division and was formed on 1 November 1940. ...


Landings

Just prior to the invasion, General Eisenhower transmitted a now-historic message to all members of the Allied Expeditionary Force. It read, in part, "You are about to embark upon a great crusade, toward which we have striven these many months." [1] In his pocket was an unused statement to be read in case the invasion failed.[18]


Weather forecast

British Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle.
British Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle.

The final factor in determining the date of the landing was the anticipated weather. By this stage of the war, the German U-Boats had largely been driven from the Atlantic,[19] and their weather stations in Greenland had been closed down. The Allies possessed an advantage in knowledge of conditions in the Atlantic, which was to prove decisive. Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Source: http://www. ... The Pathfinder squadrons of the Royal Air Force were elite squadrons of RAF Bomber Command during World War II. At the start of the war Bomber command made many daylight raids but the losses incurred due to lack of escorting fighters when operating over Europe led them to switch the... The Armstrong Whitworth A.W.41 Albemarle was a British twin-engined transport aircraft that entered service during World War II. Originally designed as a medium bomber, the Albemarle never served in that role, instead being converted for general and special transport duties, paratroop transport and glider towing. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


A full moon was required both for light for the aircraft pilots and for the spring tide, effectively limiting the window of opportunity for mounting the invasion to only a few days in each month. Eisenhower had tentatively selected June 5 as the date for the assault. Most of May had fine weather, but this deteriorated in early June. On June 4, conditions were clearly unsuitable for a landing; wind and high seas would make it impossible to launch landing craft, and low clouds would prevent aircraft finding their targets. The Allied troop convoys already at sea were forced to take shelter in bays and inlets on the south coast of Britain. This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It seemed possible that everything would have to be canceled, and the troops returned to their camps (a vast undertaking, because the enormous movement of follow-up formations was already proceeding). The next full moon period would be nearly a month away. At a vital meeting on June 5, Eisenhower's chief meteorologist (Group Captain J.M. Stagg) forecast a brief improvement for June 6. Montgomery and Eisenhower's Chief of Staff General Walter Bedell Smith wished to proceed with the invasion. Leigh Mallory was doubtful, but Admiral Ramsay believed that conditions would be marginally favorable. On the strength of Stagg's forecast, Eisenhower ordered the invasion to proceed. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... James Martin Stagg (Group Captain J.M. Stagg), (June 30, 1900 - June 23, 1975) was a British meteorologist who notably persuaded General Dwight D. Eisenhower to change the date of the Allied invasion of Europe in World War II, from June 5 to June 6, 1944. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ...


The Germans meanwhile took comfort from the existing poor conditions and believed no invasion would be possible for several days. Some troops stood down, and many senior officers were absent. Rommel, for example, took a few days' leave with his wife and family, while dozens of division, regimental, and battalion commanders were away from their posts at war games.


French Resistance

The various factions and circuits of the French Resistance were included in the plan for Overlord. Through a London-based headquarters which supposedly embraced all resistance groups, Etat-major des Forces Françaises de l'Interieur or EMFFI, the British Special Operations Executive orchestrated a massive campaign of sabotage tasking the various Groups with attacking railway lines, ambushing roads, or destroying telephone exchanges or electrical substations. The resistance was alerted to carry out these tasks by means of the messages personnels, transmitted by the BBC in its French service from London. Several hundred of these were regularly transmitted, masking the few of them that were really significant. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... A telephone operator manually connecting calls with patch cables at a telephone switchboard. ... A 115 kV to 41. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... This article is about hidden messages. ...


Among the stream of apparently meaningless messages broadcast by the BBC at 21:00 CET on June 5, were coded instructions such as Les carottes sont cuites (The carrots are cooked) and Les dés sont jetés (The dice have been thrown).[20] is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


One famous pair of these messages is often mistakenly stated to be a general call to arms by the Resistance. A few days before D-Day, the (slightly misquoted) first line of Verlaine's poem, "Chanson d'Automne", was transmitted. "Les sanglots longs des violons de l'automne"[21][22] (Long sobs of autumn violins) alerted the resistance of the "Ventriloquist" network in the Orléans region to attack rail targets within the next few days. The second line, "Bercent mon coeur d'une langueur monotone" (soothes my heart with a monotonous languor), transmitted late on June 5, meant that the attack was to be mounted immediately. Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... Orléans (Latin, meaning golden) is a city and commune in north-central France, about 130 km (80 miles) southwest of Paris. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Josef Götz, the head of the signals section of the German intelligence service (the SD) in Paris, had discovered the meaning of the second line of Verlaine's poem, and no fewer than fourteen other executive orders they heard late on June 5. His section rightly interpreted them to mean that invasion was imminent or underway, and they alerted their superiors and all Army commanders in France. However, they had issued a similar warning a month before, when the Allies had begun invasion preparations and alerted the Resistance, but then stood down because of a forecast of bad weather. The SD having given this false alarm, their genuine alarm was ignored or treated as merely routine. Fifteenth Army HQ passed the information on to its units; Seventh Army ignored it.[22] Sicherheitsdienst (SD) sleeve insignia. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In addition to the tasks given to the Resistance as part of the invasion effort, the Special Operations Executive planned to reinforce the Resistance with three-man liaison parties, under Operation Jedburgh. The Jedburgh parties would coordinate and arrange supply drops to the Maquis groups in the German rear areas. Also operating far behind German lines and frequently working closely with the Resistance, although not under SOE, were larger parties from the British, French and Belgian units of the Special Air Service brigade. Jedburgh was an operation in World War II in which men from the Office of Strategic Services and the British Special Operations Executive parachuted into Nazi occupied France to conduct sabotage and guerilla warfare, and to lead French Maquis forces against the Germans. ... See also Australian Special Air Service Regiment and New Zealand Special Air Service: The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is the principal special forces unit of the British Army. ...


Airborne operations

The success of the amphibious landings depended on the establishment of a secure lodgment from which to expand the beachhead to allow the build up of a well-supplied force capable of breaking out. The amphibious forces were especially vulnerable to strong enemy counterattacks before the build up of sufficient forces in the beachhead could be accomplished. To slow or eliminate the enemy's ability to organise and launch counterattacks during this critical period, airborne operations were utilised to seize key objectives, such as bridges, road crossings, and terrain features, particularly on the eastern and western flanks of the landing areas. The airborne landings some distance behind the beaches were also intended to ease the egress of the amphibious forces off the beaches, and in some cases to neutralise German coastal defence batteries and more quickly expand the area of the beachhead. The U.S. 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions were assigned to objectives west of Utah Beach. The British 6th Airborne Division was assigned to similar objectives on the eastern flank. Airborne Military parachuting form of insertion. ...


British airborne landings

Main article: Operation Tonga

East of the landing area, the open, flat, floodplain between the Orne and Dives Rivers was ideal for counterattacks by German armour. However, the landing area and floodplain were separated by the Orne River, which flowed northeast from Caen into the bay of the Seine. The only crossing of the Orne River north of Caen was 7 kilometres (4.5 mi) from the coast, near Bénouville and Ranville. For the Germans, the crossing provided the only route for a flanking attack on the beaches from the east. For the Allies, the crossing also was vital for any attack on Caen from the east. Operation Tonga: Pathfinders synchronising their watches in front of an Armstrong Whitworth Albemarle. ... This picture shows the flood plain following a 1 in 10 year flood on the Isle of Wight. ... Orne is the name of two rivers in France: one in Normandy and one in Lorraine. ... The Dives River is in the Bessin, Normandy. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... Bénouville is the name of several communes in France: Bénouville, in the Calvados département Bénouville, in the Seine-Maritime département Category: ... Ranville, pronunciation: rohn-VEEL or ROHN-veel is a commune of the département of Calvados, in the Basse-Normandie région, in France. ... “Flanking” redirects here. ...


The tactical objectives of the British 6th Airborne Division were (a) to capture intact the bridges of the Bénouville-Ranville crossing, (b) to defend the crossing against the inevitable armoured counter-attacks, (c) to destroy German artillery at the Merville battery, which threatened Sword Beach, and (d) to destroy five bridges over the Dives River to further restrict movement of ground forces from the east. The 6th Airborne Division was an airborne unit of the British Army during World War II. // The division was formed in the United Kingdom on 3 May 1943, during the Second World War. ... Merville is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Merville, in the Haute-Garonne département Merville, in the Nord département Merville-Franceville-Plage, in the Calvados département This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might...


Airborne troops, mostly paratroopers of the 3rd and 5th Parachute Brigades, including the 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion, began landing after midnight, June 6 and immediately encountered elements of the German 716th Infantry Division. At dawn, the Battle Group von Luck of the 21st Panzer Division counterattacked from the south on both sides of the Orne River. By this time the paratroopers had established a defensive perimeter surrounding the bridgehead. Casualties were heavy on both sides, but the airborne troops held. Shortly after noon, they were reinforced by commandos of the 1st Special Service Brigade. By the end of D-Day, 6th Airborne had accomplished each of its objectives. For several days, both British and German forces took heavy casualties as they struggled for positions around the Orne bridgehead. For example, the German 346th Infantry Division broke through the eastern edge of the defensive line on June 10. Finally, British paratroopers overwhelmed entrenched panzergrenadiers in the Battle of Bréville on June 12. The Germans did not seriously threaten the bridgehead again. 6th Airborne remained on the line until it was evacuated in early September. // Brigade HQ formed in the United Kingdom on 7 Nov 1942 by redesignation and conversion of HQ 223rd Independent Infantry Brigade . ... The 5th Parachute Brigade was a war formed brigade of the British Army during the Second World War . ... The Canadian Airborne Regiment was a Canadian Forces formation created on April 8, 1968. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 716th Static Infantry Division 716th Volksgrenadier Division The 716th Static Infantry Division was raised in May 1941 for occupation duties in France. ... Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten (15 July 1911–15 January 1997), usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces (Oberst der Panzerwaffe) during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North... The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the Battles of El Alamenein (1942) and Normandy (1944) during World War II. Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller... This article is about the word bridgehead. For the Canadian coffeehouse business, see Bridgehead Coffee. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Bréville is the name or part of the name of several communes in France: Bréville, in the Calvados département Bréville, in the Charente département Bréville-sur-Mer, in the Manche département Breville - manufacturer best-known for their sandwich toasters Category: ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


American airborne landings

US troops of the Third Armored Division examine a knocked out German Sturmgeschutz III with a dead German crewman on the gun barrel.
US troops of the Third Armored Division examine a knocked out German Sturmgeschutz III with a dead German crewman on the gun barrel.

The U.S. 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, numbering 13,000 paratroopers, were delivered by 12 troop carrier groups of the IX Troop Carrier Command, were less fortunate in quickly completing their main objectives. To achieve surprise, the drops were routed to approach Normandy from the west. Numerous factors affected their performance, but the primary one was the decision to make a massive parachute drop at night (a tactic not used again for the rest of the war). As a result, 45% of units were widely scattered and unable to rally. Efforts of the early wave of pathfinder teams to mark the landing zones were largely ineffective, and the Rebecca/Eureka transponding radar beacons used to guide in the waves of C-47 Skytrains to the drop zones were a flawed system. Combatants United States Germany Commanders Matthew B. Ridgway Maxwell D. Taylor Erich Marcks Wilhelm Falley Strength (airlifted) 13,100 paratroops 3,900 glider troops 5,700 USAAF aircrew 36,600 (7. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2341 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2341 pixel, file size: 1. ... There are several military divisions known as the 3rd Division: Infantry divisions Australian 3rd Division British 3rd Division (World War I) British 3rd Infantry Division Canadian 3rd Infantry Division Finnish 3rd Division (Winter War) Finnish 3rd Division (Continuation War) Polish 3rd Carpathian Infantry Division US 3rd Infantry Division Armoured divisions... StuG III Ausf G The Sturmgeschütz III (StuG III) assault gun was one of Germanys most produced AFVs during World War II. It was built on the chassis of the Panzer III. Initially intended as a mobile, armoured light gun for infantry support, the StuG was continually... One version of the patch worn on the uniforms of American pathfinders who served during World War II. During World War II, the pathfinders were a group of volunteers selected within the Airborne units who were specially trained to operate navigation aids to guide the main airborne body to the... The Rebecca/Eureka transponding radar was a transponder system used as a radio homing beacon by means of a Eureka ground emitter responding to queries from an airborne Rebecca interrogator. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ...


Three regiments of 101st Airborne paratroopers were dropped first, between 00:48 and 01:40, followed by the 82nd Airborne's drops between 01:51 and 02:42. Each operation involved approximately 400 C-47 aircraft. Two pre-dawn glider landings brought in anti-tank guns and support troops for each division. On the evening of D-Day two additional glider landings brought in 2 battalions of artillery and 24 howitzers to the 82nd Airborne. Additional glider operations on June 7 delivered the 325th Glider Infantry Regiment to the 82nd Airborne, and two large supply parachute drops that date were ineffective. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After 24 hours, only 2,500 troops of the 101st and 2,000 of the 82nd were under the control of their divisions, approximating a third of the force dropped. The dispersal of the American airborne troops, however, had the effect of confusing the Germans and fragmenting their response. In addition, the Germans' defensive flooding, in the early stages, also helped to protect the Americans' southern flank.


Paratroopers continued to roam and fight behind enemy lines for days. Many consolidated into small groups, rallied with NCOs or junior officers, and usually were a hodgepodge of men from different companies, battalions, regiments, or even divisions. The 82nd occupied the town of Sainte-Mère-Église early in the morning of June 6, giving it the claim of the first town liberated in the invasion. Sainte-Mère-Église is a small town and commune of the Manche département, in the Cotentin Peninsula near the coast of Normandy, France. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Sword Beach

Main article: Sword Beach
British troops take cover after landing on Sword Beach.
British troops take cover after landing on Sword Beach.

The assault on Sword Beach began at about 03:00 with an aerial bombardment of the German coastal defences and artillery sites. The naval bombardment began a few hours later. At 07:30, the first units reached the beach. These were the DD tanks of 13th/18th Hussars followed closely by the infantry of 8th Brigade. Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders General-Lieutenant Miles Dempsey, British 3rd Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Hans von Luck, German 21st Panzer Division Strength 28,845 Unknown Casualties 630 Unknown German defense at Ouistreham. ... Image File history File links Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_Queen_White_Beach. ... Image File history File links Infantry_waiting_to_move_off_Queen_White_Beach. ... DD Sherman tank with its flotation screen lowered. ...


On Sword Beach, the regular British infantry came ashore with light casualties. They had advanced about 8 kilometres (5 mi) by the end of the day but failed to make some of the deliberately ambitious targets set by Montgomery. In particular, Caen, a major objective, was still in German hands by the end of D-Day, and would remain so until the Battle for Caen, August 8. Combatants United Kingdom Canada Poland United States Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery, Miles Dempsey, Richard OConnor, Guy Simonds Edgar Feuchtinger, Erwin Rommel, Gerd von Rundstedt, Günther von Kluge Strength 2nd British Army, 51st Highland Division, 11th British Armoured division, 7th British Armoured Division, Polish 1st Armoured Division, VIII British... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


1st Special Service Brigade, under the command of Brigadier The Lord Lovat DSO and MC, went ashore in the second wave led by No.4 Commando with the two French Troops first, as agreed amongst themselves. The 1st Special Service Brigade's landing is famous for having been led by Piper Bill Millin. The British and French of No.4 Commando had separate targets in Ouistreham: the French a blockhouse and the Casino, and the British two batteries which overlooked the beach. The blockhouse proved too strong for the Commandos' PIAT (Projector Infantry Anti Tank) weapons, but the Casino was taken with the aid of a Centaur tank. The British Commandos achieved both battery objectives only to find the gun mounts empty and the guns removed. Leaving the mopping-up procedure to the infantry, the Commandos withdrew from Ouistreham to join the other units of their brigade (Nos.3, 6 and 45), moving inland to join-up with the 6th Airborne Division. Landing on Sword Beach. ... The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, was one of the earlier anti-tank weapons using a high explosive anti-tank projectile. ... A27M Cruiser Tank VIII Cromwell was one of the most successful series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in World War II. It was the first tank in the British arsenal to combine a dual-purpose gun, high speed, and reasonable armor. ... 45 (RM) Commando is a battalion sized formation of the British Royal Marines. ...


Juno Beach

Main article: Juno Beach

The Canadian forces that landed on Juno Beach faced 11 heavy batteries of 155 mm guns and 9 medium batteries of 75 mm guns, as well as machine-gun nests, pillboxes, other concrete fortifications, and a seawall twice the height of the one at Omaha Beach. The first wave suffered 50% casualties, the second highest of the five D-Day beachheads. The use of armour was successful at Juno, in some instances actually landing ahead of the infantry as intended and helping clear a path inland.[23] This article is about the beach codenamed in WWII. For other uses, see Juno Beach (disambiguation) Combatants Canada Germany Commanders Major-General R.F.L. Keller, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Strength 15,000[1] 7,771 Casualties 340 dead, 739 other casualties...

Personnel of Royal Canadian Navy Beach Commando "W" landing on Mike Beach, Juno sector of the Normandy beachhead. June 6, 1944.
Personnel of Royal Canadian Navy Beach Commando "W" landing on Mike Beach, Juno sector of the Normandy beachhead. June 6, 1944.

Despite the obstacles, the Canadians were off the beach within hours and beginning their advance inland. The 6th Canadian Armoured Regiment (1st Hussars) and The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada achieved their June 6 objectives, when they crossed the Caen–Bayeux highway over 15 kilometres (9 mi) inland.[24] The Canadians were the only units to reach their D-Day objectives, although most units fell back a few kilometres to stronger defensive positions. In particular, the Douvres Radar Station was still in German hands, and no link had been established with Sword Beach. Image File history File links Canada_JunoBeach_1_RCNCOMMANDO.jpg Personnel of Royal Canadian Navy Beach Commando W landing on Mike Beach, Juno sector of the Normandy beachhead. ... Image File history File links Canada_JunoBeach_1_RCNCOMMANDO.jpg Personnel of Royal Canadian Navy Beach Commando W landing on Mike Beach, Juno sector of the Normandy beachhead. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1st Hussars is an armoured militia regiment of the Canadian Armed Forces, currently based in London, Ontario and Sarnia, Ontario. ... The Queens Own Rifles of Canada are a militia regiment within the Canadian Forces, based in Toronto, Ontario. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ...


By the end of D-Day, 15,000 Canadians had been successfully landed, and the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division had penetrated further into France than any other Allied force, despite having faced strong resistance at the water's edge and later counterattacks on the beachhead by elements of the German 21st and 12th SS Hitlerjugend Panzer divisions on June 7 and June 8. The formation of the Canadian 3rd Infantry Division was authorized on 17 May 1940. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Gold Beach

Main article: Gold Beach

At Gold Beach, the casualties were also quite heavy, partly because the swimming Sherman DD tanks were delayed, and the Germans had strongly fortified a village on the beach. However, the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division overcame these difficulties and advanced almost to the outskirts of Bayeux by the end of the day. With the exception of the Canadians at Juno Beach, no division came closer to its objectives than the 50th. Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, British 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division Generalleutnant Wilhelm Richter, German 716th Static Infantry Division Generalleutnant Dietrich Kraiss, German 352nd Static Infantry Division Strength 24,970 Unknown Casualties 400 altogether Unknown This article is about a World War II invasion. ...


No.47 (RM) Commando was the last British Commando unit to land and came ashore on Gold east of Le Hamel. Their task was to proceed inland then turn right (west) and make a 16-kilometre (10 mi) march through enemy territory to attack the coastal harbour of Port en Bessin from the rear. This small port, on the British extreme right, was well sheltered in the chalk cliffs and significant in that it was to be a prime early harbour for supplies to be brought in including fuel by underwater pipe from tankers moored offshore. Port-en-Bessin-Huppain is a commune of the Calvados d partement, in the Basse-Normandie r gion, in France. ...


Omaha Beach

American troops in an LCVP landing craft approach Omaha Beach June 6, 1944.
Main article: Omaha Beach
Senior officers aboard the USS Augusta during the Normandy Invasion. General Omar Bradley is the second man from the left.
Survivors of a sunken troop transport wade ashore on Omaha Beach.
Survivors of a sunken troop transport wade ashore on Omaha Beach.

Elements of the 1st Infantry Division and 29th Infantry Division faced the veteran German 352nd Infantry Division, one of the best trained on the beaches. Allied intelligence failed to realize that the relatively low-quality 716th Infantry Division (static) had been replaced by the 352nd the previous March. Omaha was also the most heavily fortified beach, with high bluffs defended by funeled mortars, machine guns, and artillery, and the pre-landing aerial and naval bombardment of the bunkers proved to be ineffective. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landings to drift eastwards, missing their assigned sectors, and the initial assault waves of tanks, infantry and engineers took heavy casualties. The official record stated that "within 10 minutes of the ramps being lowered, [the leading] company had become inert, leaderless and almost incapable of action. Every officer and sergeant had been killed or wounded […] It had become a struggle for survival and rescue". Only a few gaps were blown in the beach obstacles, resulting in problems for subsequent landings. The heavily defended draws, the only vehicular routes off the beach, could not be taken and two hours after the first assault the beach was closed for all but infantry landings. Commanders considered abandoning the beachhead, but small units of infantry, often forming ad hoc groups, supported by naval artillery and the surviving tanks, eventually infiltrated the coastal defenses by scaling the bluffs between strongpoints. Further infantry landings were able to exploit the initial penetrations and by the end of the day two isolated footholds had been established. American casualties at Omaha on D-Day numbered around 3,000 out of 34,000 men, most in the first few hours, whilst the defending forces suffered 1,200 killed, wounded or missing. The tenuous beachhead was expanded over the following days, and the original D-Day objectives were accomplished by D+3. marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... marines approaching omaha beach Photo #: SC 320901 Normandy Invasion, June 1944 Troops in an LCVP landing craft approaching Omaha Beach on D-Day, 6 June 1944. ... The Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Higgins boat was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. The craft was designed by Andrew Higgins of Louisiana, based on boats made for operating in swamps and marshes. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Omar Bradley, Norman Cota, Clarence R. Huebner Dietrich Kraiss Strength 43,250 Unknown Casualties 3,000 1,200 Omaha Beach was the code name for one of the principal landing points of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on June... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x630, 95 KB)Senior military officials aboard the USS Augusta observing the Normandy invasion, June 1944. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x630, 95 KB)Senior military officials aboard the USS Augusta observing the Normandy invasion, June 1944. ... The fourth USS Augusta (CA-31) (originally CL-31) was a Northampton-class heavy cruiser of the United States Navy, notable for service in the Atlantic and Mediterranean during World War II, and for her occasional use as a presidential flagship carrying both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman... Omar Nelson Bradley (February 12, 1893 – April 8, 1981) was one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army of the United States Army. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2891x2329, 400 KB) Members of an American landing party lend helping hands to other members of their organization whose landing craft was sunk be enemy action of the coast of France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2891x2329, 400 KB) Members of an American landing party lend helping hands to other members of their organization whose landing craft was sunk be enemy action of the coast of France. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


Pointe du Hoc

Main article: Pointe du Hoc

The massive concrete cliff-top gun emplacement at Pointe du Hoc was the target of the 2nd Ranger battalion, commanded by James Earl Rudder. The task was to scale the 30 metre (100 ft) cliffs under enemy fire with ropes and ladders, and then attack and destroy the guns, which were thought to command the Omaha and Utah landing areas. The Ranger commanders did not know that the guns had been moved prior to the attack, and they had to press farther inland to find them but eventually destroyed them. However, the beach fortifications themselves were still vital targets since a single artillery forward observer based there could have called down accurate fire on the U.S. beaches. The Rangers were eventually successful, and captured the fortifications. They then had to fight for 2 days to hold the location, losing more than 60% of their men. Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... James Earl Rudder James Earl Rudder (May 6, 1910 – March 23, 1970) was a United States Army Major General, Texas Land Commissioner and President of Texas A&M University. ...


Utah Beach

Main article: Utah Beach

Casualties on Utah Beach, the westernmost landing zone, were the lightest of any beach, with 197 out of the roughly 23,000 troops that landed. The 4th Infantry Division troops landing at Utah Beach found themselves in the wrong positions because of a current that pushed their landing craft to the southeast. Instead of landing at Tare Green and Uncle Red sectors, they came ashore at Victor sector, which was lightly defended, and as a result, relatively little German opposition was encountered. The 4th Infantry Division was able to press inland relatively easily over beach exits that had been seized from the inland side by the 502nd and 506th Parachute Infantry Regiments of the 101st Airborne Division. This was partially by accident, because their planned landing was further down the beach (Brig. Gen. Theodore Roosevelt Jr, the Asst. Commander of 4th Division, upon discovering the landings were off course, was famous for stating "We will start the war from right here.") . By early afternoon, the 4th Infantry Division had succeeded in linking up with elements of the 101st. American casualties were light, and the troops were able to press inward much faster than expected, making it a near-complete success. Combatants United States Germany Commanders Raymond O. Barton Theodore Roosevelt Jr U.S. 4th Infantry Division Karl-Wilhelm von Schlieben Dietrich Kraiss German 352nd Infantry Division German 709th Infantry Division Strength 32,000  ? Casualties 700 Unknown American assault troops move onto Utah Beach, carrying full equipment. ... Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt Jr. ...


After the landings

Landing supplies at Normandy
Landing supplies at Normandy
The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland
The build-up of Omaha Beach: reinforcements of men and equipment moving inland
Main article: Normandy Campaign

The Allied invasion plans had called for the capture of Carentan, Saint-Lô, Caen, and Bayeux on the first day, with all the beaches linked except Utah, and Sword (the last linked with paratroopers) and a front line 10 to 16 kilometres (6–10 mi) from the beaches. In practice none of these had been achieved. However, overall the casualties had not been as heavy as some had feared (around 10,000 compared to the 20,000 Churchill had estimated), and the bridgeheads had withstood the expected counterattacks. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2804 × 2150 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 782 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2804 × 2150 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2828x2243, 611 KB) The build-up of Omaha Beach. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Nazi Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (absent) (Heeresgruppe B) Friedrich Dollmann (7. ... Carentan is a town and commune of the Manche département in Normandy, France. ... Caen (pronounced /kɑ̃/) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Bayeux (pronounced ) is a small town and commune in the Calvados département, in Normandy, northwestern France. ...


Once the beachhead was established, two artificial Mulberry harbours were towed across the English Channel in segments and made operational around D+3 (June 9). One was constructed at Arromanches by British forces, the other at Omaha Beach by American forces. By June 19, when severe storms interrupted the landing of supplies for several days and destroyed the Omaha harbour, the British had landed 314,547 men, 54,000 vehicles, and 102,000 tons of supplies, while the Americans put ashore 314,504 men, 41,000 vehicles, and 116,000 tons of supplies.[25] Around 9,000 tons of materiel were landed daily at the Arromanches harbour until the end of August 1944, by which time the port of Cherbourg had been secured by the Allies and had begun to return to service. A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Arromanches-les-Bains or simply Arromanches is a town in Normandy, France, located on the coast in the heart of the area where the Normandy landings took place on D_Day, on June 6, 1944. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... For the Australian town and Aboriginal Mission, see Cherbourg, Queensland. ...


Assessment of the battle

The Normandy landings were the first successful opposed landings across the English Channel for nine centuries. They were costly in terms of men, but the defeat inflicted on the Germans was one of the largest of the war. Strategically, the campaign led to the loss of the German position in most of France and the secure establishment of a new major front. Allied material weight told heavily in Normandy, as did intelligence and deception plans. The general Allied concept of the battle was sound, drawing on the strengths of both Britain and the United States. German dispositions and leadership were often faulty, despite a credible showing on the ground by many German units. In larger context the Normandy landings helped the Soviets on the Eastern front, who were facing the bulk of the German forces and, to a certain extent, contributed to the shortening of the conflict there. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 577 KB) The German military cemetery in La Cambe, Normandy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 577 KB) The German military cemetery in La Cambe, Normandy. ... La Cambe German war cemetery is in La Cambe, Calvados, France. ...


Although there was a shortage of artillery ammunition, at no time were the Allies critically short of any necessity. This was a remarkable achievement considering they did not hold a port until Cherbourg fell. By the time of the breakout the Allies also enjoyed a considerable superiority in numbers of troops (approximately 3.5:1) and armored vehicles (approximately 4:1) which helped overcome the natural advantages the terrain gave to the German defenders.


Allied intelligence and counterintelligence efforts were successful beyond expectations. The Operation Fortitude deception before the invasion kept German attention focused on the Pas de Calais, and indeed high-quality German forces were kept in this area, away from Normandy, until July. Prior to the invasion, few German reconnaissance flights took place over Britain, and those that did saw only the dummy staging areas. Ultra decrypts of German communications had been helpful as well, exposing German dispositions and revealing their plans such as the Mortain counterattack. Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Allied air operations also contributed significantly to the invasion, via close tactical support, interdiction of German lines of communication (preventing timely movement of supplies and reinforcements—particularly the critical Panzer units), and rendering the Luftwaffe as practically useless in Normandy. Although the impact upon armoured vehicles was less than expected, air activity intimidated these units and cut their supplies.


Despite initial heavy losses in the assault phase, Allied morale remained high. Casualty rates among all the armies were tremendous, and the Commonwealth forces had to create a new category – Double Intense – to be able to describe them.


German leadership

German commanders at all levels failed to react to the assault phase in a timely manner. Communications problems exacerbated the difficulties caused by Allied air and naval firepower. Local commanders also seemed unequal to the task of fighting an aggressive defence on the beach, as Rommel envisioned. For example, the commander of the German 352nd Infantry Division failed to capitalise on American difficulty at Omaha, committing his reserves elsewhere when they might have been more profitably used against the American beachhead.


The German High Command remained fixated on the Calais area, and von Rundstedt was not permitted to commit the armored reserve. When it was finally released late in the day, any chance of success was immeasurably more difficult. Overall, despite considerable Allied material superiority, the Germans kept the Allies bottled up in a small bridgehead for nearly two months, aided immeasureably by terrain factors.


Although there were several well-known disputes among the Allied commanders, their tactics and strategy were essentially determined by agreement between the main commanders. By contrast, the German leaders were bullied and their decisions interfered with by Hitler, controlling the battle from a distance with little knowledge of local conditions. Field Marshals von Rundstedt and Rommel repeatedly asked Hitler for more discretion but were refused. Von Rundstedt was removed from his command on June 29 after he bluntly told the Chief of Staff at Hitler's Armed Forces HQ (Field Marshal Keitel) to "Make peace, you idiots!" Rommel was severely injured by Allied aircraft on July 16. is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The German commanders also suffered in the quality of the available troops. 60,000 of the 850,000 in Rundstedt's command were raised from the many prisoners of war captured on the east front.[26] These "Ost" units had volunteered to fight against Stalin, but when instead unwisely used to defend France against the Western Allies, ended up being unreliable. Many surrendered or deserted at the first available opportunity.


Given the Soviets' later domination of Eastern Europe, if the Normandy invasion had not occurred there might conceivably have been a complete occupation of northern and western Europe by communist forces, a contention which is supported by Stalin's statement that the allies introduced their social system as far as their armies could reach. Alternately, Hitler might have deployed more forces to the Eastern Front, conceivably delaying Soviet advance beyond their pre-war border.[27] In practice though, German troops remained in the West even in the absence of an invasion.


War memorials and tourism

The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery.
Main article: Impact of Normandy

The beaches at Normandy are still referred to on maps and signposts by their invasion codenames. There are several vast cemeteries in the area. The American cemetery, in Colleville-sur-Mer, contains row upon row of identical white crosses and Stars of David, immaculately kept, commemorating the American dead. Commonwealth graves, in many locations, use white headstones engraved with the person's religious symbol and their unit insignia. The largest cemetery in Normandy is the La Cambe German war cemetery, which features granite stones almost flush with the ground and groups of low-set crosses. There is also a Polish cemetery. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5676x1658, 2152 KB) The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (5676x1658, 2152 KB) The Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Bény-sur-Mer Canadian War Cemetery, September 2006. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... The Normandy American Cemetery and Memorial is a World War II cemetery and memorial in Colleville-sur-Mer, Normandy, France, that honors American soldiers who died in Europe during World War II. // On June 8, 1944, the U.S. First Army established the temporary St. ... Colleville-sur-Mer is a commune of the Calvados département, in the Basse_Normandie région, in France. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ... La Cambe German war cemetery is in La Cambe, Calvados, France. ...


Streets near the beaches are still named after the units that fought there, and occasional markers commemorate notable incidents. At significant points, such as Pointe du Hoc and Pegasus Bridge, there are plaques, memorials or small museums. The Mulberry harbour still sits in the sea at Arromanches. In Sainte-Mère-Église, a dummy paratrooper hangs from the church spire. On Juno Beach, the Canadian government has built the Juno Beach Information Centre, commemorating one of the most significant events in Canadian military history. In Caen is a large Museum for Peace, which is dedicated to peace generally, rather than only to the battle. Pointe du Hocs location Preinvasion bombing of Pointe du Hoc by 9th Air Force bombers. ... Pegasus Bridge before its replacement Pegasus Bridge in 1944 Original Pegasus Bridge in the Pegasus Museum - July 2005 The replacement Pegasus Bridge in operation The Pegasus Bridge is a bascule bridge over the Caen Canal, near Ouistreham, France. ... A Mulberry harbour was a type of temporary harbour developed in World War II to offload cargo on the beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A modern spire on the Lancaster University Chaplaincy Centre A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. ... The Juno Beach Centre or, in French, Centre Juno Beach, is a museum located in Courseulles-sur-Mer in the Calvados region of Normandy, France. ...


Every year on June 6, American cartoonist and World War II veteran Charles M. Schulz (1922–2000) reserved his Peanuts comic strip to memorialise his comrades who fell at Normandy. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cartoonist Jack Elrod at work. ... Charles Monroe Schulz (November 26, 1922[1] – February 12, 2000) was a 20th-century American cartoonist best known worldwide for his Peanuts comic strip. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ...


Documentaries

  • "Morning: Normandy Invasion (June–August 1944)", episode 17 of the 1974 ITV series The World at War narrated by Laurence Olivier features an extensive coverage of the Allied preparations and the actual events.
  • D-Day: The Lost Evidence, 100 minute 2004 "History Channel" documentary that relies on Allied reconnaissance photos, computer graphics, reenactments, and the firsthand eye witness accounts of combatants who were there.
  • Battlefield - "The Battle for Normandy", 100 minute 1994 documentary that compares Allied and German commanders, personnel, equipment, and tactics before, during, and after the battle.
  • Ken Burns - The War, a seven-part PBS documentary series about World War II as seen through the eyes of men and women from four quintessentially American towns.

The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, including the events leading up to it and following in its wake. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Battlefield is a documentary series initially issued in 1994-5 that explores some of the most important battles fought during the Second World War. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... The War is a 2007 World War II documentary produced by American filmmakers Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, narrated by Keith David and others. ...

Dramatizations

Films
TV
Music
  • The British heavy metal band Iron Maiden, on the album entitled A Matter of Life and Death, wrote the song "The Longest Day" about the Battle of Normandy.
  • The title track on Swedish power metal band Sabaton's third album, "Primo Victoria", is about the Normandy invasion. "Primo Victoria" means "Beginning of Victory".
  • The "101st Airborne March" was composed by Daniel Bourdelès, Norman composer, for the celebration of the liberation of Carentan, in June 1994. This march is extracted from the CD Carentan, the sky memory (1994), produced by the town. It is steadily used as a musical illustration for the Normandy liberation films on France3 regional TV [2]
  • The song "Overlord" by New York death metal band Skinless from the 2005 album Trample the Weak, Hurdle the Dead is about the Battle of Normandy.
  • The video for the song "The Ghost of You" by My Chemical Romance is partly based on the landings at Omaha Beach on D-Day, although there are several factual errors in the video.
  • The song "Hit the Beach" by New Zealand band The Swingers from the 1981 album Practical Jokers is about the Battle of Normandy.
Video games
  • D-Day: Normandy, one of the first WW2 FPS games.
  • Day of Defeat, a 2001 video game.
  • Battlefield 1942, a 2002 video game.
  • Brothers In Arms: Road to Hill 30 The game and several of its sequels contain missions relating to events of the battle.
  • Call of Duty The game and its sequels feature missions related to the Battle of Normandy
  • Commandos 3: Destination Berlin. The Omaha Beach invasion is dramatised in the Normandy campaign.
  • Company of Heroes
  • Medal of Honor series. Several games of the series deal with the Battle of Normandy
  • Soldiers: Heroes of World War II. The German campaign of the game, titled "Hunter", takes place after the invasion of D-Day and has the player in control of German tank commander Michael Wittmann.
  • 1944 D-Day Operation Overlord, a complete simulation of the entire Battle of Normandy. Players have the option to be a pilot, a sailor, a tank commander, or any other person who was fighting for either army.
Wargames
  • Atlantic Wall, a large 1970s American board wargame by SPI depicting the battle from the landings through to the breakout, at company and battalion level, and using a similar game system to Wacht Am Rhein. Due to be reprinted in 2008.
  • Omaha Beachhead, an American board wargame published by Victory Games in 1987 focusing on the American landings, at battalion level.
  • June 6, an intermediate modern American board wargame by GMT depicting the battle, at brigade level. Published in 1999.
  • The Longest Day, a large 1980 American board wargame by Avalon Hill depicting the battle from the landings through to the breakout.
  • Cobra, a 1970s American board wargame by SPI depicting the breakout and Falaise Pocket, at brigade and division level (with Tiger tank battalions). Reprinted by TSR, Inc in the late 1980s with an extra map covering the initial landings.
  • D-Day: The Great Crusade, 2004 wargame covering the first 30 days of the Normandy Campaign.
  • Memoir '44, a 2004 American wargame.
  • Axis and Allies: D-Day, the fifth installment in the popular Axis & Allies series. It specifically deals with the D-Day landings.

The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long 1962 war film with a very large cast, based on the 1959 book The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan, about D-Day, the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, during World War II. // The movie was adapted by Romain Gary, James... The Longest Day is a book by Cornelius Ryan published in 1959, telling the story of D-Day, the first day of the World War II invasion of Normandy. ... Robert Charles Durman Mitchum (August 6, 1917 – July 1, 1997) was an Academy award nominated American film actor and singer. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... Henry Jaynes Fonda (May 16, 1905 – August 12, 1982) was a highly acclaimed Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor, best known for his roles as plain-speaking idealists. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... The Big Red One is a 1980 war film written and directed by Samuel Fuller. ... Samuel Fuller (1987) Samuel Michael Fuller (August 12, 1912 – October 30, 1997) was an American film director. ... Saving Private Ryan is a 1998 Academy-Award-winning film set in World War II, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Robert Rodat. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956[1]) is an American two-time Academy Award-winning film actor, Emmy-winning director, voice-over artist, writer, and movie producer. ... Matthew Paige Matt Damon (born October 8, 1970) is an American screenwriter and actor. ... Overlord is a 1975 film by Stuart Cooper. ... The Blockhouse was a 1973 film based on an apparent true story in book form written by Jean Paul Clebert, directed by Clive Rees and starring Peter Sellers. ... Peter Sellers, CBE (8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was a British comedian and actor best known for his three roles in Dr. Strangelove and as Inspector Clouseau in The Pink Panther films. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Robert Taylor (August 5, 1911 – June 8, 1969), was an American actor. ... Dana Wynter (born June 8, 1931 in Berlin, Germany) was a popular actress in the 1950s. ... For Richard Todd the football player, see Richard Todd (football player) Richard Todd (born June 11, 1919) is a British actor. ... The Americanization of Emily is a 1964 American motion picture drama/comedy adapted for the screen by Paddy Chayefsky from the novel by William Bradford Huie. ... Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells[1] on 1 October 1935[2]) is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and cultural icon. ... For other uses, see James Garner (disambiguation). ... James Coburn in Sam Peckinpahs Cross of Iron (1977). ... Band of Brothers is an acclaimed 10-part television World War II miniseries based on the book of the same title written by historian and biographer Stephen Ambrose. ... A miniseries (sometimes mini-series), in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... Thomas William Selleck (born January 29, 1945 in Detroit, Michigan) is a Golden Globe and Emmy Award winning American actor, screenwriter and film producer, best known for his starring role on the long-running television show Magnum P.I. He is recognizable by his 6 ft 4 (193 cm) height... This article is about the band. ... A Matter of Life and Death is the 14th studio album by English heavy metal band Iron Maiden. ... Sabaton is a power metal band from Sweden formed in 1999. ... Skinless is a deathgrind band formed in 1992. ... Trample The Weak, Hurdle The Dead (2006) is the 4th studio album from death metal band Skinless and first to feature new singer Jason Keyser. ... The Ghost of You is the fourth and final single and sixth track from My Chemical Romances second studio album, Three Cheers for Sweet Revenge. ... My Chemical Romance are an American rock band formed in 2001. ... The Swingers were a New Zealand rock band. ... For other uses, see DOD. Day of Defeat (DoD) is a popular team-based multiplayer World War II first-person shooter computer game of the European Theatre of World War II. // Day of Defeat is a 3D multiplayer shooter that simulates squad-level infantry combat between the adversaries of World... Battlefield 1942 is a 3D World War II first-person shooter (FPS) computer game developed by Digital Illusions CE and published by Electronic Arts for Microsoft Windows (2002) and Apple Macintosh (2004). ... Brothers In Arms is a 2005 first_person shooter video game being developed by Gearbox Software for the PC (as Brothers In Arms: Road to Hill 30), PlayStation 2, and Xbox. ... CoD redirects here. ... Company of Heroes (CoH) is a real-time strategy (RTS) computer game developed for Microsoft Windows by Relic Entertainment. ... The classic Medal of Honor logo used up to the release of Pacific Assault. ... 1944 D-Day Operation Overlord is a World War II combat simulation video game created by Frantic Games and it is planned to be published sometime in 2006. ... A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... Wargaming is the play of simulated military operations in the form of games known as wargames. ... Simulations Publications, Inc. ... The Longest Day is the name of a 1980 wargame by Avalon Hill which simulates the D-Day invasion and subsequent Normandy breakout. ... Avalon Hill was a game company that specialized in wargames and strategic board games. ... TSR, Inc. ... Memoir 44 is a light strategy board game, created by Richard Borg, for two to six players. ...

References

  1. ^ a b "By midnight, 155,000 Allied troops were already ashore" (1989) The Second World War, 534. ISBN 9-780805-017885. 
  2. ^ Zetterling, p. 32: "When Operation Cobra was launched, the Germans had brought to Normandy about 410,000 men in divisions and non-divisional combat units. If this is multiplied by 1.19 we arrive at approximately 490,000 soldiers. However, until July 23, casualties amounted to 116,863, while only 10,078 replacements had arrived."
  3. ^ Frequently Asked Questions for D-Day and the Battle of Normandy. D-Day Museum, Portsmouth. Retrieved on 2007-11-10. Note that casualties are for 6 June 1944 only.
  4. ^ "The Second World War" John Keegan
  5. ^ Frequently Asked Questions for D-Day and the Battle of Normandy. D-Day Museum, Portsmouth. Retrieved on 2007-11-10. Note that casualties are for 6 June 1944 only.
  6. ^ a b Keegan, John. The Second World War, 307. 
  7. ^ Ian Holm. {{{title}}} [Documentary]. UK: BBC. Event occurs at 49:45. "The fleet of ships now embarking on the 24 hour journey to France is the greatest armada the world has ever seen."
  8. ^ Williams, Jeffery. The Long Left Flank. 
  9. ^ Keegan, John. The Second World War, p 279. ISBN 014011341X
  10. ^ a b c d e f Britannica guide to D-Day 1944. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  11. ^ Britannica guide to D-Day 1944. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  12. ^ Britannica guide to D-Day 1944. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  13. ^ a b c d e Map 81, "The Oxford Companion To World War II".. (2005). Oxford University Press. 663. ISBN 9-780192-806666. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  14. ^ Bradley, John H. (2002). The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean. Square One Publishers, 290. ISBN 0757001629. Retrieved on 2007-11-16. 
  15. ^ Wilmot, Chester (1952). The Struggle for Europe. ISBN 1853266779. 
  16. ^ Tippelskirch, Kurt von, Gechichte der Zweiten Weltkrieg. 1956
  17. ^ Zetterling, page 350
  18. ^ Ian Holm. {{{title}}} [Documentary]. UK: BBC. Event occurs at 56:03-56:55.
  19. ^ Harrison, Gordon (2002). Cross Channel Attack. US Army Center Of Military History: Dept. of the Army, 211. ISBN 0160018811. 
  20. ^ La Seconde Guerre Mondiale – Hors-série Images Doc ISSN 0995-1121 – June 2004
  21. ^ Verlaine originally wrote, "Blessent mon coeur" (wound my heart). The BBC replaced Verlaine's original words with the slightly modified lyrics of a song entitled Verlaine (Chanson d'Autome) by Charles Trenet.
  22. ^ a b M.R.D. Foot, "SOE", BBC Publications 1984, ISBN 0-563-20193-2. p. 143
  23. ^ Stacey, C.P. Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War. Volume III: The Victory Campaign
  24. ^ Martin, Charles Cromwell Battle Diary (Dundurn Press, Toronto, 1994) ISBN 1-55002-213-X p.16
  25. ^ United States Army in World War II: European Theater of Operations. The Supreme Command, Forrest C. Pogue, CMH Publication 7–1, Office of the chief of military history, Department of the Army, Washington D.C., U.S.A. (1954).
  26. ^ Keegan, John (1982). Six Armies in Normandy. Penguin Books, 61. ISBN 0 14 00.5293. 
  27. ^ Rzheshevsky, Oleg A.. "D-DAY / 60 years later : For Russia, opening of a second front in Europe came far too late", International Herald Tribune, 2004-06-08, pp. paragraph 3. Retrieved on 2007-09-08. 

is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Trenet (May 18, 1913, Narbonne, France – February 19, 2001, Créteil, France) was a French singer and songwriter, most famous for his recordings from the late 1930s through the mid-1950s, though his career continued through the 1990s. ... It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ... The International Herald Tribune is a widely read English language international newspaper. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • American D-Day: Omaha Beach, Utah Beach & Pointe du Hoc
  • U.S. Army's official interactive D-Day website
  • From operation Cobra to the Seine at memorial-montormel.org
  • Ike's D-Day Message Geneneral Eisenhower addresses the Allied Expeditionary Force on the morning of June 6.
  • Canadians in Normandy Canadians in Normandy, 1944. Battle info, video, audio and many photos of Canadians in Normandy.
  • Cross-Channel Attack CMH Pub 7–4: Official U.S. Military History.
  • WW2DB: The Normandy Campaign
  • BBC World War II history
  • MilitaryHistoryOnline D-Day, Normandy, France
  • Utah Beach to Cherbourg CMH Pub 100–12: Official U.S. Military History.
  • U.S. Navy Online Library of Selected Images: Normandy invasion
  • Second World War Newspaper Archives — D-Day Invasion and the Normandy Campaign
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica Guide to Normandy 1944
  • Royal Engineers Museum Royal Engineers and Operation Overlord
  • Personal accounts of members of the 6th Airborne Division in Normandy (Pegasus Bridge)
  • D-Day: Etat des Lieux
  • D-Day Links
  • D-Day 60th anniversary
  • Juno Beach – The Canadians On D-Day
  • Zapotoczny, Walter S. Break Out From the Hedgerows: A Lesson in Ingenuity (in PDF format)
  • Zapotoczny, Walter S. Break Out From the Hedgerows: A Lesson in Ingenuity (in HTML format)
  • D-Day Fact Sheet
  • D-Day
  • D-Day landing beaches and D-Day news

is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • The Longest Day, Cornelius Ryan, Simon & Schuster 2nd ed., 1959, ISBN 0-671-20814-4
  • D-Day, Warren Tute, John Costello, Terry Hughes, Pan Books Ltd, 1975
  • Normandy 1944, Allied Landings and Breakout; Osprey Campaign Series #1; Stephen Badsey, Osprey Publishing, 1990
  • Normandy 1944, German Military Organisation, Combat Power and Organizational Effectiveness; Niklas Zetterling, J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing Inc., 2000, ISBN 0-921991-56-8.
  • D-Day: The Invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944, Michael J. Varhola, Savas, 2001.
  • Operation Cobra 1944, Breakout from Normandy; Osprey Campaign Series #88; Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2001
  • D-Day 1944 (3), Sword Beach & the British Airborne Landings; Osprey Campaign Series #105; Ken Ford, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  • D-Day 1944 (4), Gold & Juno Beaches; Osprey Campaign Series #112; Ken Ford, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  • D-Day 1944 (1), Omaha Beach; Osprey Campaign Series #100, Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2003
  • D-Day 1944 (2), Utah Beach & the US Airborne Landings; Osprey Campaign Series #104, Steven J. Zaloga, Osprey Publishing, 2004
  • "Morning: Normandy Invasion (June–August 1944)", episode 17 of BBC series The World at War (1974)
  • "Montgomery, Bernard Law", Nigel Hamilton, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography O.U.P. (2004)

The Longest Day is a book by Cornelius Ryan published in 1959, telling the story of D-Day, the first day of the World War II invasion of Normandy. ... Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael J. Varhola is an author of numerous books, games, and articles, as well as the founder of game development company and manufacturer Skirmisher Publishing LLC [1]. Non-fiction books Varhola has authored or co-authored include The Writers Complete Fantasy Reference (Writers Digest Books, 2000) with Terry Brooks... The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, including the events leading up to it and following in its wake. ... The Dictionary of National Biography (or DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history. ...

Bibliography

  • The Battle of Normandy, 1944, Robin Neillands, Cassell, 2002
  • Canada's Battle in Normandy, C.P. Stacey, Queen's Printer, 1948
  • Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War: Volume III. The Victory Campaign, The Operations in North-West Europe 1944–1945
  • Decision in Normandy, Carlo D'Este, London, 1983
  • The Second World War, John Keegan, Hutchinson, 1989
  • Six Armies in Normandy, John Keegan, Penguin, 1994
  • The Fighting First: The Untold Story of The Big Red One on D-Day, Flint Whitlock, Westview, 2004
  • The Bedford Boys: One American Town's Ultimate D-Day Sacrifice, Alex Kershaw, Da Capo, 2004
  • D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic Battle of World War II, Stephen Ambrose, Simon & Schuster, 1995
  • Who won World War II? Konstantin Rozhnov, BBC News, 2005
  • The Struggle For Europe, Chester Wilmot, Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1997 (Written in part by Christopher Daniel McDevitt.)
  • SOE, M. R. D. Foot, BBC Publications, 1984

Colonel Charles Perry Stacey OC, OBE, CD, BA, AM, PhD, LLD, DLitt, D.c Mil, FRSC, was the official historian of the Canadian Army in the Second World War and has been published extensively on matters both military and political. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... Stephen Ambrose, at the 2001 premiere of Band of Brothers Stephen Edward Ambrose, Ph. ... Michael Richard Daniell Foot (born 1919), usually known as M.R.D. Foot, is a British historian. ...

Further reading

  • Those who wish to study the Normandy Campaign in more detail will find numerous volumes in the U.S. Army in World War II series, produced by the U.S. Army Center of Military History, particularly useful. Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel-Attack (1951), remains a basic source, but several other studies bear heavily upon the operation. They include:
  1. Robert W. Coakley and Richard M. Leighton, Global Logistics and Strategy (1968);
  2. Martin Blumenson, Breakout and Pursuit (1961);
  3. Forrest C. Pogue, The Supreme Command (1954);
  4. Roland G. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies (1953); and
  5. Graham A. Cosmas and Albert E. Cowdrey, The Medical Department: Medical Service in the European Theater of Operations (1992).
  • The Historical Division of the War Department produced three volumes on the event. All have been reprinted by the Center of Military History. Classified as the American Forces in Action series, they are:
  1. OMAHA Beachhead (1989);
  2. UTAH Beach to Cherbourg (1990); and
  3. St. Lo (1984).
  • The British Government following the war also issued an official history of the British involvement in the war to be researched and published, the final result being the massive series known as History of the Second World War. The following cover the Normandy Campaign:
  1. L.F. Ellis, Victory in the West: The Battle of Normandy, Official Campaign History v. I (History of the Second World War: United Kingdom Military), Naval & Military Press Ltd; New Ed edition (Sep 2004)., 1-84574-058-0
  2. F.H. Hinsley, British Intelligence in the Second World War: Volume 5, Strategic Deception, Cambridge University Press (26 Oct 1990),. ISBN 0-52140-145-3
  3. Grand Strategy, Volume 5: August 1943-September 1944, 1956
  • Numerous abbreviated summaries have been written. Among the most useful are:
  1. Charles MacDonald, The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II (1969); and
  2. Charles MacDonald and Martin Blumenson, "Recovery of France", in Vincent J. Esposito, ed., A Concise History of World War II (1965).
  • Memoirs by Allied commanders contain considerable information. Among the best are:
  1. Omar N. Bradley, A Soldier's Story (1951);
  2. Omar N. Bradley and Clay Blair, A General's Life (1983);
  3. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (1948);
  4. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery of Alamein, Normandy to the Baltic (1948);
  5. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery of Alamein, The Memoirs of Field Marshal the Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, K.G., Collins (1958). and
  6. Sir Frederick Edgeworth Morgan, Overture to Overlord (1950).
  • Memoirs by Allied soldiers of various ranks also give a good insight into the campaign.
  1. Kurt Meyer, Grenadiers, Stackpole Books,U.S., New Ed edition (15 May 2005)., ISBN 0-81173-197-9
  2. Stuart Hills, By Tank Into Normandy, Cassell military; New Ed edition (11 Sep 2003)., 0-30436-640-4
  3. Hans von Luck, Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck, Cassell military; New Ed edition (9 Mar 2006)., ISBN 0-30436-401-0
  4. B.H. Liddell-Hart, The Rommel Papers (section on Normandy wrote by Lt.Gen Fritz Bayerlein)
  • Almost as useful are biographies of leading commanders. Among the most prominent are:
  1. Stephen E. Ambrose, The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1970), and Eisenhower, Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890–1952 (1983);
  2. Nigel Hamilton, Master of the Battlefield: Monty's War Years, 1942–1944 (1983);
  3. Richard Lamb, Montgomery in Europe, 1943–1945: Success or Failure (1984); and
  4. Ronald Lewin, Rommel as Military Commander (1968).
  • Numerous general histories also exist, many centering on the controversies that continue to surround the campaign and its commanders. See, in particular:
  1. John Colby, War From the Ground Up: The 90th Division in World War II (1989);
  2. Carlo D'Este, Decision in Normandy: The Unwritten Story of Montgomery and the Allied Campaign (1983);
  3. Max Hastings, Overlord, D-Day, June 6, 1944 (1984);
  4. John Keegan, Six Armies in Normandy: From D-Day to the Liberation of Paris (1982);
  5. Robin Neillands, The Battle of Normandy 1944 (2002);
  6. Stephen T. Powers, "Battle of Normandy: The Lingering Controversy", Journal of Military History 56 (1992):455–71.
  7. Russell F. Weigley, Eisenhower's Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944–45 (1981);
  8. Cornelius Ryan, The Longest Day, (1959);
  9. Stephen Ambrose, D-Day: June 6, 1944, The battle for the Normandy beaches, (1994);
  10. Milton Shulman, Defeat in the West, (New Ed edition 2003)
  11. Richard Holmes, The D-Day Experience: From the Invasion to the Liberation of Paris with Other and Map and CD,(2004);
  12. Chester Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe, (New Ed edition 1997), and
  13. Stephen Ashley Hart, Colossal Cracks: Montgomery's 21st Army Group in Nortwest Europe, 1944-45, (2007)
  • Journalists were among the foremost observers of the invasion. Two studies of their work that stand out are:
  1. Barney Oldfield, Never a Shot in Anger (1956); and
  2. Richard Collier, Fighting Words: The Correspondents of World War II (1989). CMH Pub 72–18

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Normandy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (9659 words)
The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between Nazi Germany in Western Europe and the invading Allied forces as part of the larger conflict of World War II.
The battle for Normandy continued for more than two months, with campaigns to establish, expand, and eventually break out of the Allied beachheads, and concluded with the liberation of Paris and the fall of the Falaise Pocket in late August 1944.
Normandy presented serious logistical problems, not the least of which being that the only viable port in the area, Cherbourg, was heavily defended and many among the higher echelons of command argued that the Pas de Calais would make a more suitable landing area on these grounds alone.
Battle of Normandy: Information From Answers.com (8381 words)
The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allied forces as part of the larger conflict of World War II.
The Normandy invasion began with overnight airborne paratrooper and glider landings, massive air attacks and naval bombardments, and an early morning amphibious assault on June 6, "D-Day".
His concept that Caen would be a "pivot" was accurate, and as the battle of Normandy developed, the British forces faced the bulk of German armor in the theatre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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