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Encyclopedia > Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans
Part of the War of 1812

Battle of New Orleans by Herbert Morton Stoops
Date January 8, 1815
Location About five miles (8 km) south of New Orleans on the grounds of Chalmette Plantation
Result American victory; British troops and fleet withdraw from Louisiana
Belligerents
United Kingdom United States
Commanders
Sir Alexander Cochrane
Sir Edward M. Pakenham
John Keane
John Lambert
Andrew Jackson
William Carroll
John Coffee
Strength
11,000 in expedition
7,500 in attack
5,000
16 guns
Casualties and losses
December 23:
46 killed
167 wounded
64 captured
Total: 277
January 8:
385 killed
1,186 wounded
484 captured
Total: 2,055
Grand Total: 2,332
December 23:
24 killed
115 wounded
74 captured
Total: 213
January 8:
13 killed
58 wounded
30 captured
Total: 101
Grand Total: 314
Eighteenth century map of southeast Louisiana
Eighteenth century map of southeast Louisiana

The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815, and was the final major battle of the War of 1812.[1] American forces under General Andrew Jackson defeated an invading British army intent on seizing New Orleans and America's western lands. The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814, but news of the peace would not reach New Orleans until February. Two battles and a song have the name Battle of New Orleans. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Download high resolution version (1385x923, 217 KB)BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS New Orleans, 1815 Herbert Morton Stoops Either the 21st Regiment of Foot (Royal North British Fusiliers) (later the Royal Scots Fusiliers) or the 93rd (Highland) Regiment of Foot (later the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... The unincorporated community of Chalmette is the parish seat of St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_15_stars. ... Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (pro. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... William Carroll (1788–1844) was Governor of Tennessee from 1821 to 1827 and again from 1829 to 1835. ... John Coffee (June 2, 1772–July 7, 1833) was an American planter, US Congressman and military leader. ... Combatants United States Lower Creeks Cherokees Red Sticks (Creek Indians) Commanders Andrew Jackson John Coffee William McIntosh William Weatherford Menawa Peter McQueen Strength 7,000 4,000 Casualties 500 Settlers 125 Soldiers 1,900 The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil... Combatants Britain Spain Creek allies United States Commanders Mateo González Manrique Edward Nicholls Andrew Jackson Strength 500 4,000 Casualties Negligible 15 The Battle of Pensacola was a battle in the War of 1812 in which American forces fought against the British, Spanish and Indians allied with the British. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Lambert William Lawrence Strength 1,000+ Around 370 Casualties 25 Killed or Wounded Around 370 Captured The Battle of Fort Bowyer was the last engagement between British and American forces in the War of 1812. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... Signing of the Treaty of Ghent. ...

Contents

Prelude

By December 12, 1814 a large British fleet, under the command of Sir Alexander Cochrane and with more than 10,000 soldiers and sailors aboard, had anchored in the Gulf of Mexico east of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne. Preventing access to the lakes was an American flotilla, commanded by Thomas ap Catesby Jones, consisting of five gunboats. On December 14, British sailors in rowing boats, each boat armed with a small cannon, captured the vastly outnumbered gunboats in a brief but violent battle. Now free to navigate Lake Borgne, thousands of British soldiers, under the command of General John Keane, were rowed to Pea Island, about 30 miles (48 km) east of New Orleans, where they established a garrison. is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Admiral Sir Alexander (Forrester Inglis) Cochrane (April 23, 1758 – January 26, 1832) was a senior Royal Navy commander during the Napoleonic Wars. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Lake Pontchartrains north shore at Fontainebleau State Park near Mandeville, Louisiana in 2004 Lake Pontchartrain (local English pronunciation ) (French: Lac Pontchartrain, pronounced ) is a brackish lake located in southeastern Louisiana. ... Lake Borgne is a lagoon in eastern Louisiana of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Thomas ap Catesby Jones (1790 - 1858) was a U.S. Navy officer during the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. ... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A longboat is a large boat powered by multiple oars and carried on a ship (especially sailed merchant ships). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... For other persons named John Keane, see John Keane (disambiguation). ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but...


On the morning of December 22, Keane led a vanguard of 1600 British soldiers from the island to the east bank of the Mississippi River, less than 10 miles (16 km) south of New Orleans.[2] Keane could have attacked the city by advancing for a few hours up the river road, which was undefended all the way to New Orleans, but he made the fateful decision to wait for the arrival of reinforcements. Early that afternoon, when news of the British position reached Major General Andrew Jackson at New Orleans, he reportedly said, "Gentlemen, the British are below, we must fight them tonight." Jackson quickly sent about 2000 of his troops from New Orleans to a position immediately north of the British to block them from making any further advances toward the city. Jackson, because he needed time to get his artillery into position, decided to attack the British immediately. On the night of December 23, Jackson personally led a three-pronged attack on the British camp that lasted until the early morning hours of December 24. The Americans suffered a reported 24 killed, 115 wounded, and 74 missing or captured, while the British reported their losses as 46 killed, 167 wounded, and 64 missing or captured. is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


While Jackson's troops blocked the British from advancing toward New Orleans, his men quickly built an earthworks and fortified it with heavy artillery (refer to the map of the battlefield shown below). The British then tried to infiltrate the heartlands, but were met with heavy resistance from the townsfolk. Armed with whatever weapons they could find, the locals refused to give up their town to the invading British troops, which caused the British to withdraw to the town of Madison.[3] Then on Christmas Day, General Edward Pakenham arrived on the battlefield and ordered a reconnaissance-in-force against the American earthworks protecting the roads to New Orleans. That evening, General Pakenham met with General Keane and Admiral Cochrane for an update on the situation, angry with the position that the army had been placed in. General Pakenham wanted to use Chef Menteur Road as the invasion route but was over-ruled by Admiral Cochrane who insisted that his boats were providing everything that could be needed.[4] Admiral Cochrane believing that the British Army would destroy a ramshackle American army and indeed said that if the Army would not do so his sailors would.[5] Whatever Pakenham's thoughts on the matter, the meeting settled the method and place of the attack.[6] On December 28, groups of British troops made probing attacks against the American earthworks. In civil engineering, earthworks are engineering works created through the moving of massive quantities of soil or unformed stone. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Sir Edward Michael Pakenham (pro. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... The Chef Menteur Pass is a narrow natural waterway which, along with the Rigolets, connects Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the British troops withdrew, the Americans began construction of artillery batteries to protect the earthworks, which were then christened Line Jackson. The Americans installed eight batteries, which included one 32-pound gun, three 24-pounders, one 18-pounder, three 12-pounders, three 6-pounders, and a 6-inch (150 mm) howitzer. Jackson also sent a detachment of men to the west bank of the Mississippi to man two 24-pounders and two 12-pounders from the grounded warship Louisiana. Five commissioned ships of the United States Navy have borne the name USS Louisiana in honor of the 18th state. ...


The main British army arrived on New Year's Day, and attacked the earthworks using their artillery. An exchange of artillery fire began that lasted for three hours. Several of the American guns were destroyed or knocked out, including the 32-pounder, a 24-pounder, and a 12-pounder, and some damage was done to the earthworks. While the Americans held their ground, the British guns ran out of ammunition, which led Pakenham to cancel the attack. Pakenham decided to wait for his entire force of over 8000 men to assemble before launching his attack.[7]


Battle of January 8

The battlefield at Chalmette Plantation on January 8, 1815
The battlefield at Chalmette Plantation on January 8, 1815

In the early morning of January 8, Pakenham ordered a two-pronged assault against Jackson's position: a small force on the west bank of the Mississippi and the main attack in three columns (along the river, along the swamp line, and in reserve) directly against the earthworks manned by the vast majority of American troops.[8] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2933x2040, 938 KB) Map Battle of New Orleans 1815 Source http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2933x2040, 938 KB) Map Battle of New Orleans 1815 Source http://hdl. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Preparations for the attack had foundered early, as a canal being dug by Cochrane's sailors collapsed and the dam made to divert the flow of the river into the canal failed leaving the sailors to drag the boats of Col. Thornton's west bank assault force through deep mud and left the force starting off just before daybreak 12 hours late.[9]


The attack began under darkness and a heavy fog, but as the British neared the main enemy line, the fog lifted, exposing them to withering artillery fire. Lt-Col. Thomas Mullins, the British commander of the 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot, had forgotten the ladders and fascines needed to cross a canal and scale the earthworks, and confusion evolved in the dark and fog as the British tried to close the gap. Most of the senior officers were killed or wounded, and the British infantry either flung themselves to the ground, huddled in the canal, or were mown down by a combination of musket fire and grapeshot from the Americans. A handful made it to the top of the parapet but were either killed or captured. An American advance redoubt next to the river was overrun by British light infantry but without reinforcements they could neither hold the position nor storm the main American line behind. The 44th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment in the British Army. ... For other uses, see Ladder (disambiguation). ... A Churchill VIII AVRE carrying a fascine on its front. ... Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ... A parapet is a barrier at the edge of a roof or structure to prevent persons or vehicles from falling over the edge. ... A redoubt is a fort or fort system usually consisting of an enclosed defensive emplacement outside a larger fort. ...


The two large, main assaults on the American position were repulsed. Pakenham was fatally wounded, while on horseback, by grapeshot fired from the earthworks. General John Lambert assumed command and ordered a withdrawal.


The only British success was on the west bank of the Mississippi River, where a 700-man detachment under the command of Colonel Thornton of the 85th light infantry[10] attacked and overwhelmed the American line. However the attack came after the loss of the main battle. The retreating forces had spiked their cannon leaving no guns to turn on the American's main defense line. General Lambert ordered his Chief of Artillery to assess the position, who reported back that no less then 2,000 men would be needed to hold the position. General Lambert issued orders to withdraw after the defeat of their main army on the east bank, and withdrew taking a few American prisoners and cannons with them.[11]


At the end of the day, the British had 2,037 casualties: 291 dead (including three senior generals), 1,262 wounded, and 484 captured or missing.[12][13][14][15] The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead, 39 wounded, and 19 missing.[12][16][17]


Aftermath

Andrew Jackson commanding American troops. Engraving by H. B. Hall after W. Momberger.
Andrew Jackson commanding American troops. Engraving by H. B. Hall after W. Momberger.

With the defeat of the British army and the death of Pakenham, Lambert decided that despite the arrival of reinforcements and a siege train for use against New Orleans, continuing the battle would be too costly. Within a week, all of the British troops had redeployed onto the ships and sailed away to Biloxi, Mississippi, where the British army attacked and captured Fort Bowyer on February 12. The British army was making preparations to attack Mobile when news arrived of the peace treaty. The treaty had been ratified by the British Parliament but would not be ratified by Congress and the president until mid-February. It, however, did resolve that hostilities should cease, and the British sailed home. While the Battle of New Orleans had no influence on the terms of the Treaty of Ghent, the defeat at New Orleans did compel Britain to abide by the treaty.[18] Also, since the Treaty of Ghent did not specifically mention the vast territory America had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase, it only required both sides to give back those lands that had been taken from the other during the war.[19] http://teachpol. ... http://teachpol. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Biloxi redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Commanders John Lambert William Lawrence Strength 1,000+ Around 370 Casualties 25 Killed or Wounded Around 370 Captured The Battle of Fort Bowyer was the last engagement between British and American forces in the War of 1812. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ...


Americans had believed that a vastly powerful British fleet and army had sailed for New Orleans (Jackson himself thought 25,000 troops were coming), and most expected the worst. The news of victory, one man recalled, "came upon the country like a clap of thunder in the clear azure vault of the firmament, and traveled with electromagnetic velocity, throughout the confines of the land."[20] The battle boosted the reputation of Andrew Jackson and helped to propel him to the White House. The anniversary of the battle was celebrated for many years.


A federal park was established in 1907 to preserve the battlefield; today it features a monument and is part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve. Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve is a unit of the National Park Service in southeastern Louisiana. ...


See also

Jacksons Military Road was a route from Nashville, Tennessee to New Orleans, Louisiana. ... Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve is a unit of the National Park Service in southeastern Louisiana. ... Our Lady of Prompt Succor is the religious title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus, by the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Also known as the "Battle of Chalmette Plantation".
  2. ^ Remini (1999), p. 63
  3. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online.
  4. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.214-215
  5. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.215
  6. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.215-216
  7. ^ The British regulars included the 7th, 44th, 21st, 93rd (Highland) Regiments, a 500-man "demi-battalion" of the 95th Rifles, and 14th Light Dragoons. Other troops included Native American members of the Hitchiti tribe, led by Kinache, and several hundred black soldiers in two regiments from the British West Indies colonies.
  8. ^ United States forces (3,500 to 4,500 strong) were composed of U.S. Army troops; state militiamen from Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Louisiana; U.S. Marines; U.S. Navy sailors; Barataria Bay pirates; Choctaw Indians; "freemen of color" (such as Beale's Rifles), and freed black slaves (a large amount of the work building the parapet however was done by local black slaves). Major Gabriel Villeré commanded the Louisiana Militia, and Major Jean-Baptiste Plauché headed the New Orleans uniformed militia companies.
  9. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.236
  10. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.230
  11. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.253
  12. ^ a b Remini (1977) p. 285
  13. ^ Caffe, Kate p.279
  14. ^ Borneman, Walter H. p.291
  15. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.250
  16. ^ Caffe, Kate p.279
  17. ^ Patterson, Benton Rain, p.250
  18. ^ Remini (1999) p. 5, 195
  19. ^ Text of the Treaty of Ghent: [1]
  20. ^ Ward, p. 4-5

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kinache (c. ... Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... USN redirects here. ... Barataria Bay or Bayou Barataria in south east Louisiana is separated from the Gulf of Mexico by Grand and Grand Terre islands. ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...

References

  • Borneman, Walter H. 1812 The War that forged a nation ISBN 0-06-053112-6
  • Brooks, Charles B (1961). The Siege of New Orleans. Seattle: University of Washington Press. OCLC 425116. 
  • Brown, Wilburt S (1969). The Amphibious Campaign for West Florida and Louisiana, 1814-1815. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817351000. 
  • Cooper, John Spencer [1869] (1996). Rough Notes of Seven Campaigns in Portugal, Spain, France and America During the Years 1809-1815. Staplehurst: Spellmount. ISBN 1873376650. 
  • Forrest, Charles Ramus (1961). The Battle of New Orleans: a British view; the journal of Major C.R. Forrest; Asst. QM General, 34th. Regiment of Foot (in English). New Orleans: Hauser Press. OCLC 1253280. 
  • Gleig, George Robert (1827). The Campaigns of the British Army at Washington and New Orleans, 1814-1815. London: J. Murray. ISBN 066545385X. 
  • Hickey, Donald R (1989). The War of 1812 : a forgotten conflict. Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252016130. 
  • James, William (1818). A full and correct account of the military occurrences of the late war between Great Britain and the United States of America; with an appendix, and plates. London: Printed for the author and distributed by Black et al. ISBN 0665357435. OCLC 2226903. 
  • Latour, Arsène Lacarrière [1816] (1999). Historical Memoir of the War in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814-15, with an Atlas. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0813016754. OCLC 40119875. 
  • Maass, Alfred R (1994). "Brownsville's steamboat Enterprize and Pittsburgh's supply of general Jackson's army". Pittsburgh History 77: 22-29. ISSN 1069-4706. 
  • Caffrey, Kate The Twilight's Last Gleaming ISBN 0-8128-1920-9 Stein and Day
  • Owsley, Frank. Struggle for the Gulf borderlands: the Creek War and the battle of New Orleans 1812-1815. (1981) ISBN 0817310622
  • Patterson, Benton Rains The Generals, Andrew Jackson, Sir Edward Pakenham, and the road to New Orleans. 2008 ISBN 0-8147-6717-6
  • Pickles, Tim New Orleans 1815; Osprey Campaign Series, #28. Osprey Publishing, 1993.
  • Reilly, Robin (1974), The British at the gates - the New Orleans campaign in the War of 1812, New York: Putnam
  • Remini, Robert V. (1977), Andrew Jackson and the course of American empire, 1767-1821
  • Remini, Robert V. (1999), The battle of New Orleans, New York: Penguin Books
  • Rowland, Eron [1926] (1971). Andrew Jackson's Campaign against the British, or, the Mississippi Territory in the War of 1812, concerning the Military Operations of the Americans, Creek Indians, British, and Spanish, 1813-1815. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press. ISBN 0836956370. 
  • Smith, Sir Harry "Various Anecdotes and Events of my Life - The Autobiography of Lt. Gen. Sir Harry Smith, covering the period 1787 to 1860" First published in 2 volumes, edited by G.C. Moore, London (1901)
  • Stanley, George F.G. "The War of 1812 - Land Operations" . MacMillan & National Museum of Canada (1983)
  • Surtees, W. "Twenty-Five Years in the Rifle Brigade" (1833) Reprint by Greenhill Books
  • Ward, John William . Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age. 1962.

Hunters of Kentucky The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... William James (born in 1780- died in South Lambeth, London, on 28 May 1827) was a British naval historian who wrote important naval histories the period 1793/1815. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Image File history File links Hunters_of_Kentucky. ...

Jackson and his men were glorified in this song written after the battle.
Problems listening to the file? See media help.

External links

It has been suggested that Charles Etienne Arthur Gayarre be merged into this article or section. ... Grace King, 1887 Grace Elizabeth King (1852-1932) was an American author of Louisiana stories, history, and biography, and a leader in historical and literary activities. ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Battle of New Orleans - Encyclopedia Article (362 words)
In The Battle of New Orleans of the War of 1812, the United States forces defeated the British on January 8, 1815.
In the hypothetical realm, it has been speculated that had the British been in control of the key port of New Orleans they would have attempted to use this to get additional concessions from the United States.
In the realm of certainty, the victory was celebrated with great enthusiasm in the United States, and gave Andrew Jackson the reputation of a hero which propelled him to the Presidency.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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