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Encyclopedia > Battle of Mycale
Battle of Mycale
Part of the Persian Wars
Date 27 August, 479 BC
Location Mycale, Ionia
Result Greek victory
Combatants
Greek city-states Persia
Commanders
Leotychides Artaÿntes
Strength
About 40,000 60,000 men,
300 ships
Casualties
40,000
Greco-Persian Wars
1st NaxosSardisEphesusLade2nd NaxosEretriaMarathonThermopylaeArtemisiumSalamis – Potidea – Olynthus – PlataeaMycale – Sestus – Byzantium – Eion – Doriskos – Eurymedon – Pampremis – Prosoptis – Salamis in Cyprus

The Battle of Mycale, Greek 'Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης', 'Mache tes Mycales' , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. The battle took place on or about August 27, 479 BC on the slopes of Mount Mycale, in mainland Ionia opposite the island of Samos. Mycale resulted in the destruction of the main Persian forces in Ionia, as well as their Mediterranean fleet. The Battle of Plataea on the same day on the Greek mainland was a victory as well, and the Persians were forced to leave both Greece and Ionia and retreat inland, thereby ending Persian rule. The battle is known to history through the writings of Herodotus of Halicarnassus. The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... 479 pr. ... Mycale (also MycÇŽlé, Mukalê, Mykale and Mycali; called Samsun DaÄŸi in modern Turkey) is a mountain on the west coast of central Anatolia in Turkey, north of the mouth of the Maeander and opposite the island of Samos. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Leotychidas [Leotychides] (c. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Combatants Naxos Persia, Ionia, Naxian exiles Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Megabates Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships Large number of men and 200 ships Casualties Light Heavy The Siege of Naxos (500 BC-499 BC) was a battle fought between the Persians under Megabates with aid from... Combatants Sardis Ionian Greeks, Athens, Eretria Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Eualcides The Siege of Sardis (498 BC) was fought between the people of Sardis and an alliance of Greeks from Ionia, Athens, and Eretria. ... The Battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt. ... The Battle of Lade was fought in 494 BC between the Ionians and the Persians. ... Combatants Naxos Persia Commanders Unknown Datis, Artaphernes Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships (Modern Estimates) Casualties Heavy Light The Siege of Naxos (490 BC) was fought between the people of Naxos and the Persians under the command of... Combatants Eretria Persia, Cyclades Commanders Aeschines Datis, Artaphernes Strength Unknown 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships Casualties Heavy Heavy The Siege of Eretria was fought by the Eretrians who were invaded by the Persians under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. ... Combatants Athens and Plataea Persia Commanders Miltiades Callimachus† Darius I of Persia Datis†? Artaphernes Strength 10,000 Athenians 1,000 Plataeans 20,000-60,000 by modern estimates 1 Casualties 192 Athenians dead 11 Plateans dead 6,400 dead 7 ships captured 1 Ancient sources give numbers ranging from 200... Combatants Greek-city states Persian Empire Commanders Leonidas I † Xerxes I the Great of Persia Strength 300 Spartans 700 Thespians 6,000 other Greek allies2 60,000-2,000,000 (estimates vary)1 Casualties 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians; 1,400 Greek allies in total. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Halicarnassus Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Aristides of Athens Xerxes I of Persia Ariamenes † Artemisia Strength 366-380 ships 1 1000 - 1207 ships [1]2 Casualties 40 ships 200 ships 1 Herodotus gives 378 of the alliance, but the numbers... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon Unknown Strength Unknown 200 ships Casualties The naval Battle of the Eurymedon took place between 470 BC and 466 BC on the Eurymedon River in Pamphylia in Asia Minor, and was between the Athenian-led Delian League and Persia. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon † Anaxicrates Strength 300 triremes estimated 800 ships Casualties 40 ships lost over 250 ships lost The Battle of Salamis took place around 450 BC near Salamis in Cyprus. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 479 pr. ... Mycale (also MycÇŽlé, Mukalê, Mykale and Mycali; called Samsun DaÄŸi in modern Turkey) is a mountain on the west coast of central Anatolia in Turkey, north of the mouth of the Maeander and opposite the island of Samos. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Herodotus was an ancient historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC - c. ...

Contents

Background

In the spring of 479 BC various Ionian cities began the process of revolting against their Persian rulers. This did not go well at all, and soon they were forced to turn to the Greek mainland for help. A meeting was called in Athens, and ambassadors from several Ionian cities, Athens and Sparta met in the early summer. The meeting did not impress the commander of the Persian forces in Thessaly, Mardonius, so he sent terms to Athens demanding that they stay neutral. When they refused the Spartan delegation started for home to prepare for war. Meanwhile Mardonius' forces soon reached Athens, but the citizens had already retreated to nearby Salamis. Thinking the Athenians were ready to surrender, Mardonius again sent them terms, and was again refused. Athens (Greek Αθήνα Athína) is the capital and largest city of Greece. ... Sparta (Doric: Spárta, Attic: Spártē) is a city in southern Greece. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... The Greek island of Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamina, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamis) is the largest island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ...


While the Spartans prepared for war, eventually mustering a force of 5,000 and another 35,000 allies, a delegation from Samos arrived in Sparta asking for help. The Greek fleet of 110 ships set sail from Delos under the command of Leotychides. The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Leotychidas [Leotychides] (c. ...


The battle

Hearing of the Greek's approach, the Persians in Samos decide to face them on land. They sailed to the nearby peninsula of Mycale just to the east of the city, and formed a wall out of a number of their ships, dragging the rest onto the beach. When the Greek fleet arrived and found Samos empty, they started a pursuit thinking the Persians were running from battle. The Greeks soon came upon the Persians, already formed up in battle lines on shore. Leotychides yelled to the Ionians in the Persian camp:

"Men of Ionia - ye who can hear me speak - do ye take heed to what I say; for the barbarians will not understand a word that I utter. When we join battle with them, before aught else, remember Freedom - and next, recollect our watchword, which is Hebe. If there be any who hear me not, let those who hear report my words to the others." (Herod. 9.98)

Realizing generally what was going on, the Persians disarmed the Samians and sent their enemies, the Milesians, to guard the roads to the rear. Meanwhile the Greeks unloaded their ships and formed up for combat. As usual the Spartans occupied the right wing, placing the Athenians on the left. The Athenians, walking along the beach, found a herald's scepter and thought that it is a divine sign, signifying that the other Greeks had been victorious on the mainland. They then charged forward to the attack alone, and after a short battle the Persians, led by Artaÿntes, were forced to retreat to the fort they had constructed further inland. The Athenians chased them and captured the fort as well. The Persian survivors fled, only to find that the Milesian rear-guard had turned against them as well, and few survived to eventually reach Sardis. The Milesians of Hellenic (Greek) civilization were the inhabitants of Miletus, a city in the Anatolia province of modern-day Turkey, near the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and at the mouth of the Meander River. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under...


When the Spartans arrived the Persian camp was looted and their beached ships destroyed. Returning to Samos they then discussed their next moves. The Spartans proposed that they evacuate the cities of the Ionian Greeks and bring the population to the Greek mainland, as they did not consider it worth their trouble to defend the Ionians every time they were attacked. The Athenians, however, objected to losing their colonies, and accepted the Ionian Greeks in a league against Persia.


Aftermath

With the Persians defeated, the Spartans returned to the mainland. The Ionian cities were now in league with Athens however, forming what could only be considered an Athenian Empire. Previously beholden to Sparta, Athens started exerting an increasing amount of independence, eventually resulting in the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War. The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. As it was led by Athens, it is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the Athenian Empire. ... Combatants Delian League led by Athens Peloponnesian League led by Sparta Commanders Pericles, Cleon, Nicias, Alcibiades Archidamus II, Brasidas, Lysander The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an Ancient Greek military conflict, fought between Athens and their empire and the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta. ...


External links

  • Livius Picture Archive: Mycale (Dilek Dagi)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Mycale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (770 words)
The Battle of Mycale was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars.
The battle took place on or about August 27, 479 BC on the slopes of Mount Mycale, in mainland Ionia opposite the island of Samos.
The Battle of Plataea on the same day on the Greek mainland was a victory as well, and the Persians were forced to leave both Greece and Ionia and retreat inland, thereby ending Persian rule.
Encyclopedia: Battle-of-Marathon (2908 words)
The Battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt.
The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle between the Greek city-states and Persia, fought in September, 480 BC in the straits between Piraeus and Salamis, a small island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, Greece.
The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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