FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of Mudki
Battle of Mudki
Part of First Anglo-Sikh War
Date December 18, 1845
Location Mudki, Punjab
Result Narrow British victory
Belligerents
Sikh Khalsa British East India Company
Commanders
Lal Singh Sir Hugh Gough
Sir Henry Hardinge
Strength
8,000 cavalry
2,000 infantry
22 guns
11,000
42 guns
Casualties and losses
unknown 215 killed
657 wounded

The Battle of Mudki was fought on December 18, 1845, between the forces of the British East India Company and part of the Khalsa, the army of the Sikh kingdom of the Punjab. The British army won an untidy encounter battle, suffering heavy casualties. The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Moodkee, also spelt as Mudki, is a town in Punjab state of India. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough (November 3, 1779 - March 2, 1869), was a British field-marshal. ... Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge (March 30, 1785 - September 24, 1856), was a British field marshal and governor-general of India. ... The First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–1846), resulted in partial subjugation of the Sikh kingdom by the British East India Company. ... The Battle of Ferozeshah was fought on December 21 and December 22 of 1845 between the British and the Sikhs, at the village Ferozeshah in Punjab. ... Combatants British Sikhs Commanders Sir Harry Smith Runjoor Singh Casualties 850 c. ... The Battle of Sobraon was fought on February 10, 1846 between British forces and the Sikhs. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Khalsa (Punjabi: , literally Pure) refers to the collective body of all baptized Sikhs. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the geographical region. ...

Contents

Background

The Sikh kingdom of the Punjab had been held together by Maharajah Ranjit Singh. Ranjit Singh had maintained a policy of friendship with the British East India Company, who held territories adjoining the Punjab, while at the same time building up the Khalsa, to deter aggression. When he died in 1839, the Sikh kingdom fell into increasing disorder. As a succession of rulers were deposed or murdered, the army became increasingly restive. To secure their hold on power, some of the leaders in the Punjab goaded their army into a war against the British. Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Maharaja Ranjit Singh (Punjabi: ), also called Sher-e-Punjab (The Lion of the Punjab) (1780-1839) was a Sikh ruler of the Punjab. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Governor General of the Bengal Presidency (and in effect, of all British-controlled India) was Sir Henry Hardinge. Receiving reports of the disorder in the Punjab, he wrote late in 1845, "... it is evident that the Rani and the Chiefs are for their own preservation, endeavouring to raise a storm which, when raised, they will be powerless to direct or allay." He increased the British military force on the borders of the Punjab, stationing a division of 7,000 at Ferozepore, and moving other troops to Ambala and Meerut. Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge (March 30, 1785 - September 24, 1856), was a British field marshal and governor-general of India. ... Firozpur (or Ferozepur, Ferozepore) is city and district in Punjab, India. ... , Ambala (Hindi: अम्बाला, Punjabi ਅੰਬਾਲਾ , Telugu: అంబాల ) is a city and a municipal council in Ambala district in the state of Haryana, India. ... , Meerut (Hindi: मेरठ, Urdu: میرٹھ) IPA:   is a city and a municipal corporation in Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


This military buildup finally goaded the Khalsa into war, and they began to cross the Sutlej River, which marked the frontier between the Punjab and British territory on December 10, 1845. The Sutlej is a river that flows through Northern India, with its source in Tibet. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


British Advance

The main British and Bengal army, under its commander-in-chief, Sir Hugh Gough, began marching rapidly from its garrisons at Ambala and Meerut towards Ferozepur. Although the march took place in India's cold weather season, the troops were enveloped in choking dust clouds and water and food was short. Hardinge accompanied the army, waiving his right to command. Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough (November 3, 1779 - March 2, 1869), was a British field-marshal. ...


The British reached Mudki, 18 miles from Ferozepur in the afternoon of December 18. Having commandeered grain from the village, they began preparing their first proper meal for some days. A Sikh detachment under Lal Singh, Vizier of the Punjab, spotted their cooking fires and advanced. The terrain was a flat sandy plain, with occasional villages and patches of scrub. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to...


Battle

In the late evening the Sikh guns opened fire. As 30 of Gough's light guns replied, the Sikh cavalry tried to outflank both flanks of Gough's army. Although the irregular cavalry, the Gorchurras, were the elite of the Sikh army, and individually very skilled (for example, being able to spear a tent-peg out of the ground at full gallop), they were comparatively ineffective against the disciplined British and Bengal units. A counter-charge by a British light dragoon regiment cut down many Sikh gunners, but in turn suffered heavy casualties from the Sikh infantry.


The British and Bengal infantry now advanced. In the gathering darkness, smoke and dust clouds, the advance quickly became disordered. Some Bengal infantry regiments caused casualties among the British units with confused fire. Although outnumbered five to one, the Sikh infantry resisted desperately, and the gunners kept firing volleys of grapeshot until overrun. Grapeshot was a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. ...


Eventually, after two hours of darkness, the last Sikhs were driven from the field. The British returned to their camp. The British army was unused to fighting or manoeuvering at night, and the battle was nicknamed, "Midnight Mudki".


Casualties among British senior officers were heavy. Among them were two brigade commanders ("Fighting Bob" Sale and John McCaskill). Another senior officer killed was Major George Broadfoot, formerly the British representative to the Punjab and now on Hardinge's staff. Major Broadfoot did not died in battle of Mudki but in subsequent Battle of pherushar or ferozsha Sir Robert Henry Sale (born 1782; died 1845) was a British soldier. ...


Results

By itself, the battle decided little. It did however confirm Hardinge in the belief that Gough was too bull-headed and unimaginative to command the army. The two officers would clash several times over strategy during the war.


On the Sikh side, it was alleged that Lal Singh had fled the battlefield early, although there was little scope for direction once the battle had been joined.


Sources

  • Ian Hernon, "Britain's forgotten wars", Sutton Publishing Ltd. 2003, ISBN 0-7509-3162-0

External links

  • BritishBattles.com

  Results from FactBites:
 
Great Sikh warriors at www.sikh-history.com (2612 words)
The battle continued with unabated fury till midnight (and came thereafter to be known as "Midnight Mudki").
The battle of Ferozeshah is regarded as one of the most fiercely contested battles fought by the British in India.
temporary cessation of hostilities followecl the battle of Ferozeshah.
First Anglo-Sikh War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (120 words)
Battle of Firuzshah on 21 and 22 December 1845
The decisive battle was the Battle of Sobraon on 10 February 1846.
In the Treaty of Lahore in 1846 the Sikhs were made to give up Kashmir and had to accept a British resident in Lahore.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m