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Encyclopedia > Battle of Moscow
Battle of Moscow
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
Date October 2, 1941January 7, 1942
Location Moscow region, Russia
Result Strategic Soviet victory
Combatants

Nazi Germany

Soviet Union
Commanders
Fedor von Bock,
Heinz Guderian
Georgy Zhukov,
Aleksandr Vasilevsky
Strength
As of October 1:
1,000,000 men,
1,700 tanks,
14,000 guns,
950 planes[1]
As of October 1:
1,250,000 men,
1,000 tanks,
7,600 guns,
677 planes[2]
Casualties
248,000–400,000(see §7) 650,000–1,280,000(see §7)
Eastern Front
Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – FinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovBlueStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – Lublin-Brest – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPrague

The Battle of Moscow (Russian: Битва за Москву, Romanized: Bitva za Moskvu) was the Soviet defense of Moscow and the subsequent Soviet counter-offensive that occurred between October 1941 and January 1942 on the Eastern Front of World War II against Nazi Germany forces. Adolf Hitler considered Moscow, which was the capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and the largest Soviet city, to be the primary military and political objective for the Axis forces in their invasion of the Soviet Union. A separate German plan was codenamed Operation Wotan. Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ... Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a military theorist and innovative General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Günther von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry and supporting troops 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovsky Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties : 400,000 killed, 158,000 POWs, 590,000 wounded : 260,000 killed, 250,000 wounded 116,000 POWs 60,000 KIA/MIA, 110,000 WIA... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Ferdinand Schorner (until July 23) Johannes Friessner (from July 25) (Heeresgruppe Sudukraine) Günther Blumentritt (until June 28) Walter Model (until August 16) Georg Hans Reinhardt (Army Group Centre) Konstantin Rokossovsky (1st Belorussian Front) Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Lublin-Brest Offensive is covered in the... Combatants Soviet Union Germany Romania Commanders Rodion Malinovsky Fyodor Tolbukhin Johannes Friessner Ion Antonescu Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Soviet Union Communist Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... An attack made in responce to a previouse offensive. ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Heinz Guderian Albert Kesselring Ewald von Kleist Erich Hoepner Maximilian von Weichs Andrei Yeremenko Andrey Vlasov Operation Wotan was a codename for the German tank operation with the goal of capturing Moscow during the World War II, developed mainly by Hitler. ...


The original blitzkrieg invasion plan, which the Axis called Operation Barbarossa, had called for the capture of Moscow within three to four months. However, despite large initial advances, the Wehrmacht was soon slowed by Soviet resistance (in particular during the Battle of Smolensk, which lasted from July through September 1941 and delayed the German offensive towards Moscow for two months). Having secured Smolensk, the Wehrmacht was forced to consolidate its lines around Leningrad and Kiev, further delaying the drive towards Moscow. The Axis advance was finally renewed on September 30, 1941, with an offensive codenamed Operation Typhoon, the goal of which was the capture of Moscow before the onset of winter. The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2005)  - City 3,950,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Axis Powers is a term for the loose alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


After a successful initial advance leading to the encirclement and destruction of several Soviet armies, the German offensive was stopped by Soviet resistance at the Mozhaisk defensive line, just 120 km (75 mi) from the capital. Having penetrated the Soviet defenses, the Wehrmacht offensive was slowed by weather conditions, with autumn rains turning roads and fields into thick mud that significantly impeded Axis vehicles, horses, and soldiers. Although the onset of colder weather and the freezing of the ground allowed the Axis advance to continue, it continued to struggle in the face of the severe cold and stiffening Soviet resistance. The term Army, besides its generalized meaning (see army) specifically denotes a major military formation in militaries of various countries, including the Soviet Union. ... Mozhaysk (Можа́йск) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 110 km to the west from the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Belarus. ...


By early December, the lead German Panzer Groups stood less than 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the Kremlin, and Wehrmacht officers were able to see some of Moscow's buildings with binoculars; but, handicapped by cold and exhausted troops, the Axis forces were unable to make further advances. On December 5, 1941, fresh Soviet Siberian troops, prepared for winter warfare, attacked the German forces in front of Moscow; by January 1942, the Wehrmacht had been driven back 100 to 250 km (60 to 150 mi), ending the immediate threat to Moscow and marking the closest that Axis forces ever got to capturing the Soviet capital. Panzer IV Ausf. ... Moscow Kremlin in the 19th century. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Ski warfare, the use of ski equipped troops in war is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century. ...


The Battle of Moscow is usually considered one of the most important battles in the war between the Axis Powers and the USSR, primarily because the Soviets were able to successfully prevent the most serious attempt to capture their capital. The battle was also one of the largest during World War II, with more than a million total casualties. It marked a turning point as it was the first time since the Wehrmacht began its conquests in 1939 that it had been forced into a major retreat. The Wehrmacht had been forced to retreat earlier during the Yelnya Offensive in September 1941 and at the Battle of Rostov (1941) (which led to von Rundstedt losing command of German forces in the East), but these retreats were minor compared to the one at Moscow. Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The Soviet Armys Yelnya Offensive (August 30, 1941- September 8, 1941) was part of the Battle of Smolensk during the Great Patriotic War. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Field Marshal of the German Army during World War II. He remains known as one of Germanys best generals, as well as for being apolitical throughout his career. ...

Contents

Background

The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Moscow:      Initial Wehrmacht advance - to 9 July 1941      Subsequent advances - to 1 September 1941      Encirclement and battle of Kiev - to 9 September 1941      Final Wehrmacht advance - to 5 December 1941
For more details on this topic, see Operation Barbarossa.

On June 22, 1941, German, Hungarian, and Romanian troops invaded the Soviet Union, effectively starting Operation Barbarossa. Having destroyed most of the Soviet Air Force on the ground, German forces quickly advanced deep into Soviet territory using blitzkrieg tactics. Armored units raced forward in pincer movements, pocketing and destroying entire Soviet armies. While the German Army Group North moved towards Leningrad, Army Group South was to take control of Ukraine, while Army Group Center advanced towards Moscow. The Soviet defenses were overwhelmed and the casualties sustained by the Red Army were significant. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB) from en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1201x920, 255 KB) from en. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Gariboldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov Dmitry Pavlov Ivan Tyulenev Ivan Konev Semyon Budyonny Georgy Zhukov... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... An example of a pocket as seen from the inside with some of its contents. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...


By July 1941, Army Group Center had managed to encircle several Soviet armies near Minsk during the Battle of Białystok-Minsk, creating a huge breach in Soviet lines — one that the Soviets couldn't immediately fill, as no reserves were available — and destroying the Soviet Western Front as an organized force. Thus, the Wehrmacht was able to cross the Dnieper river, which barred the path to Moscow, with only minimal casualties.[3] Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock Dmitry Pavlov Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of BiaÅ‚ystok-Minsk was one of the border battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... WWII Eastern Front at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War. ... This article is about the river. ...


In August 1941, German forces captured the city of Smolensk, an important stronghold on the road to Moscow. Smolensk was historically considered as the "key" to Moscow because it controlled a landbridge located between the Dvina, Dnieper, and several other rivers, allowing for a fast advance by ground troops without the necessity of building major bridges across wide rivers. The desperate Soviet defense of the Smolensk region lasted for two months, from July 10, 1941 to September 10, 1941.[4] This intense engagement, known as the Battle of Smolensk, delayed the German advance until mid-September, effectively disrupting the blitzkrieg and forcing Army Group Center to use almost half of its strategic reserves (10 divisions out of 24) during the battle.[4] A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Two rivers are referred to as Dvina: Western Dvina (also known as Daugava) Northern Dvina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


Elsewhere, the German advance was also bogged down. Near Leningrad, Army Group North was held up by the Luga defense line for almost a month before eventually overrunning it. In the south, Army Group South, which included many Hungarian and Romanian units that were less well trained, equipped and experienced than the Wehrmacht, sustained several serious counterattacks and was stopped. The Wehrmacht now faced a dilemma, as Army Group Center was still strong enough to reach Moscow — but such an advance would create a bulge in the German lines, leaving it vulnerable to Red Army flanking attacks. Moreover, according to Hitler, Germany needed the food and mineral resources located in the Ukraine.[5] Thus, the Wehrmacht was ordered to first secure the Donbass region and to move towards Moscow afterwards.[6] Heinz Guderian's Panzer Army was turned south to support Gerd von Rundstedt's attack on Kiev,[5] which inflicted another significant defeat on the Red Army. On September 19, 1941, Soviet forces had to abandon Kiev after Stalin's persistent refusal to withdraw forces from the Kiev salient, as recorded by Aleksandr Vasilevsky and Georgy Zhukov in their respective memoirs.[7][8] This refusal cost Zhukov his post of Chief of the General Staff,[9] but his prediction of German encirclement was correct. Several Soviet armies were encircled and annihilated by the Wehrmacht in a double pincer movement, allowing the German forces to advance in the south.[10] Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) may mean: St. ... , Luga (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Votic: Laugaz) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Luga River 140 kilometers (87 mi) south of St. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Ukraine | Ukrainian historical regions ... Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a military theorist and innovative General of the German Army during the Second World War. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (Russian: , September 30, 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Soviet military commander, promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


Despite being a decisive Axis victory, the Battle of Kiev set the German blitzkrieg even further behind schedule. As Guderian later wrote, "Kiev was certainly a brilliant tactical success, but the question of whether it had a significant strategic importance still remains open. Everything now depended on our ability to achieve expected results before the winter and even before autumn rains."[11] Hitler still believed that the Wehrmacht had a chance to finish the war before winter by taking Moscow. On October 2, 1941, Army Group Centre, under Fedor von Bock, launched its final offensive towards Moscow, code-named Operation Typhoon. Hitler said soon after its start that "After three months of preparations, we finally have the possibility to crush our enemy before the winter comes. All possible preparations were done...; today starts the last battle of the year...."[12] Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budyonny (Removed from duty on Sept. ... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was created on 22 June 1941 when Army Group B was renamed Army Group Centre. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ...


Initial German advance (30 September - 10 October)

is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ...

Plans

For Hitler, Moscow was the most important military and political target, as he anticipated that the city's surrender would shortly afterwards lead to the general collapse of the Soviet Union. As Franz Halder, head of the Oberkommando des Heeres (Army General Staff), wrote in 1940, "The best solution would be a direct offensive towards Moscow."[2] Therefore, the city was a primary target for the large and well-equipped Army Group Center. The forces committed to Operation Typhoon included three armies (the 2nd, 4th and 9th) supported by three Panzer Groups (the 2nd, 3rd and 4th) and by the Luftwaffe's Second Air Fleet. Overall, more than one million men were committed to the operation, along with 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, and 950 planes.[1] The attack relied on standard blitzkrieg tactics, using Panzer groups rushing deep into Soviet formations and executing double-pincer movements, pocketing Red Army divisions and destroying them.[13] Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... The Oberkommando der Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


The initial Wehrmacht plan called for two initial movements. The first would be a double-pincer performed around the Soviet Western Front and Reserve Front forces located around Vyazma. The second would be a single-pincer around the Bryansk Front to capture the city of Bryansk. From that point, the plan called for another quick pincer north and south of Moscow to encircle the city. However, the German armies were already battered and experiencing some logistical issues. Guderian, for example, wrote that some of his destroyed tanks had not been replaced, and that his mechanized troops lacked fuel at the beginning of the operation.[14] WWII Eastern Front at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War. ... Steppe Front was a Front of the Soviet Army during the Great Patriotic War. ... Vyazma (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River, about halfway between Smolensk and Mozhaysk, at , . Throughout its turbulent history, the city defended western approaches to the city of Moscow. ... The Bryansk Front was a Front (i. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ...


Facing the Wehrmacht were three Soviet fronts formed from exhausted armies that had already been involved in heavy fighting for several months. The forces committed to the city's defense totaled 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns and 677 aircraft. However, these troops, while presenting a significant threat to the Wehrmacht based on their numbers alone, were poorly located, with most of the troops deployed in a single line, and had little or no reserves to the rear.[2] In his memoirs, Vasilevsky pointed out that while immediate Soviet defenses were quite well prepared, these errors in troop placement were largely responsible for the Wehrmacht's initial success.[15] Furthermore, many Soviet defenders were seriously lacking in combat experience and some critical equipment (such as anti-tank weapons), while their tanks were obsolete models.[16]

Factory workers dig anti-tank trenches around Moscow in 1941.

The Soviet command began constructing extensive defenses around the city. The first part, the Rzhev-Vyazma defense setup, was built on the Rzhev-Vyazma-Bryansk line. The second, the Mozhaisk defense line, was a double defense stretching between Kalinin and Kaluga. Finally, a triple defense ring surrounded the city itself, forming the Moscow Defense Zone. However, these defenses were still largely unprepared by the beginning of the operation due to the speed of the German advance.[2] Furthermore, the German attack plan had been discovered quite late, and Soviet troops were ordered to assume a total defensive stance only on September 27, 1941.[2] However, new Soviet divisions were being formed on the Volga, in Asia and in the Urals, and it would only be a matter of a few months before these new troops could be committed,[17] making the battle a race against time as well. Download high resolution version (1857x1294, 643 KB) Source: Scanned from Russia Besieged (ISBN 705405273), page 165 Image originally from the United States Information Agency This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1857x1294, 643 KB) Source: Scanned from Russia Besieged (ISBN 705405273), page 165 Image originally from the United States Information Agency This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... Vyazma (Russian: ) is a town in Smolensk Oblast, Russia, located on the Vyazma River, about halfway between Smolensk and Mozhaysk, at , . Throughout its turbulent history, the city defended western approaches to the city of Moscow. ... Historic coat of arms of Bryansk (1781). ... Kalinin refers to: Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin The city of Tver, which from 1931 to 1990 was named after Kalinin. ... Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Vyazma and Bryansk pockets

The German offensives during operation Typhoon.
The German offensives during operation Typhoon.

Near Vyazma, the Western and Reserve fronts were quickly defeated by the highly mobile forces of the 3rd and 4th Panzer groups that exploited weak areas in the defenses and then quickly moved behind the Red Army lines. The defense setup, still under construction, was overrun as both German armored spearheads met at Vyazma on October 10, 1941.[16] Four Soviet armies (the 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd) were trapped in a huge pocket just west of the city.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 956 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From [1] PD as it is work of USGOV. |Source=Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 956 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From [1] PD as it is work of USGOV. |Source=Originally from en. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Contrary to German expectations, the encircled Soviet forces did not surrender easily. Instead, the fighting was fierce and desperate, and the Wehrmacht had to employ 28 divisions to eliminate the surrounded Soviet armies, using forces that were needed to support the offensive towards Moscow. The remnants of the Soviet Western and Reserve fronts were able to retreat and consolidate their lines around Mozhaisk.[18] Moreover, the surrounded Soviet forces were not completely destroyed, as some of the encircled troops escaped in groups ranging in size from platoons to full rifle divisions.[16] Soviet resistance near Vyazma also provided time for the Soviet high command to quickly bring some reinforcements to the four armies defending the Moscow direction (namely, the 5th, 16th, 43rd and 49th), and to transport three rifle and two tank divisions from the Far East.[18]


In the south near Bryansk, initial Soviet performance was barely more effective than near Vyazma. The Second Panzer Group executed an enveloping movement around the whole front, linking with the advancing 2nd Army and capturing Orel by October 3 and Bryansk by October 6. The Soviet 3rd and 13th armies were encircled but, again, did not surrender, and troops were able to escape in small groups, retreating to intermediate defense lines around Poniry and Mtsensk. By October 23, the last remnants had escaped from the pocket.[2] is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... Mtsensk (Russian: Мценск) is a town in the Oryol Oblast in Russia, located on the Zusha River (Okas tributary) 49 km northeast of Oryol. ... October 23 is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By October 7, 1941, the German offensive in this area was bogged down. The first snow fell and quickly melted, turning roads into stretches of mud, a phenomenon known as rasputitsa in Russia. German armored groups were greatly slowed and were unable to easily maneuver, wearing down men and tanks.[19] The 4th Panzer division fell into an ambush set by Dmitri Leliushenko and Mikhail Katukov near the city of Mtsensk. Newly built T-34 tanks were concealed in the woods as German panzers rolled past them; as a scratch team of Soviet infantry contained their advance, Soviet armor attacked from both flanks and savaged the German Panzer IV formations. For the Wehrmacht, the shock of this defeat was so great that a special investigation was ordered.[16] Guderian and his troops discovered, to their dismay, that new Soviet T-34s were almost impervious to German tank guns. As the general wrote, "Our T-IV tanks with their short 75 mm guns could only explode a T-34 by hitting the engine from behind." Guderian also noted in his memoirs that "the Russians already learned a few things."[20] Elsewhere, massive Soviet counterattacks had further slowed the German offensive. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The rasputitsa (Russian: распу́тица) is the twice annual flooding of Belarus, western Russia and the Ukraine. ... Dmitri Danilovich Lelyushenko (Дмитрий Данилович Лелюшенко in Russian) (November 2 [O.S. October 20] 1901–?) was a Soviet military commander, Army General (1959), twice the Hero of the Soviet Union (April 7, 1940 and April 5, 1945), Hero of Czechoslovakia (May 30, 1970). ... Marshal of the Armored Troops Mikhail Efimovich Katukov (September 17, 1900 - June 8, 1979) (Russian: Михаил Ефимович Катуков) served as a commander of armored troops in the Red Army during and following World War II. He is viewed as one of the most talented Soviet armor commanders. ... Mtsensk (Russian: Мценск) is a town in the Oryol Oblast in Russia, located on the Zusha River (Okas tributary) 49 km northeast of Oryol. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... Panzer IV is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the late 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen IV (abbreviated PzKpfw IV) and the tank also had the ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 161. ...

A German Panzer IV tank.
A German Panzer IV tank.

The magnitude of the initial Soviet defeat was appalling. According to German estimates, 673,000 soldiers were captured by the Wehrmacht in both pockets,[21] although recent research suggests a somewhat lower, but still enormous figure of 514,000 prisoners, reducing Soviet strength by 41 %.[22] The desperate Red Army resistance however, had greatly slowed the Wehrmacht. When, on October 10, 1941, the Germans arrived within sight of the Mozhaisk line, they found a well-prepared defensive setup and new, fresh Soviet forces. That same day, Georgy Zhukov was recalled from Leningrad to take charge of the defense of Moscow.[2] He immediately ordered the concentration of all available defenses on a strengthened Mozhaisk line, a move supported by Vasilevsky.[23] Image File history File links PzKpfw_IV_Ausf_A.jpg‎ From pl. ... Image File history File links PzKpfw_IV_Ausf_A.jpg‎ From pl. ... Panzer IV is the common name of a medium tank that was developed in the late 1930s by Nazi Germany and used extensively in World War II. The official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen IV (abbreviated PzKpfw IV) and the tank also had the ordnance inventory designation SdKfz 161. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


Reportedly, Stalin's first reaction to the German advance on Moscow was to deny the truth and to search for scapegoats for the Soviet defeats. However, once he realized the danger to the capital, the Soviet leader came close to hysteria. On October 13, he ordered the evacuation of the Communist Party, the General Staff and various civil government offices from Moscow to Kuibyshev (now Samara), leaving only a limited number of officials behind. The evacuation caused panic among Moscovites. From October 16 to October 17, much of the civilian population tried to flee, mobbing the available trains and jamming the roads from the city. Despite all this, Stalin publicly remained in the Soviet capital, somewhat calming the fear and pandemonium.[16] October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... This article is not about Samarra, which is in Iraq. ... Samara (Russian: ) (from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev ()) is the sixth-largest city in Russia. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years). ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mozhaisk defense line (13 October - 30 October)

Anti-tank fortifications on Moscow streets, 1941.
Anti-tank fortifications on Moscow streets, 1941.

By October 13, 1941, the Wehrmacht had arrived at the Mozhaisk defense line, a hastily constructed double set of fortifications protecting Moscow from the west and stretching from Kalinin towards Volokolamsk and Kaluga. However, despite recent reinforcements, the combined strength of the Soviet armies manning the line (the 5th, 16th, 43rd and 49th armies) barely reached 90,000 men, hardly sufficient to stem the German advance.[24][25] In light of the situation, Zhukov decided to concentrate his forces at four critical points: Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets and Kaluga. The entire Soviet Western front, almost completely destroyed after its encirclement near Vyazma, was being recreated from scratch.[26] October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Kalinin refers to: Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin The city of Tver, which from 1931 to 1990 was named after Kalinin. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... Mozhaysk (Можа́йск) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, 110 km to the west from the Russian capital, on the historic road leading to Smolensk and then to Belarus. ... Maloyaroslavets. ... Konstantin Tsiolkovsky State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga, built in 1967 Kaluga (Калу́га in Russian) is a city in central Russia on the Oka River 188 km southwest of Moscow, administrative center of Kaluga Oblast. ...


Moscow itself was transformed into a fortress. According to Zhukov, 250,000 women and teenagers worked, building trenches and anti-tank moats around Moscow, moving almost three million cubic meters of earth with no mechanical help. Moscow's factories were hastily transformed into military complexes: the automobile factory was turned into a submachine gun armory, a clock factory was manufacturing mine detonators, the chocolate factory was producing food for the front, and automobile repair stations were repairing damaged tanks and vehicles.[27] However, the situation was very dangerous, as the Soviet capital was still within reach of German panzers. Additionally, Moscow was now a target of massive air raids, although these caused only limited damage because of extensive anti-aircraft defenses and effective civilian fire brigades. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Minefield” redirects here. ... American troops mount an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defence, is any method of engaging military aircraft in combat from the ground. ...

Shells manufactured on one of the Moscow factories in October-November 1941.
Shells manufactured on one of the Moscow factories in October-November 1941.

On October 13, 1941 (October 15, 1941, according to other sources), the Wehrmacht resumed its offensive. At first, the Wehrmacht was unwilling to assault the Soviet defenses directly and attempted to bypass them by pushing northeast towards the weakly protected city of Kalinin, and south towards Kaluga and Tula, capturing all except Tula by October 14. Encouraged by this initial success, the Germans conducted a frontal assault against the fortified line, taking Mozhaisk and Maloyaroslavets on October 18, Naro-Fominsk on October 21, and Volokolamsk on October 27, after intense fighting.[2] Due to the increasing danger of flanking attacks, Zhukov was forced to fall back[16] and withdraw his forces east of the Nara River.[28] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Maloyaroslavets. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Naro-Fominsk (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated 70 km south-west from Moscow. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nara River (Нара in Russian) is a river in the Moscow Oblast and Kaluga Oblast in Russia. ...


In the south, the Second Panzer Army was moving towards Tula with relative ease, since the Mozhaisk defense line did not extend that far south, and because there were no significant concentrations of Soviet troops to slow down the advance. The bad weather, however, greatly slowed the Germans. Also, the German forces experienced fuel problems and had to deal with damaged and destroyed roads and bridges, so that Guderian reached the outskirts of Tula only by October 26, 1941.[29] The German plan initially called for an instant capture of Tula and for a pincer move around Moscow. However, the first attempt to capture the city failed, as German panzers were stopped by the 50th Army and civilian volunteers in a desperate fight. Guderian's army had to stop within sight of the city on October 29, 1941.[30] October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Wehrmacht at the gates (1 November - 5 December)

November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Wearing down

As David Glantz pointed out in his book When Titans Clashed, by late October the Wehrmacht and the Red Army could be compared to "punch-drunk boxers, staying precariously on their feet but rapidly losing the power to hurt each other." The German forces were worn out, with only a third of their motor vehicles still functioning, infantry divisions at one-third to one-half strength, and serious logistics issues preventing the delivery of warm clothing and other winter equipment to the front. Even Hitler seemed to surrender to the idea of a long struggle, since the prospect of sending tanks into such a large city without heavy infantry support seemed risky after the costly capture of Warsaw in 1939.[31] David M. Glantz is an American military historian and the editor of The Journal of Slavic Military Studies. ... Battle of Warsaw Conflict Polish Defence War of 1939 Date 8 to September 28, 1939 Place Warsaw, Poland Result Polish defeat The 1939 Battle of Warsaw was fought between the Polish Warsaw Army (Armia Warszawa) garrisoned and entrenched in the capital of Poland (Warsaw) and the German Army. ...


To stiffen the resolve of both the Red Army and increasingly demoralized civilians, Stalin ordered the traditional military parade on November 7 to be staged in Red Square. Soviet troops paraded past the Kremlin and then marched directly to the front. However, despite such a brave show, the Red Army was actually in a very precarious position. Although 100,000 additional Soviet troops had reinforced Klin and Tula, where new German offensives were expected, Soviet defenses were still relatively thin. Nevertheless, Stalin wanted several preemptive counteroffensives to be launched against the German lines, despite protests from Zhukov, who pointed out the complete lack of reserves.[32] The Wehrmacht was able to repel most of these counteroffensives, depleting the Red Army of men and vehicles that could have been used for Moscow's defense. The offensive was only successful west of Moscow near Aleksino, where Soviet tanks inflicted heavy losses on the 4th Army because the Germans still lacked anti-tank weapons capable of damaging the new, well-armored T-34 tanks.[31] is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... Klin (Клин) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. ... Tula (Russian: ) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia, located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at . ...


Despite the defeat near Aleksino, the Wehrmacht still possessed an overall superiority in men and equipment over the Red Army. The German divisions committed to the final assault on Moscow numbered 943,000 men, 1,500 tanks and 650 planes, while Soviet forces were reduced to a shadow of their former selves, with barely 500,000 men, 890 tanks and 1,000 planes.[2] However, compared to October, Soviet rifle divisions occupied much better defensive positions, a triple defensive ring surrounding the city, and some remains of the Mozhaisk line still in Soviet hands near Klin. Most of the Soviet field armies now had a multilayered defense with at least two rifle divisions in second echelon positions. Artillery support and sapper teams were also concentrated along major roads that German troops were expected to use in their attacks. Finally, Soviet troops — and especially officers — were now more experienced and better prepared for the offensive.[31] A sapper, in the sense first used by the French military, was one who sapped (undermined) anothers fortifications. ...

Soviet poster proclaiming, "We shall keep Moscow!"
Soviet poster proclaiming, "We shall keep Moscow!"

By November 15, 1941, the ground had finally frozen, solving the mud problem. The armored Wehrmacht spearheads were unleashed, with the goal of encircling Moscow and linking up near the city of Noginsk, east of the capital. In order to achieve this objective, the German Third and Fourth Panzer groups needed to concentrate their forces between the Moscow reservoir and Mozhaisk, then proceed to Klin and Solnechnogorsk to encircle the capital from the north. In the south, the Second Panzer Army intended to bypass Tula, still in Soviet hands, and advance to Kashira and Kolomna, linking up with the northern pincer at Noginsk.[2] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Coat of arms of Noginsk Noginsk (Russian: ) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 30 km from Moscow. ... Solnechnogorsk (Russian: Солнечного́рск) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, an administrative center of Solnechnogorsky District. ... Coat of Arms of Kashira Kashira (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River some 115 km south of Moscow. ... Kolomna (Russian: Коломна) is an ancient Russian city, founded in 1177 on the Moskva River and Oka River. ... Coat of arms of Noginsk Noginsk (Russian: ) is a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 30 km from Moscow. ...


Final pincer

On November 15, 1941, German tank armies began their offensive towards Klin, where no Soviet reserves were available due to Stalin's wish to attempt a counteroffensive at Volokolamsk, which had forced the relocation of all available reserves forces further south. Initial German attacks split the front in two, separating the 16th Army from the 30th.[31] Several days of intense combat followed. As Zhukov recalls in his memoirs, "The enemy, ignoring the casualties, was making frontal assaults, willing to get to Moscow by any means necessary."[33] Despite the Wehrmacht's efforts, the multilayered defense reduced Soviet casualties as the Soviet 16th Army slowly retreated and constantly harassed the German divisions trying to make their way through the fortifications. is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Klin (Клин) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia. ... Volokolamsk (Волокола́мск in Russian) is an administrative center of the Volokolamsky District of the Moscow Oblast in Russia. ...


The Third Panzer Army finally captured Klin after heavy fighting on November 24, 1941, and by November 25, 1941, Solnechnogorsk as well. Soviet resistance was still strong, and the outcome of the battle was by no means certain. Reportedly, Stalin asked Zhukov whether Moscow could be successfully defended and ordered him to "speak honestly, like a communist." Zhukov replied that it was possible, but that reserves were desperately needed.[33] By November 28, the German 7th Panzer Division had seized a bridgehead across the Moscow-Volga Canal — the last major obstacle before Moscow — and stood less than 35 kilometers from the Kremlin;[31] but a powerful counterattack by the Soviet 1st Shock Army drove them back across the canal.[34] Just northwest of Moscow, the Wehrmacht reached Krasnaya Polyana, little more than 20 kilometers from Moscow;[35] German officers were able to make out some of the major buildings of the Soviet capital through their field glasses. However, both Soviet and German forces were severely depleted, sometimes having only 150 to 200 riflemen (a company's full strength) left in a regiment.[31] is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Moscow Canal (Russian: Канал имени Москвы; former name - Moscow-Volga Canal (until 1947)) is a canal that connects the Moskva River with the main transportation artery of European Russia - the Volga. ... Krasnaya Polyana may refer to: Krasnaya Polyana, Kirov Oblast, an urban settlement in Kirov Oblast, Russia Krasnaya Polyana, Krasnodar Krai, an urban settlement in Krasnodar Krai, Russia This article consisting of geographical locations is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


In the south, near Tula, hostilities resumed on November 18, 1941, with the Second Panzer army trying to encircle the city.[31] However, the German forces involved were extremely battered from previous fighting, and still had no winter clothing. As a result, initial German progress was only 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) per day, making chances of success "less than certain" according to Guderian.[36] Moreover, it exposed the German tank armies to flanking attacks from the Soviet 49th and 50th armies, located near Tula, further slowing the advance. However, Guderian was still able to pursue the offensive, spreading his forces in a star-like attack, taking Stalinogorsk on November 22, 1941 and surrounding a Soviet rifle division stationed there. On November 26, German panzers approached Kashira, a city controlling a major highway to Moscow. In response, a violent Soviet counterattack was launched the following day. General Belov's cavalry corps, supported by several rifle brigades and tank groups, halted the German advance near Kashira.[37] The Germans were driven back in early December, securing the southern approach to the city.[38] Tula itself held, protected by fortifications and determined defenders, both soldiers and civilians. In the south, the Wehrmacht never got close to the capital. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Coat of arms of Novomoskovsk Novomoskovsk (Russian: ), called Bobriki () before 1934 and Stalinogorsk () between 1934 and 1961, is a city in Tula Oblast, Russia, located at the source of the Don and Shat Rivers some 230 km south of Moscow, at . ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of Kashira Kashira (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River some 115 km south of Moscow. ...

A Soviet soldier in his winter camouflage.
A Soviet soldier in his winter camouflage.

Due to the resistance on both the northern and southern sides of Moscow, the Wehrmacht attempted, on December 1, 1941, a direct offensive from the west, along the Minsk-Moscow highway near the city of Naro-Fominsk. However, this attack had only limited tank support and was forced to assault extensive Soviet defenses. After meeting determined resistance from the Soviet 1st Guards Motorized Rifle Division and flank counterattacks staged by the 33rd Army, the German offensive was driven back four days later,[31] with the Germans losing 10,000 men and several dozen tanks.[39] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Naro-Fominsk (Russian: ) is a town in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated 70 km south-west from Moscow. ...


By early December, the temperatures, so far relatively mild by Russian standards,[40] dropped as low as twenty to fifty degrees Celsius below zero, freezing German troops, who still had no winter clothing, and German vehicles, which were not designed for such severe weather. More than 130,000 cases of frostbite were reported among German soldiers.[41] Frozen grease had to be removed from every loaded shell[41] and vehicles had to be heated for hours before use.


The Axis offensive on Moscow stopped. As Guderian wrote in his journal, "the offensive on Moscow failed.... We underestimated the enemy's strength, as well as his size and climate. Fortunately, I stopped my troops on December 5, otherwise the catastrophe would be unavoidable."[42]


Soviet counteroffensive

The Soviet winter counter-offensive, 5 December 1941 to 7 May 1942
The Soviet winter counter-offensive, 5 December 1941 to 7 May 1942

Although the Wehrmacht's offensive had been stopped, German intelligence estimated that Soviet forces had no more reserves left and thus would be unable to stage a counteroffensive. This estimate proved wrong, as Stalin transferred fresh divisions from Siberia and Far East, relying on intelligence from his spy, Richard Sorge, which indicated that Japan would not attack the Soviet Union. The Red Army had accumulated a 58-division reserve by early December,[41] when the offensive proposed by Zhukov and Vasilevsky was finally approved by Stalin.[43] However, even with these new reserves, Soviet forces committed to the operation numbered only 1,100,000 men,[40] only slightly outnumbering the Wehrmacht. Nevertheless, with careful troop deployment, a ratio of two-to-one was reached at some critical points.[41] On December 5, 1941, the counteroffensive started on the Kalinin Front. After two days of little progress, Soviet armies retook Krasnaya Polyana and several other cities in the immediate vicinity of Moscow.[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 956 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 788 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1256 × 956 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Battle... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Richard Sorge Dr Sorge aka Ramsay Richard Sorge (Russian: Рихард Зорге) (October 4, 1895 - November 7, 1944) was a revolutionary, a journalist, working in Germany and Japan, and a spy for the Soviet Union in Japan before and during World War II. His NKVD codename was Ramsay. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...

December, 1941. Soviet troops in winter gear supported by the tanks take on the Germans in the counter-attack.
December, 1941. Soviet troops in winter gear supported by the tanks take on the Germans in the counter-attack.

The same day, Hitler signed his directive number 39, ordering the Wehrmacht to assume a defensive stance on the whole front. However, German troops were unable to organize a solid defense at their present locations and were forced to pull back to consolidate their lines. Guderian wrote that discussions with Hans Schmidt and Wolfram von Richthofen took place the same day, and both commanders agreed that the current front line could not be held.[44] On December 14, Franz Halder and Günther von Kluge finally gave permission for a limited withdrawal to the west of the Oka river, without Hitler's approval.[45] On December 20, 1941, during a meeting with German senior officers, Hitler cancelled the withdrawal and ordered his soldiers to defend every patch of ground, "digging trenches with howitzer shells if needed."[46] Guderian protested, pointing out that losses from cold were actually greater than combat losses and that winter equipment was held by traffic ties in Poland.[47] Nevertheless, Hitler insisted on defending the existing lines, and Guderian was dismissed by Christmas, along with generals Hoepner and Strauss, commanders of the 4th Panzers and 9th Army, respectively. Fedor von Bock was also dismissed, officially for "medical reasons."[1] Walther von Brauchitsch, Hitler's commander-in-chief, had been removed even earlier, on December 19, 1941.[48] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Guy Larose (born February 25, 1925), better known by his ring name of Hans Schmidt, is a Canadian former professional wrestler famous in the 1950s and 60s. ... Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 - 12 July 1945) was a German fighter ace during World War I and a general and field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the German World War I flying ace Manfred von Richthofen... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Oka (Russian: Ока́) is a great river in Russia, the biggest right confluent of the Volga. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Meanwhile, the Soviet offensive continued; in the north, Klin and Kalinin were liberated on December 15 and December 16, as the Kalinin Front drove west. The Soviet front commander, General Konev, attempted to envelop Army Group Center, but met strong opposition near Rzhev and was forced to halt, forming a salient that would last until 1943. In the south, the offensive went equally well, with Southwestern Front forces relieving Tula on December 16, 1941. In the center, however, progress was much slower, and Soviet troops liberated Naro-Fominsk only on December 26, Kaluga on December 28, and Maloyaroslavets on January 2, after ten days of violent action.[2] Soviet reserves ran low, and the offensive halted on January 7, 1942, after having pushed the exhausted and freezing German armies back 100 to 250 km (60 to 150 mi) from Moscow. This victory provided an important boost for Soviet morale, with the Wehrmacht suffering its first defeat. Having failed to vanquish the Soviet Union in one quick strike, Germany now had to prepare for a prolonged struggle. The blitzkrieg on Moscow had failed. is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 - May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central Russia... Tula (Russian: ) is an industrial city in the European part of Russia, located 165 km to the south of Moscow, on the river Upa, at . ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The defining characteristic of what is commonly known as Blitzkrieg is that it is a highly mobile form of mechanized warfare. ...


Aftermath

See also: Battles of Rzhev
The "Defense of Moscow" medal, created in 1944 for soldiers who took part in the battle.
The "Defense of Moscow" medal, created in 1944 for soldiers who took part in the battle.

The Red Army's winter counteroffensive drove the Wehrmacht from Moscow, but the city was still considered to be threatened, with the front line still relatively close. Thus, the Moscow direction remained a priority for Stalin, who had been frightened by the initial German success. In particular, the initial Soviet advance was unable to level the Rzhev salient, held by several divisions of Army Group Center. Immediately after the Moscow counteroffensive, a series of Soviet attacks (the Battles of Rzhev) were attempted against the salient, each time with heavy losses on both sides. Soviet losses are estimated to be between 500,000 and 1,000,000 men, and German losses between 300,000 and 450,000 men. By early 1943, however, the Wehrmacht had to disengage from the salient as the whole front was moving west. Nevertheless, the Moscow front was not finally secured until October 1943, when Army Group Center was decisively repulsed from the Smolensk landbridge and from the left shore of the upper Dnieper at the end of the Second Battle of Smolensk. The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Image File history File links Medal_Defense_of_Moscow. ... Image File history File links Medal_Defense_of_Moscow. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... This article is about the river. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ...


Furious that his army had been unable to take Moscow, Hitler dismissed his commander-in-chief, Walther von Brauchitsch, on December 19, 1941, and took personal charge of the Wehrmacht,[49] effectively taking control of all military decisions and setting most experienced German officers against him. Additionally, Hitler surrounded himself with staff officers with little or no recent combat experience. As Guderian wrote in his memoirs, "This created a cold (chill) in our relations, a cold (chill) that could never be eliminated afterwards."[50] This increased Hitler's distrust of his senior officers and ultimately proved fatal to the Wehrmacht. Germany now faced the prospect of a war of attrition, something it was not prepared for. Overall the battle was a stinging defeat for the Axis, though not necessarily a crushing one, and it ended German hopes for a quick and decisive victory over the Soviet Union. Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... This article is about the military strategy. ...


For the first time since June 1941, Soviet forces had stopped the Germans and driven them back. However, this resulted in Stalin becoming overconfident and deciding to further expand the offensive. On January 5, 1942, during a meeting in the Kremlin, Stalin announced that he was planning a general spring counteroffensive, which would be staged simultaneously near Moscow, Leningrad and in southern Russia. This plan was accepted over Zhukov's objections.[51] However, low Red Army reserves and Wehrmacht tactical skill led to a bloody stalemate near Rhzev, known as the "Rzhev meat grinder," and to a string of Red Army defeats, such as the Second Battle of Kharkov, the failed elimination of the Demyansk pocket, and the encirclement of General Vlasov's army near Leningrad in a failed attempt to lift the siege of the city. Ultimately, these failures would lead to a successful German offensive in the south and to the Battle of Stalingrad. January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Demyansk Pocket (German: die Demjansker Operation, Russian: ) is a name of encirclement of German troops by Red Army near Demyansk (Demjansk), south of Leningrad, during the Second World War, which lasted mainly from February 8 until April 21, 1942. ... General Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov (Russian: Андрей Андреевич Власов; alternative transliterations of his names appear as Andrei Andreievich and as Vlassov or (in German) Wlassow) (Lomakrno September 1, 1900 - Moscow August 2, 1946... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm von Leeb Georg von Küchler Agustín Muñoz Grandes Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown Red Army: 332,059 KIA 24,324 non-combat dead 111,142 missing 16,470 civilians 1 million civilians... Combatants Nazi Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer...


Nevertheless, the defense of Moscow became a symbol of Soviet resistance against the invading Axis forces. To commemorate the battle, Moscow was awarded the title of "Hero City" in 1965, on the 20th anniversary of Victory Day.[2] The "Defense of Moscow" medal was created in 1944, and was awarded to soldiers, civilians, and partisans who took part in the battle.[52] Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...


Casualties

Both German and Soviet casualties during the battle of Moscow have been a subject of debate, as various sources provide somewhat different estimates. Not all historians agree on what should be considered the "Battle of Moscow" in the timeline of World War II. While the start of the battle is usually regarded as the beginning of Operation Typhoon on September 30, 1941 (or sometimes on October 2, 1941), there are two different dates for the end of the offensive. In particular, some sources (such as Erickson[53] and Glantz[54]) exclude the Rzhev offensive from the scope of the battle, considering it as a distinct operation and making the Moscow offensive "stop" on January 7, 1942 — thus lowering the number of casualties. Other historians, who include the Rzhev and Vyazma operations in the scope of the battle (thus making the battle end in May 1942), give higher casualty numbers.[2][1] Since the Rzhev operation started on January 8, 1942, with no pause after the previous counteroffensive, such a stance is understandable. is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... October 2 is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...


There are also significant differences in figures from various sources. John Erickson, in his Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, gives a figure of 653,924 Soviet casualties between October 1941 and January 1942.[53] Glantz, in his book When Titans Clashed, gives a figure of 658,279 for the defense phase alone, and of 370,955 for the winter counteroffensive until January 7, 1942.[54] The Great Soviet Encyclopedia published in 1973–1978, estimates 400,000 German casualties by January, 1942.[1] Another estimate available is provided in the Moscow Encyclopedia, published in 1997; its authors, based on various sources, give a figure of 145,000 German and 900,000 Soviet casualties for the defensive phase, along with 103,000 German and 380,000 Soviet casualties for the counteroffensive until January 7, 1942.[2] Therefore, total casualties between September 30, 1941 and January 7, 1942 are estimated to be between 248,000 and 400,000 for the Wehrmacht (GSE / Moscow encyclopedia estimate) and between 650,000 and 1,280,000 for the Red Army (Erickson / Moscow encyclopedia estimate). January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ...

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Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phoney War The Phoney War[1] was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of... German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign, lasting from 9 April to 10 June 1940, led to the first direct land confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France — against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for... Combatants  France  United Kingdom  Canada  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III (Belgian) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemberg, and Denmark. ... Combatants China (from 1937) United States (1941) U.K. (1941) Australia (from 1941) Free France (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) Soviet Union (1945) Japan (from 1937)  Germany (1941) Thailand (from 1942) Manchukuo Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Franklin D. Roosevelt Winston Churchill John Curtin Fumimaro Konoe Hideki Tojo... Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command during World War II. It was one of four major commands during the Pacific War, and one of two United States commands in the Pacific theatre of operations. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Middle East Theatre of World War II is defined largely by reference to the British Middle East Command, which controlled Allied forces in both Southwest Asia and eastern North Africa. ... The Mediterranean region. ... The name African Theatres of World War II encompasses actions which took place in World War II between Allied forces and Axis forces, between 1940 and 1943 both on the African mainland and in nearby waters and islands. ... Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ... September 28, 1941. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... The name West African campaign refers to two battles during World War II: the Battle of Dakar (also known as Operation Menace) and the Battle of Gabon, both of which were in late 1940. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... The Middle East Campaign was a part of the Middle East Theatre of World War II. // Overview This campaign included: The British police actions in Palestine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy (1941–5) Kriegsmarine Regia Marina (1940–3) Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Percy W. Nelles Leonard W. Murray Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28... Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Combatants Denmark United States Germany Commanders Ib Poulsen Lieutenant Ritter Strength 15 men 19 men Casualties 1? N/A The History of Greenland during World War 2 reflected the fate of the Danish motherland. ... Combatants Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Commanders Georgy Zhukov Michitaro Komatsubara Strength 57,000 30,000 Casualties 6,831 killed, 15,952 wounded (stated estimate) 8,440 killed, 8,766 wounded (stated estimate) The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: ; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river... Combatants Vichy France Thailand Commanders Jean Decoux Plaek Phibunsongkhram Strength 50,000 men, 20 tanks, ~100 aircraft 60,000 men, 134 tanks, 140 aircraft, 18 vessels Casualties 321 KIA and WIA, 178 MIA, 222 captured, 22 aircraft 54 KIA, 307 WIA, 21 captured, 8-13 aircraft The French-Thai War... Combatants Kingdom of Iraq United Kingdom India Commanders Rashid Ali General Sir Edward Quinan Strength five divisions about two divisions Casualties 2,500 KIA, about 6,000 POWs 1,200 (KIA, MIA, WIA) The Anglo-Iraqi War is the name of hostilities between the United Kingdom and the Iraqi nationalist... Combatants Allies (UK, India and USSR) Persia/ Iran The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia was the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, codenamed Operation Countenance, from August 25 to September 17 of 1941. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Greek: ) was fought between 1946 and... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro Strength 5,600,000 4,100,000 (including 900... Combatants Republic of Peru Republic of Ecuador Commanders Gen. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1973–1978, entry "Battle of Moscow 1941–42"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Moscow Encyclopedia, ed. Great Russian Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1997, entry "Battle of Moscow"
  3. ^ Heinz Guderian, Erinnerungen eines Soldaten (Memoirs of a soldier), Smolensk, Rusich, 1999, p.229
  4. ^ a b Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1973–1978, entry "Battle of Smolensk"
  5. ^ a b Guderian, p.272
  6. ^ Guderian, p.267–269
  7. ^ A.M. Vasilevsky, The matter of my whole life, Moscow, Poitizdat, 1978, p.134
  8. ^ Marshal G.K. Zhukov, Memoirs, Moscow, Olma-Press, 2002, p. 352
  9. ^ Zhukov, p.353
  10. ^ Vasilevsky, p.135
  11. ^ Guderian, p.305
  12. ^ Hitler, in "Völkischer Beobachter", October 10, 1941.
  13. ^ Guderian, p.307–309
  14. ^ Guderian, p. 307
  15. ^ Vasilevsky, p.139
  16. ^ a b c d e f Glantz, chapter 6, sub-ch. "Viaz'ma and Briansk", p.74 and following.
  17. ^ Vasilevsky, p. 138
  18. ^ a b c Vasilevsky, p. 139
  19. ^ Guderian, p.316
  20. ^ Guderian, p.318
  21. ^ Geoffrey Jukes, The Second World War - The Eastern Front 1941–1945, Osprey, 2002, ISBN 1-84176-391-8, p.29
  22. ^ Jukes, p.31
  23. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p.10
  24. ^ Jukes, p.32
  25. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p. 17
  26. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p. 18
  27. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p. 22
  28. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p. 24
  29. ^ Guderian, p.329–330
  30. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p. 23–25
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h Glantz, chapter 6, sub-ch. "To the Gates", p.80 and following.
  32. ^ Zhukov, tome 2,p.27
  33. ^ a b Zhukov, tome 2, p.28
  34. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p.30
  35. ^ Guderian, p.345
  36. ^ Guderian, p.340
  37. ^ A.P. Belov, Moscow is behind us, Moscow, Voenizdat, 1963, p.97.
  38. ^ Belov, p.106
  39. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p.32
  40. ^ a b Glantz, ch.6, subchapter "December counteroffensive", p.86 and following.
  41. ^ a b c d Jukes, p.32
  42. ^ Guderian, p.354–355
  43. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p.37
  44. ^ Guderian, p. 353–355
  45. ^ Guderian, p.354
  46. ^ Guderian, p.360–361
  47. ^ Guderian, p.363–364
  48. ^ Guderian, p. 359
  49. ^ Guderian, p. 359
  50. ^ Guderian, p.365
  51. ^ Zhukov, tome 2, p.43–44
  52. ^ Decision of the Praesidium of Supreme Soviet of the USSR, dated May 1, 1944, compiled in Collection of legislative acts related to State Awards of the USSR, Moscow, ed. Izvestia, 1984.
  53. ^ a b John Erickson, Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies, table 12.4
  54. ^ a b Glantz, Table B

One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...

References

  • Braithwaite, Rodric. Moscow 1941: A City and Its People at War. London: Profile Books Ltd, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-86197-759-X).
  • Collection of legislative acts related to State Awards of the USSR (1984), Moscow, ed. Izvestia.
  • Moscow Encyclopedia, ed. Great Russian Encyclopedia, Moscow, 1997, entry "Battle of Moscow"
  • Belov, Pavel Alekseevich (1963). Za nami Moskva. Moscow: Voenizdat. 
  • Erickson, John; Dilks, David (1994). Barbarossa: The Axis and the Allies. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0504-5. 
  • Glantz, David M.; House, Jonathan M. (1995). When Titans clashed: how the Red Army stopped Hitler. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0717-X. 
  • Guderian, Heinz (1951). Erinnerungen eines Soldaten. Heidelberg: Vowinckel. 
  • Jukes, Geoffrey (2002). The Second World War: The Eastern Front 1941–1945. Oxford: Osprey. ISBN 1-84176-391-8. 
  • Prokhorov, A. M. (ed.) (1973–1978). Great Soviet Encyclopedia. New York: Macmillan. 
  • Reinhardt, Klaus. Moscow: The Turning Point? The Failure of Hitler's Strategy in the Winter of 1941–42. Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1992 (hardback, ISBN 0-85496-695-1).
  • Vasilevsky, A. M. (1981). Lifelong cause. Moscow: Progress. ISBN 0-7147-1830-0. 
  • Zhukov, G. K. (1971). The memoirs of Marshal Zhukov. London: Cape. ISBN 0-224-61924-1. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of Moscow
  • serpukhov.ru - The Moscow battle.
  • Moscow Attacked! - Free/educational Battle of Moscow boardgame.

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