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Encyclopedia > Battle of Mogadishu (1993)
1993 Battle of Mogadishu
Part of the Somali Civil War

Mike Durant's helicopter Super Six-Four heading out over Mogadishu on 3 October 1993.
Date October 3 - October 4, 1993
Location Mogadishu, Somalia
Result Task Force Ranger achieved its mission goal / Somali political victory**
**See Note for political details
Belligerents
 United Nations

 United States
Malaysia
Pakistan
The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... Michael Durants helicopter (Super64) heading out over Mogadishu on October 3, 1993. ... Michael Mike J. Durant is the American pilot that was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... A Mogadishu boy straddles the remains of a US Black Hawk helicopter during the 1992-1995 UN peacekeeping operation Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho) is a city in eastern Africa, on the Indian Ocean. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias
Commanders
William F. Garrison
Sikandar Afzal[citation needed]
Mohamed Farrah Aidid
Strength
160 2,000-4,000
Casualties and losses
U.S.
18 killed
73 wounded
1 captured
Malaysia
1 killed
7 wounded
Pakistan
2 wounded
SNA Militia and civilians
Unknown, estimates range from 200[1] to at least 500[2] killed (U.S. est. 1,000-1,500) and 3,000-4,000 wounded (U.S. est.); some estimates as high as over 10,000 killed
SNA Militia
Est. 133 killed (SNA estimate)[3] to 700+ killed
Est. 1,000+ wounded
21 captured
**Note: Task Force Ranger achieved the mission objectives of capturing specific Aidid lieutenants, but the political fallout from the resultant battle and consequent eventual U.S. withdrawal from Somalia could classify this as a Pyrrhic victory.[4]

The Battle of Mogadishu (also referred to as the "Battle of the Black Sea") or for Somalis Ma-alinti Rangers (“The Day of the Rangers”) was a battle that was part of Operation Gothic Serpent that was fought on October 3 and 4, 1993, in Mogadishu, Somalia, by forces of the United States supported by UNOSOM II against Somali militia fighters loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid. The battle is also referred to as the First Battle of Mogadishu to distinguish it from the later Second Battle of Mogadishu. The Somali National Alliance was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. ... William F. Garrison is a former Major General of the United States Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Somalia. ... General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Somali: ; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a controversial Somali leader, often described as a warlord[1]. He was the chairman of United Somali Congress (USC) and later Somali National Alliance (SNA) who drove Mohamed Siad Barre’s dictatorial regime from the capital, Mogadishu and... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ... Combatants Somali National Army (SNA) under Siad Barre; after Barres exile and return forces later known as Somali National Front (SNF) Revolutionary groups: Somali National Movement image_flag = Flag of Somaliland. ... Combatants United States United Nations Pakistan Malaysia Somalia Commanders George HW Bush Bill Clinton Boutros Boutros Ghali Mohamed Farrah Aidid Casualties 24 Pakistani KIA 22 US KIA Unknown The 1992-1993 War in Somalia was a United States initiated and United Nations sanctioned military operation(code-named OPERATION RESTORE HOPE... The downfall of Siad Barres government did not bring peace to the nation. ... Following the civil war and the ensuing anarchy, some factions managed to exert a degree of hegemonial authority over certain regions of Somalia where they maintained broad, clan-based support. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Alleged: Eritrea Foreign Jihadists ARPCT, comprising Various Warlords Transitional Federal Government Puntland Autonomous Region Rahanweyn Resistance Army Ethiopia[1] Alleged:  Uganda[2] Commanders Muhammad Ibraheem Bilal Hasan Hersi Turki Yusuf Siad Inda-Addeh Mukhtar Robow Adan Ayrow Barre Adan Shire Hirale (Jubaland), Abdi... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Hizbul Shabaab al-Itihaad al-Islamiya Alleged: Foreign Mujahideen al-Qaeda  Eritrea  Ethiopia TFG Galmudug Puntland After the invasion: AMISOM United States Commanders Hassan Aweys Sharif Ahmed Hasan Hersi Adan Ayrow Abdikadir Adan Shire Abdi Hasan Awale Mohamud Muse Hersi Meles Zenawi Patrick M. Walsh Strength... Combatants United States Habar Gedir other Mogadishu local militia Commanders Maj. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Mogadishu boy straddles the remains of a US Black Hawk helicopter during the 1992-1995 UN peacekeeping operation Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho) is a city in eastern Africa, on the Indian Ocean. ... Operation Restore Hope was an American military operation with the support of the United Nations which was formed to deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to the African nation of Somalia which was suffering from a severe famine, general anarchy, and domination by a number of warlords following the collapse... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... General Mohamed Farrah Aidid (Somali: ; December 15, 1934 – August 1, 1996) was a controversial Somali leader, often described as a warlord[1]. He was the chairman of United Somali Congress (USC) and later Somali National Alliance (SNA) who drove Mohamed Siad Barre’s dictatorial regime from the capital, Mogadishu and... Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Militia loyal to the Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of...


Task Force Ranger, which consisted of an assault force made up of Army Delta Force, Ranger teams, an air element provided by the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment, four Navy SEAL operators from SEAL Team 6, and members of the Air Force Pararescue/Air Force Combat Controllers, executed an operation which involved traveling from their compound on the outskirts of the city to capture tier one personalities of the Habr Gidr clan, headed by Aidid. The assault force was composed of nineteen aircraft, twelve vehicles and 160 men. During the operation, two U.S. MH-60 Black Hawk helicopters were shot down by rocket-propelled grenades, and three others were damaged. Some of the soldiers were able to evacuate wounded back to the compound, but others were trapped at the crash sites and cut off. An urban battle ensued throughout the night. Early the next morning, a combined task force was sent to rescue the trapped soldiers. It contained soldiers from Pakistan, Malaysia, and the U.S. 10th Mountain Division. They assembled some 100 vehicles, including Pakistani tanks (American-made M48s) and Malaysian Condor armored personnel carriers, and were supported by U.S. A/MH-6 Little Bird, and MH-60 helicopters. This task force reached the first crash site and led the trapped soldiers out. The second crash site was overrun and pilot Mike Durant, the lone surviving American, was taken prisoner but later released. The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers Task Force Ranger U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... (Redirected from 160th SOAR) Unit name 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) Abbreviated: 160th SOAR (A) Nickname Night Stalkers Branch U.S. Army Mission Provide aviation support to U.S. Special Operations Forces Headquarters Fort Campbell, Kentucky USA Motto Night Stalkers Dont Quit (NSDQ) Death Waits in the Dark... SEALs in from the water. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ... The M48 Patton was one of the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the early 1950s to the 1990s. ... The Condor is a 4x4 wheeled armoured personnel carrier originally designed by Thyssen-Henschel of Germany. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... MH-6 Little Bird Two special operations versions of the OH-6A are the AH-6C Little Bird armed variant, and the MH-6B transport/utility version, which can carry up to six personnel for quick insertion and extraction missions. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... Michael Mike J. Durant is the American pilot that was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ...


Somali casualty figures are unknown, but American estimates are that between 1,000 and 1,500 Somali militiamen and civilians lost their lives in the battle, with injuries to another 3,000-4,000. However, the International Committee of the Red Cross estimated 200 Somali civilian killed and several hundred wounded in the fighting.[5] The book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War estimates more than 700 Somali militiamen dead and more than 1,000 wounded, but the Somali National Alliance in a Frontline documentary on American television acknowledged only 133 killed in the whole battle.[6] Eighteen American soldiers died and 73 were wounded (another American soldier, Delta operator SFC Matt Rierson, was killed in a mortar attack two days later). Among UN forces, 1 Malaysian soldier died and 7 were wounded, along with 2 Pakistanis. “Black Hawk Down” is an official phrase used on combat situations, by the United States military, to inform the crash of a Black Hawk helicopter. ... Sergeant First Class insignia Sergeant First Class (SFC) is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Army, just above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant, and is a non-commissioned officer. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ...

Contents

Background to the battle

In January 1991, the dictator of Somalia, Mohammed Siad Barre, was overthrown by a coalition of opposing clans, called the United Somalia Congress. After this revolution, the coalition divided into two groups. One was led by Ali Mahdi Muhammad, who became president; and the other, by Mohammed Farah Aidid. In total, there were four opposing groups: the United Somali Congress (USC), Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF), Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM), and Somali Democratic Movement (SDM), which continued to fight over the domination of Somalia. In June 1991, a ceasefire was agreed to, but failed to hold. A fifth group, the Somali National Movement (SNM), had already seceded from the northwest portion of Somalia in June. The SNM renamed it the Somaliland Republic, with its leader Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Ali as president. Mohamed Siad Barre (Somali: Maxamed Siyaad Bare) (1919/1921? - January 2, 1995) was the self-proclaimed socialist president of Somalia from 1969 to 1991. ... Ali Mahdi Muhammad (born 1938) was president of Somalia from January (when Mohammed Farah Aidid removed the then president Mohamed Siad Barre) to November of 1991, but was not able in that time to exert control over the country. ... Mohamed Farrah Aidid USASOC Photo Date of birth 1934 Place of birth Somalia, Africa Date of death August 1, 1996 (gunshot wounds) Place of death Somalia Occupation Military intelligence Military education Trained in Rome and Moscow. ... The United Somali Congress is a politico-military organization in Somalia based around the Habr Gidr clan (itself part of the larger Hawiye clan). ... Somali Salvation Democratic Front (SSDF) (in Somali: Jabhadda Diimuqraadiga Badbaadinta Soomaaliyeed, and initially known as the Democratic Front for Salvation of Somalia), has been one of the major political and paramilitary umbrella organizations in Somalia since its founding in 1981 by several officers opposed to the regime of Siad Barre. ... The Somali Patriotic Movement is a political party and paramilitary organization in Somalia. ... Somali National Movement. ... For other territories formerly called Somaliland, see Somaliland (disambiguation). ...


In September 1991, severe fighting broke out in Mogadishu, which continued in the following months and spread throughout the country, with over 20,000 people killed or injured by the end of the year. These wars led to the destruction of the agriculture of Somalia, which in turn led to starvation in large parts of the country. The international community began to send food supplies to halt the starvation, but vast amounts of food were hijacked and brought to local clan leaders, who routinely exchanged it with other countries for weapons. An estimated 80 percent of the food was stolen. These factors led to even more starvation, from which an estimated 300,000 people died, and another 1.5 million people suffered, between 1991 and 1992. In July 1992, after a ceasefire between the opposing clan factions, the United Nations (UN) sent 50 military observers to watch the distribution of the food. Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... A Somali rancher herds cattle in Kismayo. ... Banners of the international community at the United Nations in Geneva The term international community is a political phrase that can refer to either: All the lands represented within the United Nations. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ...


Operation Provide Relief began in August 1992, when the U.S. President George H. W. Bush announced that U.S. military transports would support the multinational UN relief effort in Somalia. Ten C-130s and 400 people were deployed to Mombasa, Kenya during Operation Provide Relief, airlifting aid to remote areas in Somalia and reducing reliance on truck convoys. One member of the 86th Supply Squadron, USAFE's only contribution to the operation, was deployed with the ground support contingent. The Air Force C-130s delivered 48,000 tons of food and medical supplies in six months to international humanitarian organizations trying to help the over three million starving people in the country. When this proved inadequate to stop the massive death and displacement of the Somali people (500,000 dead and 1.5 million refugees or displaced), the U.S., in December 1992, launched a major coalition operation to assist and protect humanitarian activities, Operation Restore Hope, under which the United States would assume the unified command of the new operation, in accordance with Resolution 794 (1992). The U.S. Marine Corps landed with the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit in Mogadishu and secured nearly one-third of the city, the port, and airport facilities, to facilitate airlifted humanitarian supplies in two weeks time. Elements of the 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines quickly secured routes to Baidoa, Balidogle and Kismayo, then were reinforced by 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion and the US Army's 10th Mountain Division. Operation Provide Relief (UNOSOM I) was a United Nation (UN) sponsored effort to provide humanitarian relief for the people of Somalia who were facing a severe famine, initiated and exacerbated by the ongoing Somoli civil war. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya, lying on the Indian Ocean. ... Emblem of the U.S. Air Forces in Europe. ... Combatants United States United Nations Pakistan Malaysia Somalia Commanders Many Mohamed Farrah Aidid The United Nations intervention in Somalia (code-named Operation Restore Hope) was a United Nations–sanctioned United States military operation from 9 December 1992 to 4 May 1993. ... The 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (15th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... The 2nd Battalion 9th Marines (2/9) was an infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. ... 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion is a mechanized battalion of the United States Marine Corps. ... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ...


Mission shift to nation-building

Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion of the 75th Ranger Regiment in Somalia, 1993.

A key moment in the operation was when the Clinton Administration shifted the mission from delivering food supplies to nation-building. Missing image B Co-3/75 in Somalia, 1993 Bravo Company, 3rd Batallion of the 75th Ranger Regiment in Somalia, 1993 U.S. Army Rangers Photo Source of image Taken on January 13, 2004 from [1]: SuaSponte. ... Missing image B Co-3/75 in Somalia, 1993 Bravo Company, 3rd Batallion of the 75th Ranger Regiment in Somalia, 1993 U.S. Army Rangers Photo Source of image Taken on January 13, 2004 from [1]: SuaSponte. ... The 75th Ranger Regiment, the modern incarnation of the United States Army Rangers, is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 The Presidency of Bill Clinton, also known as the Clinton Administration, was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001 while Bill Clinton served as President of the United States. ... This article or section should be merged with nation-building Nation building is the use of armed force in the aftermath of a conflict to underpin an enduring transition to democracy. ...


On March 3, 1993, the U.N. Secretary-General submitted to the U.N. Security Council his recommendations for effecting the transition from UNITAF to UNOSOM II. He indicated that since the adoption of Council resolution 794 (1992) in December 1992, the presence and operations of UNITAF had a positive impact on the security situation in Somalia and on the effective delivery of humanitarian assistance (UNITAF deployed some 37,000 personnel over forty percent of southern and central Somalia). However, there was still no effective government, police, or national army with the result of serious security threats to UN personnel. To that end, the U.N. Security Council authorized UNOSOM II to establish a secure environment throughout Somalia, to achieve national reconciliation so as to create a democratic state. is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a United Nations sanctioned effort to assist in stabilising Somalia in the face of widespread lawlessness and a severe famine. ... Operation Restore Hope was an American military operation with the support of the United Nations which was formed to deliver humanitarian aid and restore order to the African nation of Somalia which was suffering from a severe famine, general anarchy, and domination by a number of warlords following the collapse...


At the Conference on National Reconciliation in Somalia, held on March 15, 1993, in Addis Ababa, all fifteen Somali parties agreed to the terms set out to restore peace and democracy. Yet by May it became clear that, although signatory to the March Agreement, General Mohammed Farrah Aidid's faction would not cooperate in the Agreement's implementation. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Mohamed Farrah Aidid USASOC Photo Date of birth 1934 Place of birth Somalia, Africa Date of death August 1, 1996 (gunshot wounds) Place of death Somalia Occupation Military intelligence Military education Trained in Rome and Moscow. ...


UNOSOM II's attempts to implement disarmament led to violence. On June 5, 1993, twenty-four Pakistani troops in the UN force were killed in heavy fighting in an area of Mogadishu controlled by Aidid. It was widely reported that the bodies of the UN peacekeepers had been mutilated. Some were skinned. Any hope of a peaceful resolution of the conflict quickly vanished.[citation needed] The next day, the United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 837, calling for the arrest and trial of those responsible for the ambush. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 837 was adopted at the 3229st meeting on June 6, 1993, called for the immediate apprehension of those responsible in the assassination of 24 Pakistani troops deployed in Operation Restore Hope and the intervention to halt the level of violence in the region. ...


Attack on safe house

On July 12, 1993, a United States-led operation was launched on what was believed to be a safe house in Mogadishu where members of Aidid's Habar Gidir clan were supposedly meeting to plan more violence against U.S. and U.N. forces. In reality, elders of the clan, not gunmen, were meeting in the house. According to U.N. officials, the agenda (which was advertised in the local newspaper) was to discuss ways to peacefully resolve the conflict between Aidid and the multinational task force in Somalia, and perhaps even to remove Aidid as leader of the clan. is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Habar Gedir (Somali: ) is a Somali clan, part . ...


During the 17 minute combat operation, U.S. Cobra attack helicopters fired 16 TOW missiles and thousands of 20-millimeter cannon rounds into the compound, killing 73 of the clan elders. The Bell AH-1 Cobra is an attack helicopter. ... A TOW missile being fired from a Jeep. ...


It would also lead to the deaths of four journalists, Dan Eldon, Hos Maina, Hansi Kraus and Anthony Macharia, who were killed by angry Somali mobs when they arrived to cover the incident. A fifth journalist, Scott Peterson, was injured but was rescued by his driver. Daniel Robert Eldon (September 18, 1970 in Hampstead, England – July 12, 1993 in Mogadishu, Somalia) was a British photojournalist. ... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved... Scott Peterson is a writer. ...


Some in Mogadishu believe that this was a turning point in unifying Somalis against the U.S. and U.N. efforts in Somalia, as it turned many Somalis, including moderates and those opposed to the Habar Gidir, against the United States.[7]


Operation Gothic Serpent

See Timeline of the Battle of Mogadishu for a detailed chronology from a U.S. Army perspective
Map of key sites in Mogadishu during the battle.
Rangers under fire in a Somali street near Irene’s target building on October 3, 1993. This is the only known photograph taken by American forces from the ground during the battle. The target building looms in the background to the right.
The crew of Super 64 a month before the Battle of Mogadishu. From left: Winn Mahuron, Tommy Field, Bill Cleveland, Ray Frank and Mike Durant.

On October 3, 1993, Task Force Ranger, U.S. Special Operations Forces composed mainly of Bravo Company 3d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D; better known as “Delta Force”) operators, and aviation support from the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (“The Night Stalkers”), attempted to capture Aidid's foreign minister, Omar Salad Elmi, and his top political advisor, Mohamed Hassan Awale.[8] October 3-4, 1993 Battle of Mogadishu timeline — as provided by the U.S. Army. ... Download high resolution version (564x816, 77 KB)This is a map of the main sites in the Battle of Mogadishu. ... Download high resolution version (564x816, 77 KB)This is a map of the main sites in the Battle of Mogadishu. ... Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho, popularly Xamar; Arabic: ; Italian: ) is the largest city in Somalia, and its capital. ... Members of Task Force Ranger under fire in Somalia. ... Members of Task Force Ranger under fire in Somalia. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The crew of Super 64 a month before the Battle of Mogadishu. ... The crew of Super 64 a month before the Battle of Mogadishu. ... Michael Mike J. Durant is the American pilot that was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The United States Special Operations Forces is the official category which the United States Department of Defense lists the U.S. military units that have a training specialization in unconventional warfare and special operations. ... The 3d Ranger Battalion was organized October 3, 1943 in the Army of the United States in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations of World War II as an element of the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional). ... The 75th Ranger Regiment, the modern incarnation of the United States Army Rangers, is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (160th SOAR (A)) is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support to general purpose forces and Special Operations Forces. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000+ Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded Militia and civilians 1,000+ killed 3,000+ wounded Task Force Ranger achieved...


The plan was to fast rope from hovering MH-60 Black Hawk helicopters, capture the targets, and load them onto a ground convoy for transport back to the U.S. compound. Four Ranger chalks commanded by Captain Michael Steele, also inserted by helicopter, were to provide a secure square perimeter on the four corners of the operation's target building. Not expecting to see too much action, the Rangers left behind their night vision devices. Citing weight considerations during the fast rope phase, the back panels, including ceramic and Kevlar plates, of ballistic body armor worn by the Rangers was also ordered left behind by task force commanders. Fast-roping is a technique for descending down a thick rope. ... In military terminology, a chalk is a specific aircraft load, especially a group of airborne soldiers which deploy from a single aircraft. ... Michael D. Steele was a Captain and a company commander in the 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment who came to fame for his part in the Somalia mission Operation Gothic Serpent, which resulted in the now famous book and movie Black Hawk Down. ... ...


The ground extraction convoy was supposed to reach the captive targets a few minutes after the beginning of the operation. However, it ran into delays. Somali citizens and local militia formed barricades along the streets of Mogadishu with rocks and burning tires, blocking the convoy from reaching the Rangers and their captives. A five-ton truck, part of the convoy, was struck by an RPG-7 rocket, inflicting fatal wounds to MSG Tim "Griz" Martin. The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ...


Other complications arose. A Ranger was seriously injured during the insertion. PFC Todd Blackburn fell while fast roping from a helicopter hovering 70 feet (21 m) above the streets. Minutes later, a MH-60 Black Hawk helicopter, Super 61 piloted by CW3 Cliff Wolcott, was shot down by a rocket propelled grenade. The 75th Ranger Regiment—also known as the United States Army Rangers—is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... US Military In the U.S. Army, Private First Class is the third lowest enlisted rank, just above Private and below Corporal or Specialist. ... Todd Anthony Blackburn (born 1973) was a U.S. Army Ranger deployed with B Company, 3rd Battalion, to Mogadishu, Somalia during Operation Gothic Serpent in 1993. ... Fast-roping is a technique for descending down a thick rope. ... For other uses of Blackhawk/Black Hawk, see Black Hawk. ... For other uses of Warrant Officer, see Warrant Officer. ... The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ...


A Combat Search and Rescue team, led by TSgt Tim Wilkinson, of Air Force Pararescuemen and Rangers, despite an RPG hit that crippled their helicopter, roped down to Super 61's crash site, where they found the pilots dead and five injured inside the Black Hawk. Under intense fire, the team removed the injured to a nearby collection point, where they built a make-shift shelter for the wounded using Kevlar floorboards from the Blackhawk. Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... Kevlars molecular structure; BOLD: monomer unit; DASHED: hydrogen bonds. ...


There was confusion between the ground convoy and the assault team. The assault team and the ground convoy waited for twenty minutes just out of sight of each other, ready to move, but each under the impression that they were to be first contacted by the other. During the wait, a second Black Hawk helicopter, Super 64 piloted by CW3 Michael Durant, was downed. Michael Mike J. Durant is the American pilot that was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ...


Most of the assault team went to the first crash site for a rescue operation. Upon reaching the site, about 90 Rangers found themselves under siege from heavy militia fire. Despite air support, the Rangers were effectively trapped for the night. With a growing number of wounded needing shelter, the Rangers occupied several nearby houses taking the residents prisoner. Outside, a stiff breeze stirred up blinding brown clouds of dust.


The local SNA commander, Colonel Sharif Hassan Giumale decided he would call for a mortar bombardment of the houses rather than lose men in house to house fighting. Giumale had requested 200 white phosphorus bombs and six mobile 60 mm mortars crews. The information that civilians were being held captive changed his plans.[9] White phosphorus is a flare / smoke producing incendiary weapon,[1] or smoke-screening agent, made from a common allotrope of the chemical element phosphorus. ...


At the second crash site, two Delta snipers, SFC Randy Shughart and MSG Gary Gordon, were inserted by helicopter (at their own request, permission was denied twice by Command but granted when they persisted and made a third request) to protect the injured crew from the approaching mob. Both snipers were later killed when the site was overrun by Somali militiamen. The Black Hawk's pilot, CW3 Michael Durant, who was seriously injured in the crash, was taken hostage. For their actions, Shughart and Gordon were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... Sgt. ... United States Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Marine Corps Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Army Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Air Force A Master Sergeant is: the eighth enlisted rank in the United States Marine Corps, just above Gunnery Sergeant, below Master Gunnery Sergeant, Sergeant Major, and Sergeant Major of... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses of Warrant Officer, see Warrant Officer. ... Michael Mike J. Durant (born July 23, 1961) is the American pilot who was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ... Posthumous means after death. ... For other uses, see Medal of Honor (disambiguation). ...


Repeated attempts by the Somalis to mass forces and overrun the American positions in a series of firefights near the crash sites, were neutralized by aggressive small arms fire and by strafing and rocket attacks from AH-6J Little Bird helicopter gunships of the Nightstalkers, the only air support equipped to operate at night. The Somali National Alliance militia casualties were reported as 700 killed and about 1000 wounded. However, an eyewitness to the battle says the recovery parties for the SNA dead in the vicinity of the Olympic Hotel would indicate about 60.[10] MH-6 Little Bird Two special operations versions of the OH-6A are the AH-6C Little Bird armed variant, and the MH-6B transport/utility version, which can carry up to six personnel for quick insertion and extraction missions. ...


A relief convoy from Task Force 2-14 Infantry, |10th Mountain Division, aided by Malaysian and Pakistani U.N. forces, arrived in the early morning. No contingency planning or coordination with U.N. forces had been arranged prior to the operation; consequently, the recovery of the surrounded U.S. soldiers was significantly complicated and delayed. A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... The 14th Infantry Regiment is a U.S. Army light infantry regiment, known as the Golden Dragons. ... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ...


The battle was over by October 4, 1993, at 6:30 AM. American forces were finally evacuated to the U.N. Pakistani base by the armored convoy and the “Mogadishu Mile.” In all, 18 U.S. soldiers died of wounds from the battle and another 73 were injured. After the battle, one or more US casualties of the conflict were dragged through the streets of Mogadish by crowds of local civilians and SNA forces.[11] The Malaysian forces lost one soldier and had seven injured, while the Pakistanis suffered two injured. Casualties on the Somali side were heavy, with estimates on fatalities ranging from 500 to over 2,000 people. The Somali casualties were a mixture of militiamen and local civilians. Somali civilians suffered heavy casualties due to the dense urban character of that portion of Mogadishu. Two days later, a mortar round fell on the U.S. compound, killing one U.S. soldier, SFC Matt Rierson, and injuring another twelve. is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: lack of context If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...

Google Maps link to crash site #2 (Super Six Four)

Order of battle

U.S. and UNOSOM

Units involved in the battle:

  • Task Force Ranger, including :
    • C Squadron, 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — aka "Delta Force"
    • Bravo Company, 3rd Ranger Battalion|3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment
    • 1st Battalion, 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (a.k.a. "The Night Stalkers") with MH-6J and AH-6 "Little Birds" and MH-60A/L Black Hawks
    • Combat Controllers and Pararescuemen from the USAF 24th Special Tactics Squadron
    • a Navy DEVGRU then-labeled SEAL Team Six detachment (four Navy SEAL operators working with the Lost Convoy)
  • United Nations Forces

The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... The 3rd Ranger Battalion is one of three battalions of United States Army Rangers. ... The 75th Ranger Regiment, the modern incarnation of the United States Army Rangers, is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (160th SOAR (A)) is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides aviation support by helicopters to general purpose forces and other special operations forces. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... USAF redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ... Seal team six The history of the Navys Sea-Air-Land (SEAL) Teams is closely tied to that of the Seabees. ... Navy SEALs redirects here. ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ... The 14th Infantry Regiment is a U.S. Army light infantry regiment, known as the Golden Dragons. ... // History The Frontier Force Regiment (commonly known as the Piffers) was officially raised on May 18, 1849 by Colonel Henry Lawrence. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... The Pakistan Army (Urdu: پاک فوج) is the largest branch of the Pakistan military, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Malaysian Army. ... Crest of Malaysian Army The Malaysian Army (Malay: Tentera Darat Malaysia) is the land component of the Malaysian Armed Forces. ...

Somali militias

The size and organizational structure of Somali forces are not known in detail; in all, between 2,000-4,000 regular militia members are believed to have participated, almost all of which belonged to Aidid's Somali National Alliance, drawing largely from the Habar Gedir clan. The Somali National Alliance was a political alliance formed in June, 1992 with Mohamed Farrah Aidid as its head. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Consequences of the operation

Chalk Four Ranger returns to base after a mission in Somalia, 1993.

In a national security policy review session held in the White House on October 6, 1993, U.S. President Bill Clinton directed the acting chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Admiral David E. Jeremiah, to stop all actions by U.S. forces against Aidid except those required in self-defense. He also reappointed Ambassador Robert B. Oakley as special envoy to Somalia in an attempt to broker a peace settlement and then announced that all U.S. Forces would withdraw from Somalia no later than March 31, 1994. On December 15, 1993, Secretary of Defense Les Aspin stepped down, taking much of the blame for what was deemed a failed policy. A few hundred Marines remained offshore to assist with any noncombatant evacuation mission that might occur regarding the 1,000-plus U.S. civilians and military advisers remaining as part of the U.S. liaison mission. Chalk Four Ranger returns to base after a mission in Somalia, 1993. ... Chalk Four Ranger returns to base after a mission in Somalia, 1993. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Admiral David E. Jeremiah (retired) is partner and president of Technology Strategies & Alliances Corporation, a strategic advisory and investment banking firm engaged primarily in the aerospace, defense, telecommunications, and electronics industries. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Ready Battalion of the 24th Infantry Division, 1-64 Armor, was sent from Fort Stewart, Georgia, to Mogadishu in the wake of this battle to secure the city and prevent a recurrence of hostilities. The 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized)—also known as the Victory Division—was an infantry division of the United States Army with base of operations at Fort Riley, Kansas originally organized out of the old Hawaiian Division. ...


All U.S. personnel were finally withdrawn by March 1995.


Service analyses of the action later identified three factors in the failure of the raid to achieve its objectives without serious casualties on both sides:

  • A failure of intelligence gathering, particularly in relying on local intelligence sources only and failing to recognize Aidid's capability in urban guerilla warfare;
  • A lack of political support for the Task Force Ranger mission, reflected in denial or removal of military support assets that would have aided the force, such as M1 Abrams tanks , AC-130 Spectre gunships, and M2 Bradley APCs.
  • A lack of decisive force by Task Force Ranger, including insufficient troops, equipment, and weaponry.

All three factors contributed to the decision to use tactics successful in previous raids but inappropriate to downtown Mogadishu, and to launch the operation during daylight instead of at night. However, by night, the meeting which the US wished to raid and capture the lieutenants may have ended, giving them no choice but to launch it in the day. The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... The M2 Bradley IFV (Infantry Fighting Vehicle) and M3 Bradley CFV (Cavalry Fighting Vehicle) are American infantry fighting vehicles manufactured by BAE Systems Land and Armaments, (formerly United Defense, originally FMC). ...


Policy changes

The Battle of Mogadishu led to a shift in American foreign policy, as the Clinton administration became increasingly reluctant to use military intervention in Third World conflicts peripherally related to the supreme national interests of the United States; (such as the Rwandan Genocide, the mass murder of an estimated 800,000 to 1,071,000 ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutus by Hutu militia groups in Rwanda in 1994), though Clinton approached Senator Dole and Speaker Gingrich about the possible use of military intervention, both parties agreed such action imprudent. President Clinton also refused to mobilize U.S. ground troops in fighting the Bosnian Serb Army in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1995 and the Yugoslav Army in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (specifically, the province of Kosovo) in 1999, out of concern for sacrificing American soldiers in conflicts only peripherally related to the national interest or national defense of the United States, which could have resulted in situations similar to Mogadishu in 1993. The Rwandan Genocide was an attempt to exterminate the Tutsi minority of Rwanda, and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa, the other two being the Twa and the Hutu. ... The Hutu are a Central African ethnic group, living mainly in Rwanda and Burundi. ... Bosnian Serb Army, officially Army of the Republika Srpska (Serbian Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske, ВРС/VRS) is the military of the Bosnian Serb political entity of Republika Srpska. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The national interest, often referred to by the French term raison dÉtat, is a countrys goals and ambitions whether economic, military, or cultural. ... Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ...


Links with Al-Qaeda

There have been allegations that Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda movement was involved in training and funding of Aidid's men. In his 2001 book, Holy War, Inc., CNN reporter Peter Bergen interviewed Bin Laden who affirmed these allegations. According to Bergen, Bin Laden asserted that fighters affiliated with his group were involved in killing American troops in Somalia in 1993, a claim he had earlier made to the Arabic newspaper Al-Quds Al-Arabi. The Al-Qaeda fighters in Somalia are rumored to have included the organization's military chief, Mohammed Atef, later killed by U.S. forces in Afghanistan. Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Holy War, Inc. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article is about journalistic reporters. ... Peter Bergen (born December 12, 1962) is a print and television journalist and author who appears as a terrorism analyst on CNN. Bergen is known for conducting the first television interview with Osama Bin Laden in 1997. ... Abu Hafs al Masri ... Mohammed Atef Group photo of Ayman al-Zawahiri, Osama bin Laden & Abu Hafs Prosecution Trial Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Mohammed Atef (Arabic: محمد عاطف ) (also transliterated as Muhammad Atef, Muhammed Atef, Muhammad ‘Āṭif and several other ways) (1944-2001) was the alleged military chief of the international terrorist organization...


Four and a half years after the Battle of Mogadishu, in an interview in May 1998,[13] bin Laden disparaged the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Somalia. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


Black Hawk Down

In 1999, writer Mark Bowden published the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, which chronicles the events that surrounded the battle. Black Hawk Down is a 2001 film by Ridley Scott, based on the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden. ... Mark Robert Bowden (II) (born July 17, 1951) is an accomplished American writer. ... “Black Hawk Down” is an official phrase used on combat situations, by the United States military, to inform the crash of a Black Hawk helicopter. ...


The book was adapted into the 2001 film Black Hawk Down, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer and directed by Ridley Scott. The film describes the events surrounding the operation and some of the acts of bravery seen on that day. There are obvious differences between the book and the movie, which left out central sections and themes of the book, such as the involvement of civilians in the battle, and de-emphasized the key decision to stay in the area after the initial operation was completed, among others. Black Hawk Down is a 2001 film by Ridley Scott, based on the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden. ... Jerome Leon Bruckheimer (born September 21, 1945) is a film and television producer in the genre of action, drama, and science fiction. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ...


According to journalist Kevin Sites—one of the few Westerners to have reported from Mogadishu since the events of 1993—thousands went to see the film when it premiered in Somalia in 2002. Many people in Mogadishu were angered by it, calling it propaganda that focused on the 18 Americans killed and 73 wounded in the 18-hour battle, when an estimated 500 to 2,000 Somalis were also killed. When it was learned that the battle has been turned into a game for PC, Xbox, and PlayStation 2, Somalis said it made a mockery of a real-life tragedy.[14] Kevin Sites is a war correspondent who has spent more than 5 years covering wars around the world. ...


Mike Durant told his own story in his 2003 book In the Company of Heroes. Michael Mike J. Durant is the American pilot that was held prisoner after a raid in Mogadishu, Somalia on October 3, 1993. ... This is the cover of Michael Durants book, In the Company of Heroes. ...


Later, in 2005, Matthew Eversmann, leader of Chalk 4 during the battle, compiled several different accounts into a book called The Battle of Mogadishu. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Known casualties

Pakistani

A Pakistani soldier was wounded after his vehicle was attacked by Somali insurgents.


Malaysian

The Regimental Crest of the Royal Malay Regiment.

Image File history File links Royal_Malay_Regiment. ... Image File history File links Royal_Malay_Regiment. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Malaysian Army. ... The Condor is a 4x4 wheeled armoured personnel carrier originally designed by Thyssen-Henschel of Germany. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Royal Malaysian Army. ...

Somali

Ambassador Robert Oakley, the US special representative to Somalia, is quoted as saying: " My own personal estimate is that there must have been 1,500 to 2,000 Somalis killed and wounded that day, because that battle was a true battle. And the Americans and those who came to their rescue, were being shot at from all sides ... a deliberate war battle, if you will, on the part of the Somalis. And women and children were being used as shields and some cases women and children were actually firing weapons, and were coming from all sides. Sort of a rabbit warren of huts, houses, alleys, and twisting and turning streets, so those who were trying to defend themselves were shooting back in all directions. Helicopter gun ships were being used as well as all sorts of automatic weapons on the ground by the U.S. and the United Nations. The Somalis, by and large, were using automatic rifles and grenade launchers and it was a very nasty fight, as intense as any almost any battle you would find".[15] Robert Bigger Oakley was born in Dallas, Texas and raised in Shreveport, Louisiana. ...


However, Aidid himself claimed that only 315 - civilians and militia - were killed and 812 wounded.[16] Captain Haad, in an interview on American public television, said 133 of the SNA militia were killed.[17]


Known civilian deaths include:

  • The 3 year-old daughter of Maria Osman, killed when one of the Black Hawks crashed onto the Osman family home after being attacked by Somali militants.[18]

United States

Name Action Medal
1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Delta Force)
MSG Gary Gordon Killed defending the crew of Super Six-Four (Michael Durant) Medal of Honor (posthumously) 1
SFC Randy Shughart Killed defending the crew of Super Six-Four (Michael Durant) Medal of Honor (posthumously) 1
SSG Daniel Busch Crashed on Super Six-One and was wounded defending the downed crew Silver Star
SFC Earl Fillmore Killed moving to the first crash site Silver Star
SFC Matt Rierson Killed on October 6 , 1993 by a mortar which landed just outside the hangar

Silver Star (Redirected from 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta) Official force name 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Airborne) 1st SFOD-D (A) Combat Application Group (CAG) Delta Force Nicknames D-boys Delta boys Deltas Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Versatile Special Operations Force, mainly trained for... United States Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Marine Corps Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Army Master Sergeant insignia U.S. Air Force A Master Sergeant is: the eighth enlisted rank in the United States Marine Corps, just above Gunnery Sergeant, below Master Gunnery Sergeant, Sergeant Major, and Sergeant Major of... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Medal of Honor (disambiguation). ... A posthumous recognition is a ceremonial award given after the recipient has passed away. ... Sergeant First Class insignia Sergeant First Class (SFC) is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Army, just above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant, and is a non-commissioned officer. ... Sgt. ... United States Military Staff Sergeant insignia (U.S. Air Force) Staff Sergeant is the fifth enlisted rank in the U.S. Air Force, just above Senior Airman and below Technical Sergeant. ... The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ...

MSG Tim "Griz" Martin Died from wounds received on the Lost Convoy
75th Ranger Regiment
CPL Jamie Smith Died of wounds with the pinned-down force around crash site one Bronze Star with Valor Device and Oak Leaf,
Purple Heart
SPC James Cavaco Killed on the Lost Convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device
SGT Casey Joyce Killed on the Lost Convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device
PFC Richard "Alphabet" Kowalewski Killed on the Lost Convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device
SGT Dominick Pilla Killed on Struecker's convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device
SGT Lorenzo Ruiz Killed on the Lost Convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device
160th SOAR (Nightstalkers)
SSG William Cleveland Crew chief on Super Six-Four-killed Silver Star,
Bronze Star,
Air Medal with Valor Device
SSG Thomas Field Crew chief on Super Six-Four-killed Silver Star,
Bronze Star,
Air Medal with Valor Device
CWO Raymond Frank Copilot of Super Six-Four-killed Silver Star,
Air Medal with Valor Device
CWO Clifton "Elvis" Wolcott Pilot of Super Six-One and died in crash Distinguished Flying Cross,
Bronze Star,
Air Medal with Valor Device
CWO Donovan "Bull" Briley Copilot of Super Six-One and died in crash Distinguished Flying Cross,
Bronze Star,
Air Medal with Valor Device
2nd Battalion 14th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain Division
SGT Cornell Houston Killed on the rescue convoy Bronze Star with Valor Device,
De Fleury medal
PFC James Martin Killed on the rescue convoy Purple Heart

The 75th Ranger Regiment, the modern incarnation of the United States Army Rangers, is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... This article is about the military rank. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... The Valor device, also known as a combat distinguishing device, V-device, V device, and Combat V, is an award of the United States military which is authorized by the military services as an attachment to certain awards and decorations. ... For other uses, see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... For the group of non-commissioned officer ranks in Singapore, see Specialist (Singapore). ... For other uses, see Sergeant (disambiguation). ... US Military In the U.S. Army, Private First Class is the third lowest enlisted rank, just above Private and below Corporal or Specialist. ... Jeff Struecker is a U.S. Army Chaplain notable for his involvement in the events commonly known as Black Hawk Down in 1993. ... The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (160th SOAR (A)) is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides helicopter aviation support to general purpose forces and Special Operations Forces. ... A crew chief is the head position on a pit crew in motorsports. ... Air Medal Ribbon The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, on May 11, 1942. ... For other uses of Warrant Officer, see Warrant Officer. ... In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot (co-pilot) of an aircraft. ... Clifton Elvis Wolcott was one of the 18 American soldiers who lost their lives in the Battle Of Mogadishu. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Distinguished Flying Cross. ... Donovan L. Briley was a member of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR), also known as the Night Stalkers. ... The 10th Mountain Division (Light Infantry) is a light infantry division of the United States Army currently serving under the XVIII Airborne Corps. ...

See also

Combatants Alliance for the Restoration of Peace and Counter-Terrorism Islamic Court Union Commanders Mohamed Qanyare, Muse Sudi, Nuur Daqle Sheikh Sharif Ahmed Strength unknown unknown Casualties Over 350 deaths[1] The Second Battle of Mogadishu was a battle fought for control of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia. ... Combatants Popular Resistance Movement (PRM) Hawiye clan militiamen  Ethiopia Transitional Government of Somalia  Uganda Peacekeepers Casualties 245+ killed (Ethiopian claim)[1] 11 TFG soldiers killed [2][3] 37 Ethiopian soldiers killed [4][5] 68 Ethiopian Soldiers wounded[6] 1 Ugandan soldier killed[7] 1 Mil Mi-24 helicopter gunship shot... Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War is a book by Mark Bowden chronicling the U.S. military attempt in 1993 to capture officials of Mohamed Farrah Aidids militia, in Mogadishu, Somalia, and the intense battle that resulted between U.S. forces on duty with the United Nations... Black Hawk Down is a 2001 film by Ridley Scott, based on the book Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden. ... Combatants Islamic Courts Union Pro-Islamist Militias Foreign fighters Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia[1][2] The Fall of Mogadishu began on December 27, 2006, when the militaries of Somalias United Nations-approved Transitional Federal Government and Ethiopia surrounded the Somalian capital of Mogadishu after a swift string of TFG... Combatants United States Habar Gedir other Mogadishu local militia Commanders Maj. ... The Somali Civil War is an armed conflict in Somalia that started in 1988. ...

Notes

  1. ^ red cross, red cross; time magazine. "Anatomy of a Disaster", Time Magazine, 1993-10-18. Retrieved on 2008-01-19. 
  2. ^ Bowden, Mark. "Black Hawk Down: A defining battle", The Philadelphia Inquirer, 1997-11-16. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  3. ^ frontline: ambush in mogadishu: interviews: captain haad
  4. ^ Bowden, Mark. "Black Hawk Down", The Philadelphia Inquirer, 1997-11-16. Retrieved on 2006-10-25. 
  5. ^ Anatomy of a Disaster - TIME
  6. ^ PBS - frontline: ambush in mogadishu
  7. ^ http://hotzone.yahoo.com/b/hotzone/blogs999 Kevin Sites Black Hawk Ground September 26 2005, Yahoo News.
  8. ^ Task Force Ranger: Somalia. To Fight With Entrepidy. Retrieved on 2007-01-29.
  9. ^ Rick Atkinson. "Night of a Thousand Casualties; Battle Triggered U.S. Decision to Withdraw From Somalia" (.doc file), The Washington Post, 1994-01-31, p. A1. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. 
  10. ^ Alex de Waal. "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia", New Left Review, July-August 1998, pp. 131-144.. Retrieved on 2008-03-16. Archived from the original on 2007-02-28. 
  11. ^ Watson, Paul. "Pulitzer Prize-Winning Photo" (acceptance of terms of use required), Toronto Star, Toronto Star Newspapers Limited. 
  12. ^ 41st Engineer Battalion
  13. ^ frontline: hunting bin laden: who is bin laden?: interview with osama bin laden (in may 1998) | PBS
  14. ^ Keven Sites. Black Hawk ground.
  15. ^ frontline: ambush in mogadishu: interviews: ambassador robert oakley
  16. ^ http://www.hrw.org/reports/1994/WR94/Africa-08.htm
  17. ^ frontline: ambush in mogadishu: interviews: captain haad
  18. ^ Sites, Kevin. "Black Hawk Ground: Cactus and bitterness grow where an American chopper was shot down", Keven Sites: In The Hot Zone, Yahoo News, 1997-11-16. Retrieved on 2006-11-24. 

Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bowden, Mark, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War, Atlantic Monthly Press (1999)
  • Clarke, Walter, and Herbst, Jeffrey, editors, Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Westview Press (1997)
  • Gardner, Judith and el Bushra, Judy, editors, Somalia - The Untold Story: The War Through the Eyes of Somali Women, Pluto Press (2004)
  • Prestowitz, Clyde, Rogue Nation: American Unilateralism and the Failure of Good Intentions, Basic Books (2003)
  • Sangvic, Roger, Battle of Mogadishu: Anatomy of a Failure, School of Advanced Military Studies, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (1998)
  • Stevenson, Jonathan, Losing Mogadishu: Testing U.S. Policy in Somalia, Naval Institute Press (1995)
  • Stewart, Richard W., The United States Army in Somalia, 1992-1994, US Army Center for Military History (2003)
  • Somalia: Good Intentions, Deadly Results, VHS, produced by KR Video and The Philadelphia Inquirer (1998)

External links

Former combatants' websites

  • Black Hawk Down '93 - A discussion forum which requires anonymous registration. Some thumbnail images.
  • NightStalkers.com: Operation Gothic Serpent - with a memorial of American casualties (including a bio for each of them) and an article written by a former Ranger who served on the operation.
  • SpecialOperations.com: Operation Restore Hope - featuring a detailed explanation of the operation and the events of October 3, 1993.
  • SuaSponte.com - Ranger History: Somalia - featuring a 41 page summary of the Battle of Mogadishu, the events that lead to it, and what could have contributed to the missions disaster.
  • U.S. Army Ranger Association - History: Somalia (Task Force Ranger) - featuring the account by USARA and former NightStalkers that served in combat during the battle.
  • EccentricAmerica.net/Somalia - Photos taken by former medic and Battle of Mogadishu veteran Mark Jackson while stationed in Mogadishu, Somalia with the 10th Mountain Division from Aug - Dec 1993

Coordinates: 2°03′09″N, 45°19′29″E is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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