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Encyclopedia > Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway
Part of the Pacific Theatre of World War II
SBDs approach the burning Mikuma (Center).
U.S. Douglas SBD Dauntless dive bombers about to attack the burning cruiser Mikuma for the third time.
Date June 4June 7, 1942
Location Near Midway Atoll
Result Decisive American victory
Belligerents
Flag of the United States
United States
Flag of Japan
Imperial Japanese Navy
Commanders
Chester W. Nimitz
Frank J. Fletcher
Raymond A. Spruance
Isoroku Yamamoto
Chuichi Nagumo
Tamon Yamaguchi
Strength
3 carriers,
~50 support ships,
233 carrier aircraft,
127 land-based aircraft
4 carriers,
7 battleships,
~150 support ships,
264 carrier aircraft,[1]
16 floatplanes
Casualties and losses
1 carrier sunk,
1 destroyer sunk,
98 aircraft destroyed,
307 killed
4 carriers sunk,
1 cruiser sunk,
264 carrier aircraft destroyed,[1]
3,057 killed

The Battle of Midway was a major naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II. It took place from June 4, 1942 to June 7, 1942, approximately one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, five months after the Japanese capture of Wake Island, and exactly six months to the day after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links SBDs_and_Mikuma. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the U.S. Navys main scout bomber and dive bomber from mid-1940 until 1943, when it was replaced by the SB2C Helldiver. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Mikuma (三隈) was a Mogami class cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz GCB (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of... Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed on board ship, 17 September 1942. ... Raymond Spruance Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 - December 13, 1969) was a United States Navy admiral in World War II, and commanded US naval forces at the turning point of the Pacific War, the Battle of Midway. ... In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919... This is a Japanese name; the family name is Nagumo Admiral Chuichi Nagumo , 25 March 1887 - 6 July 1944) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. // Nagumo was born in Yonezawa city, Yamagata prefecture in northern Japan in 1887. ... Japanese painting entitled Last Moments of Admiral Yamaguchi. Rear-Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi (山口 多聞 Yamaguchi Tamon, January 1, 1892-June 4, 1942) was an Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants the Philippines, United States Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur/ Jonathan M. Wainwright Masaharu Homma Strength About 150,000 120,000 Casualties 2,500 killed in action; 10,000 POWs killed/died during Bataan Death March 5,000 wounded 100,000 POWs total 1,200 killed; 500 missing in action 1... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... In the Pacific Theater of World War II, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns, from November 1943 through February 1944, were the first offensive operations of the United States Navy and Marine Corps in the Central Pacific. ... In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... The Volcano and RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands campaign was a series of battles and engagements between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around January, 1945 until June, 1945. ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... This article is about the actual attack. ...


During the battle, the United States Navy defeated a Japanese attack against Midway Atoll, losing one aircraft carrier and one destroyer, while destroying four Japanese carriers and a heavy cruiser. USN redirects here. ... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... HMS Raleigh a Hawkins class cruiser around which the treaty limits for Heavy cruisers were written. ...


The battle was a decisive victory for the Americans, widely regarded as the most important naval engagement of the Pacific Campaign of World War II.[2] The battle permanently weakened the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), in particular through the loss of four fleet carriers and over 200 irreplaceable experienced naval aviators.[3] ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


Both nations sustained losses in the battle, but Japan was unable to reconstitute her naval forces, while the American shipbuilding and aircrew training programs provided quick replacements. By 1942, the United States was three years[citation needed] into a massive ship building program intended to expand the Navy to a size superior to Japan's. As a result of Midway, the Japanese were faced with naval inferiority within months. Strategically, the U.S. Navy was able to seize the initiative in the Pacific and go on the offensive. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ...


The Japanese plan of attack was to lure America's remaining carriers into a trap and sink them.[4] The Japanese also intended to occupy Midway Atoll to extend Japan's defensive perimeter farther from its home islands. This operation was considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji and Samoa, as well as an invasion of Hawaii.[5] State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Governor Linda Lingle (R) Official languages Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ...


The Midway operation, like the attack on Pearl Harbor, was not part of a campaign for the conquest of the United States, but was aimed at its elimination as a strategic Pacific power, thereby giving Japan a free hand in establishing its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. It was also hoped another defeat would force the U.S. to negotiate an end to the Pacific War with conditions favorable for Japan.[6] This article is about the actual attack. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Strategic context

Japan had been highly successful in rapidly securing its initial war goals, including the takeover of the Philippines, capture of Malaya and Singapore, and securing vital resource areas in Java, Borneo, and other islands of the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). As such, preliminary planning for a second phase of operations commenced as early as January 1942. However, because of strategic differences between the Imperial Army and Imperial Navy, as well as infighting between the Navy's GHQ and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto’s Combined Fleet, the formulation of effective strategy was hampered, and the follow-up strategy was not finalized until April 1942.[7] Admiral Yamamoto succeeded in winning a bureaucratic struggle placing his operational concept — further operations in the Central Pacific — ahead of other contending plans. These included operations either directly or indirectly aimed at Australia and into the Indian Ocean. In the end, Yamamoto's barely-veiled threat to resign unless he got his way succeeded in carrying his agenda forward.[8] Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (or Semenanjung Malaysia in the Malay language) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919... Combined Fleet was the ocean-going branch of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was ruled under General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy (e. ...


Yamamoto's primary strategic concern was the elimination of America's remaining carrier forces. This concern was acutely heightened by the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo (April 18, 1942) by USAAF B-25s, launching from USS Hornet. The raid, while militarily insignificant, was a severe psychological shock to the Japanese and proved the existence of a gap in the defenses around the Japanese home islands.[9] Sinking America's aircraft carriers and seizing Midway, the only strategic island besides Hawaii in the East Pacific, was seen as the only means of nullifying this threat. Yamamoto reasoned an operation against the main carrier base at Pearl Harbor would induce the U.S. forces to fight. However, given the strength of American land-based air-power on Hawaii, he judged the powerful American base could not be attacked directly.[10] Instead, he selected Midway, at the extreme northwest end of the Hawaiian Island chain, some 1,300 miles (2,100 km) from Oahu. Midway was not especially important in the larger scheme of Japan's intentions; however, the Japanese felt the Americans would consider Midway a vital outpost of Pearl Harbor and would therefore strongly defend it.[11] The U.S. did consider Midway vital; after the battle, establishment of a U.S. submarine base on Midway extended submarine range 2,400 miles (4,400 km). An airstrip on Midway served as a forward staging point for bomber attacks on Wake Island.[12] Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... The North American B-25 Mitchell (NA-62) was an American twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... Psychological Operations (PSYOP, PSYOPS) are techniques used by military and police forces to influence a target audiences emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and behavior. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... OÊ»ahu (usually Oahu outside Hawaiian and Hawaiian English), the Gathering Place, is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous island in the State of HawaiÊ»i. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Yamamoto's plan

Midway Atoll, several months before the battle. Eastern Island (with the airfield) is in the foreground, and the larger Sand Island is in the background to the west.
Midway Atoll, several months before the battle. Eastern Island (with the airfield) is in the foreground, and the larger Sand Island is in the background to the west.

Typical of Japanese naval planning during the Second World War, Yamamoto's battle plan was quite complex.[13] Additionally, his designs were predicated on optimistic intelligence information suggesting USS Enterprise and USS Hornet, forming Task Force 16, were the only carriers available to the U.S. Pacific Fleet at the time. USS Lexington had been sunk and USS Yorktown severely damaged (and IJN believed her sunk) at the Battle of the Coral Sea just a month earlier. Likewise, the Japanese were aware USS Saratoga was undergoing repairs on the West Coast after taking torpedo damage from a submarine. As such, the Japanese believed they faced at most two American fleet carriers at the point of contact. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x619, 109 KB) Caption: Midway Atoll. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x619, 109 KB) Caption: Midway Atoll. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The seventh USS Hornet (CV-8) of the United States Navy was an aircraft carrier of World War II, notable for launching the Doolittle Raid, as a participant in the Battle of Midway, and for action in the Solomons before being mortally wounded in the Battle of the Santa Cruz... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... The third USS Yorktown (CV-5) was lead ship of the Yorktown class aircraft carrier of World War II, sunk at the Battle of Midway. ... The fifth USS Saratoga (CV-3) was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...


More important, however, was Yamamoto's belief the Americans had been demoralized by their frequent defeats during the preceding six months. Yamamoto felt deception would be required to lure the U.S. Fleet into a fatally compromising situation.[14] To this end, he dispersed his forces so their full extent (particularly his battleships) would be unlikely to be discovered by the Americans prior to battle. However, his emphasis on dispersal meant none of his formations were mutually supporting. Unbeknownst to Yamamoto, any benefit from this was neutralized by the fact the United States had broken the main Japanese naval code (dubbed JN-25 by the U.S.). For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ...


Critically, Yamamoto's supporting battleships and cruisers would trail Vice-Admiral Chuichi Nagumo's carrier striking force by several hundred miles. Japan's heavy surface forces were intended to destroy whatever part of the U.S. Fleet might come to Midway's relief, once Nagumo's carriers had weakened them sufficiently for a daylight gun duel to be fought;[15] this was typical of the battle doctrine of most major navies. However, their distance from Nagumo's carriers would have grave implications during the battle, since the battleships were escorted by cruisers, which possessed scout planes invaluable to Nagumo.[16] This is a Japanese name; the family name is Nagumo Admiral Chuichi Nagumo , 25 March 1887 - 6 July 1944) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. // Nagumo was born in Yonezawa city, Yamagata prefecture in northern Japan in 1887. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... The term scout plane refers to any aircraft used for the purpose of discovering an enemy position and directing artillery. ...


Aleutian invasion

Likewise, the Japanese operations aimed at the Aleutian Islands (Operation AL) removed yet more ships from the force striking Midway. However, whereas prior histories of the battle have often characterized the Aleutians operation as a feint to draw American forces northwards, recent scholarship on the battle has shown, by the original Japanese battle plan, AL was designed to be launched simultaneously with the attack on Midway.[17] However, a one-day delay in the sailing of Nagumo's task force had the effect of initiating Operation AL a day before its counterpart.[18] Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ...


Order of battle

This is the order of battle for the World War II Battle of Midway. ...

Prelude to battle

U.S. forces

USS Yorktown at Pearl Harbor days before the battle.
USS Yorktown at Pearl Harbor days before the battle.

In order to do battle with an enemy force anticipated to be composed of 4 or 5 carriers, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas, needed every available U.S. flight deck. He already had Vice Admiral William Halsey's two-carrier (Enterprise and Hornet) task force at hand; Halsey was stricken with psoriasis and was replaced by Rear Admiral Raymond A. Spruance (Halsey's escort commander).[19] Nimitz also hurriedly called back Rear Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher's task force from the South West Pacific Area. He reached Pearl Harbor just in time to provision and sail. Saratoga was still under repair, and Yorktown had been severely damaged at the Battle of the Coral Sea, but Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard worked around the clock to patch up the carrier. Though several months of repairs at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard was estimated for Yorktown, 72 hours was enough to restore her to a battle-worthy (if still not structurally ideal) state.[20] Her flight deck was patched, whole sections of internal frames were cut out and replaced, and several new squadrons (drawn from the Saratoga) were put aboard. Nimitz showed disregard for established procedure in getting his third and last available carrier ready for battle — repairs continued even as Yorktown sortied, with work crews from the repair ship USS Vestal—herself damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor six months earlier—still aboard. Just three days after putting into drydock at Pearl Harbor, Yorktown was again under steam.[21] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x620, 87 KB) Summary Caption: USS Yorktown (CV-5). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x620, 87 KB) Summary Caption: USS Yorktown (CV-5). ... The third USS Yorktown (CV-5) was lead ship of the Yorktown class aircraft carrier of World War II, sunk at the Battle of Midway. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz GCB (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... William Bull Halsey William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... A task force (TF) is a temporary unit or formation established to work on a single defined task or activity. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Raymond Spruance Raymond Ames Spruance (July 3, 1886 - December 13, 1969) was a United States Navy admiral in World War II, and commanded US naval forces at the turning point of the Pacific War, the Battle of Midway. ... Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed on board ship, 17 September 1942. ... South West Pacific Area (SWPA) was the name given to one of the four major Allied commands in the Pacific theatre of World War II, during 1942-45. ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) is a United States Navy shipyard covering 179 acres (0. ... The USS Vestal began life with a civilian crew in 1909 when she entered service as a fleet collier. ...


Japanese forces

Akagi in April 1942, the flagship of the Japanese carrier striking force which attacked Pearl Harbor, as well as Darwin, Rabaul, and Colombo, prior to the battle.
Akagi in April 1942, the flagship of the Japanese carrier striking force which attacked Pearl Harbor, as well as Darwin, Rabaul, and Colombo, prior to the battle.

Meanwhile, as a result of their participation in the Battle of the Coral Sea, the Japanese carrier Zuikaku was in port in Kure, awaiting a replacement air group. The heavily damaged Shōkaku was under repair from three bomb hits suffered at Coral Sea, and required months in drydock. Despite the likely availability of sufficient aircraft between the two ships to re-equip Zuikaku with a composite air group, the Japanese made no serious attempt to get her into the forthcoming battle.[22] Consequently, instead of bringing five intact fleet carriers into battle, Admiral Nagumo would only have four: Kaga, with Akagi, forming Division 1; Hiryū and Sōryū, as the 2nd Division. At least part of this was a product of fatigue; Japanese carriers had been constantly on operations since December 7, 1941, including pinprick raids on Darwin and Colombo. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 547 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (713 × 781 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi in April, 1942 as seen from an aircraft that has just taken off from her deck. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 547 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (713 × 781 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Japanese aircraft carrier Akagi in April, 1942 as seen from an aircraft that has just taken off from her deck. ... The Akagi (Japanese: 赤城) was an aircraft carrier serving with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The only ship in her class, Akagi played a major part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, but was sunk along with three other large carriers by dive bombers from US carriers Enterprise... This article is about the actual attack. ... Central Darwin, circa 1986 Darwin is the capital of the Northern Territory, and is a city of 109,419 people (2001 census) on Australias far north-western coastline. ... For the volcanic caldera within which Rabaul lies, see Rabaul caldera. ... Towers of downtown Colombo Colombo (derived from Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means mango harbour, altered by the Portuguese to honour Christopher Columbus), population 737,396 (Colombo metropolitan area: 2,234,289) (2001), is the largest city and commercial center of Sri Lanka. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Kaga (Japanese: 加賀, formerly Kaga Province, in present-day Ishikawa Prefecture) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Akagi (Japanese: 赤城) was an aircraft carrier serving with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. The only ship in her class, Akagi played a major part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor, but was sunk along with three other large carriers by dive bombers from US carriers Enterprise... HiryÅ« (Japanese: 飛龍, meaning flying dragon) was a SōryÅ«-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Soryu (Japanese KyÅ«jitai: 蒼龍, Shinjitai: 蒼竜, soryu, meaning blue (or green) dragon) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Belligerents Australia United States Empire of Japan Commanders David V. J. Blake Chuichi Nagumo Strength 30 planes 242 planes Casualties and losses 251 killed 23 planes destroyed 10 ships sunk one aircrew confirmed killed, several missing in action, six airmen taken prisoner; six Japanese aircraft confirmed destroyed, four probably destroyed. ... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ...


Japanese strategic scouting arrangements prior to the battle also fell into disarray. A picket line of Japanese submarines was late getting into position (partly because of Yamamoto's haste), which let the American carriers proceed to their assembly point northeast of Midway (known as "Point Luck") without being detected.[23] A second attempt to use four-engine reconnaissance flying boats to scout Pearl Harbor prior to the battle (and thereby detect the absence or presence of the American carriers), known as "Operation K", was also thwarted when Japanese submarines assigned to refuel the search aircraft discovered the intended refueling point — a hitherto deserted bay off French Frigate Shoals — was occupied by American warships (because the Japanese had carried out an identical mission in March).[24] Thus, Japan was deprived of any knowledge concerning the movements of the American carriers immediately before the battle. Japanese radio intercepts also noticed an increase in both American submarine activity and U.S. message traffic. This information was in Yamamoto's hands prior to the battle. However, Japanese plans were not changed in reaction to this; Yamamoto, at sea in Yamato, did not dare inform Nagumo without exposing his position, and presumed (incorrectly) Nagumo had received the same signal from Tokyo.[25] For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Boeing 314 A flying boat is an aircraft that is designed to take off and land on water, in particular a type of seaplane which uses its fuselage as a floating hull (instead of pontoons mounted below the fuselage). ... Map of French Frigate Shoals The French Frigate Shoals (Hawaiian: Mokupāpapa) is the largest atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


American and British code-breaking

Admiral Nimitz had one priceless asset: American and British [1] cryptanalysts had broken the JN-25 code. Commander Joseph J. Rochefort and his team at HYPO were able to confirm Midway as the target of the impending Japanese strike, to determine the date of the attack as either 4 or 5 June (as opposed to mid-June, maintained by Washington), and to provide Nimitz with a complete IJN order of battle. Japan's efforts to introduce a new codebook had been delayed, giving HYPO several crucial days; while it was blacked out shortly before the attack began, the important breaks had already been made.[26] The names given to the various codes were given by Western cryptography organizations. ... Joseph J. Rochefort Captain Joseph John Rochefort (1898–1976) was an American Naval officer and cryptanalyst. ... In the history of United States cryptographic efforts, Station HYPO (for Hawaii) has a very important part, and has been the subject of considerable controversy, both at the time and since. ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ...


As a result, the Americans entered the battle with a very good picture of where, when, and in what strength the Japanese would appear. Nimitz was aware, for example, the vast numerical superiority of the Japanese fleet had been divided into no less than four task forces, and the escort for the main Carrier Striking Force was limited to just a few fast ships. For this reason, they knew the anti-aircraft guns protecting the carriers would be limited. Knowing the strength he faced, Nimitz calculated his three carrier decks, plus Midway, to Yamamoto's four, gave the U.S. rough parity. (It is also true American carrier air groups were larger than Japanese ones.) The Japanese, by contrast, remained almost totally in the dark about their opponents even after the battle began.[27] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Battle

Initial air attacks

Initial attacks on Midway transport group.1. Light cruiser Jintsu, flagship 2. Destroyers 3. Transports 4. B-17 attack, 17:00 06/03/1942 5. PBY torpedo attack 01:00 06/04/1942
Initial attacks on Midway transport group.[28]
1. Light cruiser Jintsu, flagship 2. Destroyers 3. Transports 4. B-17 attack, 17:00 06/03/1942 5. PBY torpedo attack 01:00 06/04/1942

The first air attack occurred on June 4, by 9 B-17s operating from Midway against the Japanese transport group.[29] Though hits were reported,[29] none of the bombs actually landed on target and no significant damage was sustained.[28] Early the following morning, Akebono Maru sustained the first hit when a torpedo from an attacking PBY struck her around 01:00.[28] Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo launched his initial attack wave (108 aircraft) at 04:30 on June 4. At the same time, he launched eight search aircraft (one 30 minutes late due to technical issues, and one which was forced to turn back), as well as his combat air patrol. The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combat air patrol (CAP) is a type of defensive mission for fighter aircraft, in which they guard a designated site, either a fixed site on land, ships at sea, or less commonly support aircraft such as aerial tankers. ...


Japanese reconnaissance arrangements were flimsy, with too few aircraft to adequately cover the assigned search areas, laboring under poor weather conditions to the northeast and east of the task force.[30] Now, Yamamoto's faulty dispositions came home to roost.[31]


American radar picked up the enemy at a distance of several miles and interceptors soon scrambled. Unescorted bombers headed off to attack the Japanese carrier fleet, their fighter escorts remaining behind to defend Midway. At 06:20, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed and heavily damaged the U.S. base on Midway. Midway-based Marine fighter pilots, flying obsolescent Grumman F4F Wildcats and obsolete Brewster F2As, made a defense of Midway and suffered heavy losses. Most were downed in the first few minutes, and only two remained flyable. American anti-aircraft fire was accurate and intense, damaging many Japanese aircraft and claiming a third of the Japanese planes destroyed.[32] The Japanese learned the island's bombers had already departed, and the strike leader signaled Nagumo another attack would be necessary to neutralize Midway's defenses before troops could be landed on June 7; American bombers still could use the airbase to refuel and attack the Japanese invasion force.[33] The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading producer of military and civilian aircraft of the 20th century. ... F4F-3 Wildcat of Lt. ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, is a fighter aircraft that was the first monoplane to equip a U.S. Navy squadron. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Having taken off prior to the Japanese attack, American bombers based on Midway made several attacks on the Japanese carrier fleet. These included six TBF Avengers composed of pilots from Hornet's VT-8 in their first combat operation, and four USAAC B-26 Marauders, all armed with torpedoes. The Japanese shrugged off these attacks with almost no losses, while destroying all but three of the American bombers,[34] which were one TBF and two B-26s. Grumman TBF Avengers in 1942 The Grumman TBF Avenger (designated TBM for aircraft manufactured by General Motors) was an American torpedo bomber, developed initially for the United States Navy and Marine Corps and used by a large number of air forces around the world. ... Torpedo Squadron 8 (VT-8) was a United States Navy squadron assigned to the Hornet Air Group operating from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8). ... 1. ... Martin B-26 Marauder See A-26 Invader for the plane known as the B-26 from 1948 to 1962. ...

B-17 attack misses Hiryū.
B-17 attack misses Hiryū.

Admiral Nagumo, in accordance with Japanese carrier doctrine at the time, had kept half of his aircraft in reserve. These comprised two squadrons each of dive-bombers and torpedo bombers, the torpedo bombers armed with torpedoes, should any American warships be located. The dive bombers were, as yet, unarmed.[35] As a result of the attacks from Midway, as well as the morning flight leader's recommendation regarding the need for a second strike, Nagumo at 07:15 ordered his reserve planes to be re-armed with general purpose contact bombs for use on land targets. This had been underway for about 30 minutes, when at 07:40 a scout plane from the cruiser Tone signaled the discovery of a sizable American naval force to the east. Nagumo quickly reversed his order and demanded the scout plane ascertain the composition of the American force. Another 40 minutes elapsed before Tone's scout finally detected and radioed the presence of a single carrier in the American force, TF 16 (the other carrier was not detected).[36] (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... (Official caption:) Photo #USAF 75712AC Hiryu Under B-17 attack at Midway Hiryu under B-17 attack, Midway, June 4, 1942. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... Tone (利根) was a heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the lead ship of her class. ... Task Force 16 is one of the most storied task forces in the United States Navy, a major participant in a number of the most important battles of the Pacific War. ...


Nagumo was now in a quandary. Rear Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi, leading Carrier Division 2 (Hiryū and Sōryū), recommended Nagumo strike immediately with the forces at hand. Nagumo's seeming opportunity to hit the American ships,[37] however, was curtailed by the fact his Midway strike force would be returning shortly. They would be low on fuel and carrying wounded crewmen, would need to land promptly or ditch, losing precious aircraft and crews; there was slim chance a strike could be mounted in time. Spotting his flight decks and launching aircraft would require at least 30–45 minutes.[38] Furthermore, by spotting and launching immediately, he would be committing some of his reserve to battle without proper anti-ship armament, as well as without fighter escort; they had just witnessed how easily unescorted American bombers were shot down by their own fighters [39]. Japanese carrier doctrine preferred fully constituted strikes, and in the absence of a confirmation (until 08:20) of whether the American force contained carriers, Nagumo's reaction was doctrinaire.[40] In addition, the impending arrival of another American air strike at 07:53 gave weight to the need to attack the island again. In the end, Nagumo chose to wait for his first strike force to land, then launch the reserve force, which would have by then been properly armed and ready.[41] In the final analysis, it made no difference; Fletcher had launched beginning at 07:00, so the aircraft which would deliver the crushing blow were already on their way. There was nothing Nagumo could do about it. This was the fatal flaw of Yamamoto's dispositions: it followed strictly traditional battleship doctrine.[42] Japanese painting entitled Last Moments of Admiral Yamaguchi. Rear-Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi (山口 多聞 Yamaguchi Tamon, January 1, 1892-June 4, 1942) was an Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN). ...


Attacks on the Japanese fleet

Ensign George Gay (right), sole survivor of VT-8's TBD Devastator group, in front of his aircraft, 4 June 1942.
Devastators of VT-6 aboard USS Enterprise being prepared for take off during the battle.
Devastators of VT-6 aboard USS Enterprise being prepared for take off during the battle.

Meanwhile, the Americans had already launched their carrier aircraft against the Japanese. Admiral Fletcher, in overall command aboard Yorktown, and armed with PBY patrol bomber sighting reports from the early morning,[43] ordered Spruance to launch against the Japanese as soon as was practical. Spruance gave the order "Launch the attack" at around 06:00 and left Halsey's Chief of Staff, Captain Miles Browning, to work out the details and oversee the launch. It took until a few minutes after 07:00 before the first plane was able to depart from Spruance's carriers, Enterprise and Hornet. Fletcher, upon completing his own scouting flights, followed suit at 08:00 from Yorktown.[44] It was at this point Spruance gave his second crucial command, to run toward the target, having judged the need to throw something at the enemy as soon as possible was greater than the need for a coordinated attack among the different types of aircraft (fighters, bombers, torpedo planes). Accordingly, American squadrons were launched piecemeal, proceeding to the target in several different groups. This diminished the overall impact of the American attacks and greatly increased their casualties; coincidentally, it reduced the Japanese ability to counterstrike and found Nagumo with his decks at their most vulnerable. Image File history File links Vt8-g-gay-may42. ... Image File history File links Vt8-g-gay-may42. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... Ensign (later Lieutenant Commander) George Henry Gay Jr. ... TBD from Torpedo Eight taxiing up the flight deck of CV-8 circa 15 May 1942. ... Image File history File links VT-6TBDs. ... Image File history File links VT-6TBDs. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... PBY Catalina was the United States Navy designation for an American and Canadian-built flying boat of the 1930s and 1940s. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


American carrier aircraft had difficulty locating the target in the vastness of the Pacific, despite the positions they had been given. Nevertheless, they did finally sight enemy carriers and began attacking at 09:20, led by Torpedo Squadron 8 (VT-8, from Hornet), followed by VT-6 (from Enterprise) at 09:40.[45] Every TBD Devastator of VT-8 was shot down, with only one survivor. VT-6 squadron met nearly the same fate, with no hits against the enemy to show for their efforts, thanks in part to terrible aircraft torpedoes.[46] The Japanese CAP, flying the much faster Mitsubishi Zero, made short work of the Americans, who not only had no fighter support of their own but were flying the slow, under-armed TBDs. However, despite their losses, the American torpedo planes indirectly achieved three important results. First, they kept the Japanese carriers off balance, with no ability to prepare and launch their own counterstrike. Second, their attacks had pulled the Japanese combat air patrol out of position. Third, many of the Zeros were low on ammunition and fuel.[47] The appearance of a third torpedo plane attack from the southeast by VT-3 at 10:00 very quickly drew the majority of the Japanese CAP into the southeast quadrant of the fleet.[48] Torpedo Squadron 8 (VT-8) was a United States Navy squadron assigned to the Hornet Air Group operating from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet (CV-8). ... TBD from Torpedo Eight taxiing up the flight deck of CV-8 circa 15 May 1942. ... Ensign (later Lieutenant Commander) George Henry Gay Jr. ... Mitsubishi A6M5 Zero Model 52 The Mitsubishi A6M was a light-weight carrier-based fighter aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. ...


By chance, at the same time VT-3 was sighted by the Japanese, two separate formations (comprising three squadrons total) of American SBD Dauntless dive-bombers were approaching the Japanese fleet from the northeast and southwest. These formations initially had difficulty in locating the Japanese carriers, and their fuel was running low. However, by the decisions of squadron commanders C. Wade McClusky, Jr. and Max Leslie to continue the search, they spotted the wake of Japanese destroyer Arashi. The destroyer was steaming at full speed back to Nagumo's carrier force, after having unsuccessfully depth-charged the U.S. submarine Nautilus, which had earlier carried out an unsuccessful attack on the battleship Kirishima.[49] The American dive-bombers arrived in a perfect position to attack the Japanese.[50] Armed Japanese strike aircraft filled the hangar decks at the time of the fateful attack, fuel hoses were snaking across the decks as refueling operations were hastily completed, and the constant change of ordnance meant bombs and torpedoes were stacked around the hangars rather than stowed safely in the magazines.[51] The Japanese carriers were extraordinarily vulnerable. The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the U.S. Navys main scout bomber and dive bomber from mid-1940 until 1943, when it was replaced by the SB2C Helldiver. ... Commander Wade McClusky poses by the cockpit of a Grumman F4F Wildcat fighter, at Naval Air Station, Alameda, California, 6 February 1943. ... For other uses, see Depth charge (disambiguation). ... USS Nautilus (SF-9/SS-168), a Narwhal-class submarine and one of the V-boats, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to bear that popular ships name. ... Kirishima (霧島) was the Imperial Japanese Navys fourth Kongō class battlecruiser. ...


Contrary to some accounts of the battle, contemporary research, based on recent translation of relevant portions of the 100 volume Japanese account of the war, Senshi Sōshō, has demonstrated the Japanese were not in fact prepared to launch a counterstrike against the Americans at the time they were decisively attacked.[52] Because of the constant flight deck activity associated with combat air patrol operations during the preceding hour, the Japanese had never had an opportunity to spot their reserve for launch. The few aircraft on the Japanese flight decks at the time of the attack were either CAP fighters, or (in the case of Sōryū) strike fighters being spotted to augment the CAP.[53] Regardless, the moment of opportunity was exploited extensively by the American bomber pilots.


Beginning at 10:22, Enterprise’s aircraft attacked Kaga, while to the south, Yorktown’s aircraft attacked carrier Sōryū, with Akagi being struck by several of Enterprise's bombers four minutes later. Simultaneously, VT-3 was targeting Hiryū, although the American torpedo aircraft again scored no hits. The dive-bombers, however, had better fortune. Within six minutes, the SBD dive bombers made their attack runs and left all three of their targets heavily ablaze. Akagi was hit by just one bomb, which was sufficient; it penetrated to the upper hangar deck and exploded among the armed and fueled aircraft there. One extremely near miss also slanted in and exploded underwater, bending the flight deck upward with the resulting geyser and causing crucial rudder damage.[54] Sōryū took three bomb hits in the hangar decks; Kaga took at least four, possibly more. All three carriers were out of action and would eventually be abandoned and scuttled.[55] The Douglas SBD Dauntless was the U.S. Navys main scout bomber and dive bomber from mid-1940 until 1943, when it was replaced by the SB2C Helldiver. ...


By proceeding to target directly, without waiting for fighter escort, the torpedo squadrons, one after another, at low level, engaged enemy combat air patrol. This created an opportunity for the pilots of the dive bombers, who had arrived high above the action and were able to dive on target before being attacked. The torpedo planes were shot down and the torpedo squadron pilots lost their lives, but they enabled a titanic victory.


Subsequent to the air attacks, Nautilus fired torpedoes at what her crew thought was Sōryū but which later research suggests was Kaga. Nautilus claimed one hit the carrier, causing "flames". However, the surviving crew of Kaga reported no torpedo hits after the air attack. Of the four torpedoes launched, one failed to run, two ran erratically, and the fourth was a 'dud', impacting amidships and breaking in half.[56] History would show Nautilus had already made a more important contribution.


Japanese counterattacks

Yorktown hit by an aerial torpedo.
Yorktown hit by an aerial torpedo.

Hiryū, the sole surviving Japanese aircraft carrier, wasted little time in counterattacking. The first wave of Japanese dive-bombers badly damaged Yorktown with two bomb hits, yet her damage control teams patched her up so effectively (in about an hour) the second wave's torpedo bombers mistook her for an intact carrier.[citation needed] Despite Japanese hopes to even the battle by eliminating two carriers with two strikes, Yorktown absorbed both Japanese attacks, the second mistakenly believing Yorktown had already been sunk and they were attacking Enterprise. After two torpedo hits, Yorktown lost power and was now out of the battle, forcing Admiral Fletcher to move his flag to the heavy cruiser Astoria, but Task Force 16's two carriers had escaped undamaged as a result. PD USN photo of USS Yorktown at Midway, #80-G-414423, downloaded from http://www. ... PD USN photo of USS Yorktown at Midway, #80-G-414423, downloaded from http://www. ... The second USS Astoria (CA-34) was a United States Navy New Orleans-class heavy cruiser that participated in both the Battle of the Coral Sea and the Battle of Midway, but was then sunk in August 1942 at the Battle of Savo Island. ...


News of the two strikes, with the reports each had sunk an American carrier, greatly improved the morale of the crewmen of the Kido Butai. Its surviving aircraft all recovered aboard Hiryū, where they were prepared for a strike against what was believed to be the only remaining American carrier.

Hiryū shortly before sinking during the Battle of Midway
Hiryū shortly before sinking during the Battle of Midway

When American scout aircraft subsequently located Hiryū late in the afternoon, Enterprise launched a final strike of dive bombers (including 10 bombers from Yorktown), leaving Hiryū ablaze, despite being defended by a strong defensive CAP of over a dozen Zero fighters. Rear Admiral Yamaguchi chose to go down with his ship, costing Japan perhaps her best carrier sailor. Hornet's strike, launching late because of a communications error, concentrated on the remaining surface ships but failed to score any hits. Image File history File links Hiryu_burning. ... Image File history File links Hiryu_burning. ...


As darkness fell, both sides took stock and made tentative plans for continuing the action. Admiral Fletcher, obliged to abandon the derelict Yorktown and feeling he could not adequately command from a cruiser, ceded operational command to Spruance. Spruance knew the United States had won a great victory, but was still unsure of what Japanese forces remained at hand and was determined to safeguard both Midway and his carriers. To aid his aviators, who had launched at extreme range, he had continued to close Nagumo during the day, and persisted as night fell. Fearing a possible night encounter with Japanese surface forces, Spruance changed course and withdrew to the east, turning back west towards the enemy at midnight.


For his part, Yamamoto initially decided to continue the effort and sent his remaining surface forces searching eastward for the American carriers. Simultaneously, a cruiser raiding force was detached to bombard the island. The Japanese surface forces failed to make contact with the Americans due to Spruance's decision to briefly withdraw eastward, and Yamamoto ordered a general retirement to the west.


American search planes failed to detect the retiring Japanese task forces on June 5. An afternoon strike narrowly missed detecting Yamamoto's main body and failed to score hits on a straggling Japanese destroyer. The strike planes returned to the carriers after nightfall, prompting Spruance to order Enterprise and Hornet to turn on searchlights in order to aid their landings. Marc Mitscher, commanding Hornet, would later issue the same order under similar circumstances during the Battle of the Philippine Sea. Marc Andrew Pete Mitscher, (26 January 1887 – 3 February 1947) was an admiral in the United States Navy, notable as commander of the Fast Carrier Task Force in the latter half of World War II in the Pacific. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties...


At 02.15 on 5–6 June, Commander John Murphy's Tambor, lying some 90mi (165km) west of Midway, made one of the Submarine Force's two major contributions to the battle's outcome, sighting several ships. He (along with his exec, Ray Spruance, Jr.) could not identify them (and feared they might be friendly, so he held fire), but reported their presence, omitting their course. This went to Admiral Robert English, Commander, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet (COMSUBPAC), and from him through Nimitz to the senior Spruance. Unaware of the exact location of Yamamoto's "Main Body" (a persistent problem since PBYs had first sighted the Japanese), Spruance presumed this was the invasion force. Thus, he moved to block it, taking station some 100mi (185km) northeast of Midway; this frustrated Yamamoto's efforts, and the night passed without any contact between the opposing forces. [57] USS Tambor (SS-198), the lead ship of her class, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the tambor, the red rock fish of the Pacific coast. ...


In actuality, this was a group of four cruisers and two destroyers, Yamamoto's bombardment group, which at 02:55 were ordered to retire west with the rest of his force.[58] Murphy was sighted around the same time; turning to avoid, Mogami and Mikuma collided, inflicting serious damage to Mogami's bow, the most any of the eighteen[59] submarines deployed for the battle achieved. Only at 04:12 did the sky brighten enough for Murphy to be certain the ships were Japanese, by which time staying surfaced was a hazard, and he dived to approach for an attack. This was unsuccessful, and at around 06.00, he finally reported two Mogami-class cruisers, westbound, placing Spruance at least 100mi (185km) out of position.[60] It may have been fortunate Spruance did not pursue, for had he come in contact with Yamamoto's heavies, including Yamato, in the dark, his cruisers would have been overwhelmed, his carriers helpless.[61] For other ships of the same name, see Japanese cruiser Mogami. ... Mikuma (三隈) was a Mogami class cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


Over the following two days, first Midway and then Spruance's carriers launched several successive strikes against the stragglers. Mikuma was eventually sunk, while Mogami survived severe damage to return home for repairs. U.S. Marine Captain Richard E. Fleming was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his attack on Mikuma. Image:Http://www. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Yorktown was sunk during salvage efforts, by three torpedoes from Japanese submarine I-168 on June 7. There were few casualties since most of the crew had already been evacuated. One torpedo from this salvo also sank the destroyer USS Hammann, which had been providing auxiliary power to Yorktown, splitting her in two with the loss of 80 lives. It remains unclear why Yorktown had not been placed under tow immediately after being hit, to get her out of reach of Japanese attack. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Hammann (DD-412) was a destroyer in the United States Navy that was sunk on June 7, 1942, by aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy, during the Battle of Midway. ...


Aftermath

After winning a clear victory, and as pursuit became too hazardous near Wake,[62] American forces retired. Japan's loss of four out of their six fleet carriers, plus a large number of their highly trained aircrews, stopped the expansion of the Japanese Empire in the Pacific. Only Zuikaku and Shōkaku were left for offensive actions. Japan's other carriers, Ryūjō, Junyo, and Hiyo, were light carriers with small airwings, comparatively poor effectiveness compared to fleet carriers, and insufficient speed to operate with a task force. Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Shōkaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... RyÅ«jō (Japanese: 龍驤, prancing dragon) was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Junyo (Japanese: 隼鷹 junyō meaning peregrine falcon) was a Hiyo-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Hiyo (Japanese: ???) was a Hiyo-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


On 10 June, the Imperial Japanese Navy conveyed to the liaison conference an incomplete picture of the results of the battle, on the ground that the real extent of damage was a military secret not to be entrusted to all members. Only Emperor Hirohito was accurately informed of carriers and pilots losses, and he chose not to inform the Army immediately. Army planners then continued for a short time to believe the fleet was healthy and secure.[63] Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


Allegations of war crimes

Three U.S. airmen, Ensign Wesley Osmus (pilot, Yorktown), Ensign Frank O'Flaherty (pilot, Enterprise) and Aviation Machinist's Mate B. F. (or B. P.) Gaido (radioman-gunner of O'Flaherty's SBD) were captured by the Japanese during the battle. Osmus was held on the destroyer Arashi, with O'Flaherty and Gaido on the cruiser Nagara (or destroyer Makigumo, sources vary), and it is alleged they were later killed.[64] The report filed by Admiral Nagumo states of Ensign Osmus, "He died on 6 June and was buried at sea". The report does not mention the death of O'Flaherty or Gaido.[65] The practice of burying the remains of the enemy at sea was common among all navies involved in chewing schlong. Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Aviation Machinists Mate rating insignia Aviation Machinists Mate (abbreviated as AD) is a United States Navy occupational rating. ... Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ...


Impact

The battle has often been called "the turning point of the Pacific".[66] The Japanese navy continued to fight ferociously, and it was many more months before the U.S. moved from a state of naval parity to one of increasingly clear supremacy.[67] Thus, Midway was not "decisive" in the same sense as Salamis or Trafalgar. However, victory at Midway first gave the U.S. the strategic initiative, inflicted irreparable damage on the Japanese carrier force, and shortened the war in the Pacific.[68] For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Kingdom First French Empire Kingdom of Spain Commanders Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson † Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve Strength 27 ships of the line and 6 others. ...


Just two months later, the U.S. took the offensive and attacked Guadalcanal, catching the Japanese off-balance. Securing Allied supply lines to Australia and the Indian Ocean in this time frame, along with the heavy attrition inflicted on the Japanese during the Guadalcanal campaign, had far-reaching effects on the course of the war. Its effect on the length is debatable, given the Pacific Fleet's Submarine Force had essentially brought Japan's economy to a halt by January 1945.[69] Combatants Allied forces including: United States Australia New Zealand British Solomon Is. ...


Midway dealt Japanese naval aviation a heavy blow. The pre-war Japanese training program produced pilots of exceptional quality but at a slow rate.[70] This small group of elite aviators were combat hardened veterans. At Midway, the Japanese lost as many of these pilots in a single day as their pre-war training program produced in a year.[71] Japanese planners failed to foresee a long continuous war, and consequently their production failed to replace the losses of ships, pilots, and sailors begun at Midway; by mid-1943, Japanese naval aviation was decimated.[72]


Even more important was the irredeemable loss of four of Japan's fleet carriers.[73] These ships were not replaced, unit for unit, until early in 1945.[74] In the same span of time, U.S. industrial capacity allowed the U.S. Navy to commission more than two dozen fleet and light fleet carriers, and numerous escort carriers.[75] Thus, Midway permanently damaged the Japanese Navy's striking power and measurably shortened the period during which the Japanese carrier force could fight on advantageous terms. The loss of operational capability during this critical phase of the campaign ultimately proved disastrous; Imperial Japan could have executed much grander, and perhaps more successful, operations against the U.S. counter-offensive being marshaled. Whether this would have happened is debatable, however, as the Japanese awaited "decisive battle", and as American submarines increasingly hampered the flow of oil essential for fleet operations.

Mikuma shortly before sinking.
Mikuma shortly before sinking.

Image File history File links Sinking_of_japanese_cruiser_Mikuma_6_june_1942. ... Image File history File links Sinking_of_japanese_cruiser_Mikuma_6_june_1942. ... Mikuma (三隈) was a Mogami class cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...

Discovery of sunken vessels

U.S. vessels

Because of the extreme depth of the ocean in the area of the battle (more than 17,000 feet/5200 m), researching the battlefield has presented extraordinary difficulties. However, on May 19, 1998, Robert Ballard and a team of scientists and Midway veterans (including Japanese participants) located and photographedYorktown. The ship was remarkably intact for a vessel that sank in 1942; much of the original equipment and even the original paint scheme were still visible.[76] is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert D. Ballard Robert Duane Ballard, Ph. ...


Japanese vessels

Ballard's subsequent search for the Japanese carriers was ultimately unsuccessful. In September 1999, a joint expedition between Nauticos Corp. and the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office searched for the Japanese aircraft carriers. Using advanced renavigation techniques in conjunction with the ship's log of the submarine USS Nautilus, the expedition located a large piece of wreckage, subsequently identified as having come from the upper hangar deck of Kaga.[77] The main wreck, however, has yet to be located.


In film

During an attempt to salvage Yorktown both it and the destroyer Hammann were struck by torpedoes from I-168.
During an attempt to salvage Yorktown both it and the destroyer Hammann were struck by torpedoes from I-168.

The Battle of Midway has been featured in several motion pictures. The first film about the battle was a documentary directed by John Ford, a Commander in the U.S. Naval Reserve at the time, and on temporary duty at Midway Island during the battle as a photographic and intelligence officer. While shooting 16mm color motion picture footage from atop the island's power plant, Ford was exposed to enemy fire by attacking aircraft and wounded in the arm by shrapnel. He received a Purple Heart and later, the Legion of Merit for his actions. The film Ford shot during the actual battle is included in his 1942 Academy Award winning documentary, The Battle of Midway. Image File history File links USS_Hammann_sinking_1942-06-06_seen_from_USS_Yorktown. ... Image File history File links USS_Hammann_sinking_1942-06-06_seen_from_USS_Yorktown. ... The third USS Yorktown (CV-5) was lead ship of the Yorktown class aircraft carrier of World War II, sunk at the Battle of Midway. ... USS Hammann (DD-412) was a destroyer in the United States Navy that was sunk on June 7, 1942, by aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy, during the Battle of Midway. ... The I-168 was a Japanese Kaidai (Large Gun) or more precisely KD6 submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. At the Battle of Midway she sunk two American warships: the aircraft carrier Yorktown and the destroyer Hammann. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as part of... For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... A 1942 documentary film directed by Oscar-winning director John Ford. ...


Subsequently, the battle was given in-depth coverage by the 1960 big-budget Japanese war film Storm Over the Pacific directed by Shuei Matsubayashi for Toho studios. The film focuses on a young Zero pilot aboard Hiryū who participates in both the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Midway. It was barely released in the United States in a dubbed, abridged version, under the sensationalized title I Bombed Pearl Harbor and the brilliant miniature & pyrotechnic effects were noticed by Universal Studios as good enough to reuse in their depiction to come 16 years later. The English-language version of Tohos famous logo, used from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. ... HiryÅ« (Japanese: 飛龍, meaning flying dragon) was a SōryÅ«-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... In filmmaking, dubbing or looping is the process of recording or replacing voices for a motion picture. ...


The U.S.-made star-studded dramatic film of the battle came into being as Midway, directed by Jack Smight, and starring Charlton Heston, released in 1976. It strongly fictionalized events and relied heavily on stock footage (for which it was criticized) from various World War II battles, as well as some previously filmed for Tora! Tora! Tora!, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, Away All Boats, and especially[citation needed] Storm over the Pacific. Midway is a 1976 war film made by the Mirisch Corporation and released by Universal Pictures . ... Jack Smight (March 9, 1925 - September 1, 2003) American film director. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... The year 1976 in film involved some significant events. ... Stock footage, also termed archive footage, library pictures and file footage is film or video footage that is reused in a film. ... For the Melvinss album, see Tora Tora Tora (album) Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 American-Japanese film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ... The Ruptured Duck, which was the bomber depicted in the movie Nose-art of the Ruptured Duck Thirty Seconds over Tokyo is a 1944 film based on a 1943 book by Ted W. Lawson. ... Away All Boats is a 1956 war film made by Universal Pictures. ...


Other remembrances

The Chicago Midway International Airport (or simply Midway Airport), historically important to the war efforts in World War II, was renamed in 1949 in honor of the Battle of Midway. Previously, it was named the Chicago Municipal Airport.[citation needed] The Greater-Chicago Area featuring Chicago-Midway and OHare International Airports Chicago Midway International Airport (IATA: MDW, ICAO: KMDW, FAA LID: MDW), also known simply as Midway Airport, is an airport in Chicago, Illinois, United States, located on the citys southwest side, eight miles from Chicagos Loop. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b USSBS Interrogation of Japanese Naval personnel No. 6 Captain Amagi, Takahisa, IJN, Naval Aviator, Air Commander (observer) on CV Hiryu at Pearl Harbor, Air Officer on CV Kaga at Battle of Midway, 3, 4, 5 June 1942.
    Q. What was the composition of the Kaga's Air Group? A. It was composed of 21 fighters (0) Type: 27 VB (99 Type); 18 VT (97 Type); same as all other carriers.
  2. ^ A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway. U.S. Navy. Retrieved on 2007-06-12.
  3. ^ Dull, The Imperial Japanese Navy: A Battle History, p. 166; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 519–523; Prange, Miracle at Midway p. 395; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 416–430.
  4. ^ H.P. Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Lundstrom, First South Pacific Campaign; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 19–38.
  5. ^ For a detailed discussion of anticipated follow-on Hawaiian operations, see Parshall & Tully, pp. 43–45, & Stephan, Hawaii under the Rising Sun.
  6. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33; Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  7. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 13–15, 21–23; Willmott, The Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 39–49; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 22–38.
  8. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33; Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 23.
  9. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 22–26. One wonders what the Japanese thought the presence of American submarines off their coast, beginning with Joe Grenfell's Gudgeon some twenty days after Pearl Harbor, represented; in light of how poor IJN ASW training and doctrine was, perhaps it should be no surprise this was ignored. Blair, Silent Victory, p.110; Parillo, Japanese Merchant Marine; Peattie & Evans, Kaigun.
  10. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 33.
  11. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 66–67; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 33–34.
  12. ^ Preserving the Past: After the Battle of Midway
  13. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 375–379, Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp. 110–117; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 52.
  14. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 53, derived from Japanese War History Series (Senshi Sōshō), Volume 43 ('Midowei Kaisen'), p. 118.
  15. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 51, 55.
  16. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  17. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 43–45, derived from Senshi Sōshō, p. 196.
  18. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 43–45, derived from Senshi Sōshō, pp. 119–121.
  19. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 80–81; Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, p. 37.
  20. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 37–45; Lord, Incredible Victory, pp. 37–39.
  21. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, p. 39.
  22. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 65–67.
  23. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, p. 351; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 98–99.
  24. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, pp. 37–39; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 99; Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets.
  25. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 102–104; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  26. ^ Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin. There are occasional ignorant references to "deception", notably in the film "Midway", referring to the false traffic before Pearl Harbor; this reflects a complete misunderstanding of the issue.
  27. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin; Layton, And I Was There: Pearl Harbor and Midway — Breaking penis Secrets.
  28. ^ a b c Interrogation of: Captain TOYAMA, Yasumi, IJN; Chief of Staff Second Destroyer Squadron, flagship Jintsu (CL), at MIDWAY USSBS From Hyperwar, retrieved 02/14/2008
  29. ^ a b Admiral Nimitz's CinCPac report of the battle. From Hyperwar, retrieved 02/13/2008
  30. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 107–112; 132–133.
  31. ^ Willmott, Barrier.
  32. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 200–204.
  33. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory, p. 110; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 149.
  34. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 207–212; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 149–152.
  35. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.130–132.
  36. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.216–217; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.159–161 & 183.
  37. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.165–170.
  38. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.121–124.
  39. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, p.233.
  40. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.217–218 & 372–373; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.170–173.
  41. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp.231–237; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.170–173; Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway.
  42. ^ Willmott, Barrier & the Javelin; Fuchida & Okumiya, Midway.
  43. ^ Relayed via Nimitz who, unlike Yamamoto, had remained ashore.
  44. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 84–89; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227; Buehl, The Quiet Warrior (1987), p. 494ff.
  45. ^ Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 91–94.
  46. ^ Blair, Clay, Jr. Silent Victory (Lippincott, 1975), p.238.
  47. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227.
  48. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 226–227.
  49. ^ IJN KIRISHIMA: Tabular Record of Movement. Senkan!. combinedfleet.com. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  50. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, pp. 259–261, 267–269; Cressman et al., A Glorious Page in Our History, pp. 96–97; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 215–216; 226–227.
  51. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 250.
  52. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 229–231. Derived from Senshi Sōshō, Volume 43, pp. 372–378, and the tabulated air group records (kōdōchōsho) of the Japanese carriers contained in "Midway Operation: DesRon 10, Mine Sweep Div 16, CV Akagi, CV Kaga, CVL Sōryū, and CVL Hiryū." Extract Translation from DOC No.160985B—MC 397.901.
  53. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 231, derived from Senshi Sōshō, pp. 372–378.
  54. ^ Other sources claim a stern hit, but Shattered Sword, p.253–354 and 256–259 makes a case for a near miss, because of rudder damage from a high explosive bomb.
  55. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.330–353.
  56. ^ Lord, Incredible Victory p. 213; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 302–303.
  57. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, p. 320; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 345.
  58. ^ Prange, Miracle at Midway, p.320; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, p. 345.
  59. ^ Blair, chart p.240.
  60. ^ Blair, p.246–7.
  61. ^ Blair, p.246–7; Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin.
  62. ^ Blair, p.247.
  63. ^ Herbert Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p. 449
  64. ^ Robert E. Barde, "Midway: Tarnished Victory", Military Affairs, v. 47, no. 4 (December 1983), pp. 188–192.
  65. ^ Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway. ONI Review. ibiblio.org. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  66. ^ Dull, p.166; Prange, p.395.
  67. ^ Willmott, Barrier and the Javelin, pp.522–523; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
  68. ^ U.S. Naval War College Analysis, p.1; Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp.416–430.
  69. ^ Blair, Silent Victory.
  70. ^ Peattie, Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909–1941, pp.181–184, 191–192.
  71. ^ Peattie, Sunburst, pp.131–134.
  72. ^ Peattie, Sunburst, pp. 176–186; Eric Bergerud, Fire in the Sky, p. 668.
  73. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 416–421.
  74. ^ Shinano, commissioned on 19 November 1944, was only the fourth fleet carrier commissioned by Japan during the war, after Taihō, Unryū, and Amagi.
  75. ^ of all American carriers commissioned during the war. [tabulation of aggregate carrier and carrier aircraft levels between the USN and IJN if the U.S. had lost at Midway.
  76. ^ "Titanic explorer finds Yorktown", CNN, 1998-06-04. Retrieved on 2007-07-01. 
  77. ^ Parshall & Tully, Shattered Sword, pp. 491–493.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Gudgeon (SS-211), a Tambor-class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the gudgeon, a small slender European freshwater fish often used as bait. ... Midway is a 1976 war film made by the Mirisch Corporation and released by Universal Pictures . ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert P. Bix is the author of Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, an acclaimed account of the Japanese Emperor and the events which shaped modern Japanese imperialism. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Military of the United States Portal
  • Bess, Michael (2006). Choices Under Fire: Moral Dimensions of World War II. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-307-26365-7. 
  • Cook, Theodore F., Jr. (2000). "Our Midway Disaster", in Robert Cowley (ed.): What if?. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-75183-3.  Counterfactual fiction has the Japanese winning.
  • Fuchida, Mitsuo; Masatake Okumiya (1955). Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan, the Japanese Navy's Story. Annapolis, MD: United States Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-372-5.  A Japanese account, colored by hindsight and sometimes inaccurate.
  • Hanson, Victor D. (2001). Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50052-1. 
  • Hara, Tameichi (1961). Japanese Destroyer Captain. ISBN 0-345-27894-1.  First-hand account by Japanese captain, often inaccurate.
  • Kahn, David. The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-83130-9.  Significant section on Midway
  • Kernan, Alvin (2005). The Unknown Battle of Midway. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10989-X.  An account of the blunders that led to the near total destruction of the American torpedo squadrons, and of what the author calls a cover-up by naval officers after the battle.
  • Lord, Walter (1967). Incredible Victory. Burford. ISBN 1-58080-059-9.  Focuses primarily on the human experience of the battle.
  • Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (New edition)). First Team And the Guadalcanal Campaign: Naval Fighter Combat from August to November 1942. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-472-8. 
  • Lundstrom, John B. (2005 (New edition)). The First Team: Pacific Naval Air Combat from Pearl Harbor to Midway. Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.A.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 159114471X. 
  • Morison, Samuel E. (1949). Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions: May 1942–August 1942.  (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume 4) official U.S. history.
  • Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-923-0.  Uses recent Japanese sources.
  • Prange, Gordon W.; Goldstein, Donald M., and Dillon, Katherine V. (1982). Miracle at Midway. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-050672-8.  The standard academic history of the battle based on massive research into American and Japanese sources.
  • Smith, Douglas V. (2006). Carrier Battles: Command Decision in Harm's Way. U.S. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1591147948. 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1994). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge U P. 
  • Wilmott, H.P. (1983). The Barrier and the Javelin. United States Naval Institute Press.  Broad-scale history of the naval war with detailed accounts of order of battle and dispositions.
  • Smith, Peter C. (2007). Midway Dauntless Victory; Fresh perspectives on America's Seminal Naval Victory of 1942. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword Maritime. ISBN 184415583-8.  Detailed study of battle, from planning to the effects on WWII

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Fuchida in training for attack on Pearl Harbor Mitsuo Fuchida (December 3, 1902 - May 30, 1976) was a Lieutenant-Commander (少佐) in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and a pilot before and during World War II. He headed the formation that led the first wave of attacks on Pearl Harbor... The United States Naval Institute is a non-profit, professional organization in the United States related to the Navy. ... Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ... Tameichi Hara Tameichi Hara (原 為一 Hara Tameichi 1900—?) was an Imperial Japanese naval commander during the Pacific War and the author of the IJN manual on torpedo attack techniques, famous for his high skill (particularly in torpedo warfare and night fighting). ... David Kahn is a US historian, journalist and writer. ... The Codebreakers - The Story of Secret Writing (ISBN 0684831309) is a book written by David Kahn in 1967 chronicling the history of cryptology from ancient Egypt to the time of its writing. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Walter Lord (October 8, 1917 – May 19, 2002) was an American author, best known for his documentary-style non-fiction account A Night to Remember, about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by eminent historian Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962. ... Gordon William Prange was the author of several World War II-based manuscripts, published after his death in 1980. ... Miracle at Midway is a book by Gordon Prange that describes the time leading up to, and the subsequent naval battle at, the island of Midway by the forces of the United States and Japan in World War II. See Also: Battle of Midway Categories: Literature stubs ... Gerhard L. Weinberg, January 2003 Gerhard Ludwig Weinberg (born January 1, 1928) is a German-born American diplomatic and military historian noted for his studies in the history of World War Two. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Comprehensive historic overview

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For other persons named John Ford, see John Ford (disambiguation). ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Midway - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5146 words)
The Japanese plan of attack on Midway, which also included a secondary attack against points in the Aleutian Islands by a smaller fleet, was a ploy by the Japanese to lure America's few remaining carriers into a trap and destroy them.
Midway itself was not especially important in the larger scheme of Japan's intentions; however, the Japanese felt that the Americans would consider Midway a vital outpost of Pearl Harbor, and would therefore strongly defend it.
By secure undersea cable, Rochefort asked the Midway base commander to radio a message back to Pearl Harbor stating that drinking water was running low on Midway due to a breakdown of the water plant — and to use a cipher known to have been compromised by the Japanese.
Battle of Midway (2166 words)
After the battle of Midway, is was even more obvious that the battleship became a secondary type of warship to the aircraft carrier, because of the carrier's ability to sink enemy ships with its aircraft without ever being in range of their heavy guns.
After the battle of Midway, Japan still had 11 aircraft carriers of all types, but only 5 were available for operations, and only one was a large carrier.
Despite all its remaining strength, after the battle of Midway Japan lost its superiority and initiative in the Pacific and was forced to defense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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