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Encyclopedia > Battle of Marathon
Battle of Marathon
Part of the Greco-Persian Wars

The plain of Marathon today
Date September, 490 BC
Location Marathon, Greece
Result Athenian victory.
Territorial
changes
Persians fail to conquer Attica.
Belligerents
Athens,
Plataea
Achaemenid Empire
Commanders
Miltiades the Younger,
Callimachus ,
Arimnestus
Datis ?,
Artaphernes
Strength
7,000 to 9,000 Athenians,
1,000 Plataeans
20,000 to 60,000 a
Casualties and losses
192 Athenians,
11 Plataeans (Herodotus)
6,400,
7 ships captured (Herodotus)
a These are modern consensus estimates. Ancient sources give numbers ranging from 20,000 to 60,000, though these numbers may not be accurate due to a modern perception that ancient historians may have exaggerated Persian numbers.

The Battle of Marathon, Greek Μάχη τοῡ Μαραθῶνος (Machê tou Marathônos), took place in 490 BC and was the culmination of King Darius I of Persia's first full scale attempt to conquer the remainder of Greece and incorporate it into the Persian Empire, which would secure the weakest portion of his western border. Most of what is known of this battle comes from the Greek historian Herodotus. In Persian sources, there is no mention of such a battle. Persian Wars redirects here. ... Marathon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/ Katharevousa: , ) is an ancient Greek city-state, a contemporary town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ... Callimachus was polemarch in Athens in 490 BC, and was one of the commanders at the Battle of Marathon. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Datis or Datus was a Persian general in the Persian Wars, under Darius the Great. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Artaphernes, more correctly Artaphrenes, was the brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Combatants Naxos Persia, Ionia, Naxian exiles Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Megabates Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships Large number of men and 200 ships Casualties Light Heavy The Siege of Naxos (500 BC-499 BC) was a battle fought between the Persians under Megabates with aid from... Combatants Sardis Ionian Greeks, Athens, Eretria Commanders Unknown Aristagoras, Eualcides The Siege of Sardis (498 BC) was fought between the people of Sardis and an alliance of Greeks from Ionia, Athens, and Eretria. ... The Battle of Ephesus (498 BC) was a battle in the Ionian Revolt. ... The Battle of Lade was fought in 494 BC between the Ionians and the Persians. ... Combatants Naxos Persia Commanders Unknown Datis, Artaphernes Strength 8,000 men and a large amount of ships 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships (Modern Estimates) Casualties Heavy Light The Siege of Naxos (490 BC) was fought between the people of Naxos and the Persians under the command of... Combatants Eretria Persia, Cyclades Commanders Aeschines Datis, Artaphernes Strength Unknown 20,000-60,000 men, Around 600 ships Casualties Heavy Heavy The Siege of Eretria was fought by the Eretrians who were invaded by the Persians under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. ... For other uses, see Battle of Thermopylae (disambiguation). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... Combatants Delian League Lybia Egypt Persian Empire Strength 250-40 ships After Greek successes in previous battles the Lybian king that was helping the Egyptians to revolt agianst Persia invited the Greeks that where campaigning in Cyprus with over 200 ships to help him in Egypt. ... Combatants Delian League, Greek Cypriot rebels Persian Empire Commanders Cimon † Artabazus Strength 200 ships 300 ships The Siege of Citium (Kition) was a joint naval and land battle fought between the Athenian-led Delian League and the Persian Empire. ... Combatants Delian League Persia Commanders Cimon † Anaxicrates Strength 300 triremes estimated 800 ships Casualties 40 ships lost over 250 ships lost The Battle of Salamis took place around 450 BC near Salamis in Cyprus. ... Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/ Katharevousa: , ) is an ancient Greek city-state, a contemporary town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Darius I the Great (c. ... Persia redirects here. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ...


According to re-written Greek and Latin manuscripts that are estimated to be about a thousand years old and are attributed to ancient Greek historians, Darius first sent Mardonius, in 492 BC, via a land route to Europe to strengthen Persia's hold of Thrace and Macedon, which had been weakened by the Ionian Revolt. Although successful, most of this force perished in a storm off Mount Athos, and the remainder was forced to return to Asia, losing men along the way.[1] In 490 BC, Datis and Artaphernes were sent in a maritime operation to subjugate the Cyclades islands in the central Aegean and punish Eretria and Athens for their assistance in the Ionian revolt. Eretria was besieged and fell; then the fleet landed in Marathon bay. There they were defeated by a small force of Athenian and Plataean hoplites, despite their numerical advantage. The long run of the messenger who conveyed news of the victory to Athens became the inspiration for the marathon race, which was first staged at the 1896 Olympic Games. Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC - 492 BC - 491 BC 490 BC... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Capital Karyes Largest city Karyes Official languages Greek, Church Slavonic, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 335. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... Datis or Datus was a Persian general in the Persian Wars, under Darius the Great. ... Artaphernes, more correctly Artaphrenes, was the brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is an article about the Greek city of Eretria. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... Although marathon sometimes refers to any athletic event requiring great endurance, more specifically it refers to a long-distance track event of 42,195 m (26 miles and 385 yards). ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ...

Contents

Background

In 511 BC, with the aid of Cleomenes I, King of Sparta, the Athenian people expelled Hippias, the tyrant ruler of Athens.[2] With Hippias' father Peisistratus, the family had ruled for 36[2] out of the previous 50 years and intended to continue Hippias' rule. Hippias fled to Sardis to the court of the nearest Persian satrap, Artaphernes, and promised control of Athens to the Persians if they were to restore him. When the Athenians demanded he be expelled, the satrap suggested that they ought to restore him to power. This gave assistance, in the form of 20 boats, to the Ionian cities embroiled in the Ionian Revolt (499 BC494 BC).[3] Hippias had probably fled to the court of king Darius during the revolt. Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the... Cleomenes (Eng. ... Hippias can also refer to a son of Pisistratus and a tyrant of Athens. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Artaphernes, more correctly Artaphrenes, was the brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis. ... The Ionian Revolts were triggered by the actions of Aristagoras, the tyrant of the Ionian city of Miletus at the end of the 6th century BC and the beginning of the 5th century BC. They constituted the first major conflict between Greece and Persia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC - 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC Births Deaths Events Aristagoras... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC - 494 BC - 493 BC 492 BC... Darius (in Persian داريوش (Dah-rii-yoosh)) is a common Persian male name. ...


The city of Eretria had also given assistance to the Ionians. Though the assistance sent by the two cities was not very effective, it alarmed Darius and he wished to punish the two cities. In 492 BC, he dispatched an army under the command of his son-in-law, Mardonius, to Greece. Mardonius conquered Thrace and thus compelled Alexander I of Macedon to relinquish his kingdom again to Persia. However, while in route south to the Greek city-states, the Persian fleet was wrecked in a storm in Cape Athos, losing 300 ships and 20,000 men. Mardonius was forced to retreat to Asia. Attacks by Thracian tribes inflicted losses on the retreating army.[4] Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC - 492 BC - 491 BC 490 BC... Mardonius was a Persian commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the 5th century BC. He was the son of Gobryas and the son-in-law of Darius I of Persia, whose daughter Artozostra he had married. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Alexander I was ruler of Macedon from 495 BC to 450 BC. He was the son of Amyntas I of Macedon. ... Capital Karyes Largest city Karyes Official languages Greek, Church Slavonic, Bulgarian, Georgian, Romanian, Russian, Serbian Government  -  Head of State2 Dora Bakoyannis  -  Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I Area  -  Total 335. ...


Darius learned, perhaps through Hippias, the Alcmaeonidae, a powerful Athenian family, were opposed to Miltiades, who at the time was the most prominent politician of Athens. While they were not ready to help reinstate Hippias (they had helped overthrow him[5]), they probably believed a Persian victory was inevitable and wanted to secure a better position in the new political regime that was to follow the Persian conquest of Athens.[6] Darius wished to take advantage of this situation to conquer Athens, which would isolate Sparta and, by handing him the remainder of the Greeks in the Aegean, would consolidate his control over Ionia. In order for the Athenians to revolt, two things would need to happen: the populace would need to be encouraged to revolt, and the Athenian army would have to leave Athens so that they could not crush the revolt. The Alcmaeonidae or Alcmaeonids were a powerful noble family of ancient Athens who claimed descent from the mythological Alcmaeon, the grandson of Nestor. ... Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ...


Darius decided to send a purely maritime expedition led by Artaphernes, son of the satrap to whom Hippias had fled and Datis, a Median admiral—Mardonius had been injured in the prior campaign and had fallen out of favor—with the intention to punish Naxos (whose resistance to Persian attack in 499 BC led to the Ionian revolt) and force Eretria and Athens to submit to Darius or be destroyed.[7] Artaphernes, more correctly Artaphrenes, was the brother of Darius Hystaspis, and satrap of Sardis. ... Datis or Datus was a Persian general in the Persian Wars, under Darius the Great. ... Median Empire, ca. ... Naxos is the largest island (428 km² ) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean Sea, which separates Greece and Turkey. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC - 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC Births Deaths Events Aristagoras...


Size of opposing forces

Modern drawing of a phalanx. The hoplites, with the exception of the Spartans, were not actually as uniformly equipped as depicted because each soldier would buy his own arms and decorate them at his discretion.
Modern drawing of a phalanx. The hoplites, with the exception of the Spartans, were not actually as uniformly equipped as depicted because each soldier would buy his own arms and decorate them at his discretion.

According to Herodotus, the fleet sent by Darius consisted of 600 triremes,[8] whereas, according to Cornelius Nepos, there were only 500.[9] The historical sources do not reveal how many transport ships accompanied them, if any. According to Herodotus, 3,000 transport ships accompanied 1,207 ships during Xerxes' invasion in 480 BC.[10] Stecchini estimates the whole fleet comprised 600 ships altogether: 300 triremes and 300 transports;[11] while Peter Green[12] says there were 200 triremes and 400 transports. Ten years earlier, 200 triremes failed to subdue Naxos,[13] so a 200 or 300 trireme fleet is perhaps inadequate for all three objectives. Image File history File links Greek_Phalanx. ... Image File history File links Greek_Phalanx. ... For other uses, see phalanx. ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about a military rank. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... A Greek trireme. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Livio Catullo Stecchini (6 October 1913 – September 1979) was a historian of science, a teaching professor (Harvard PhD), a scholar of ancient weights and measures, (the science of metrology) and of the history of cartography in antiquity. ...


Herodotus does not estimate the size of either army. Of the Persian army, he says they were a large infantry that was well packed.[14] Among ancient sources, the poet Simonides, another near-contemporary, says the campaign force numbered 200,000; while a later writer, the Roman Cornelius Nepos estimates 200,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry, of which only 100,000 fought in the battle, while the rest were loaded into the fleet that was rounding Cape Sounion;[9] Plutarch[15] and Pausanias[16] both independently give 300,000, as does the Suda dictionary;[17] Plato[18] and Lysias assert 500,000;[19] and Justinus 600,000.[20] Bold textil8jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjpooSimonides of Ceos (ca. ... Cornelius Nepos (c. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Lysias (d. ... Justinus was the leader of a group of Christian gnostics who was criticised by the late 2nd and early 3rd century writer Hippolytus. ...


Modern historians have also made various estimates. As Kampouris has noted,[21] if the 600 ships were warships and not transport ships, with 30 epibates soldiers in each ship—the ships' foot soldiers that formed and defended from boarding parties during the sea battles—(typical for Persian ships after the Battle of Lade; this was how many they had during Xerxes' invasion), the number 18,000 is attained for the troops. But since the fleet did have transport ships, it must have at least carried the Persian cavalry. Whereas Herodotus claims the cavalry was carried in the triremes, the Persian fleet had dedicated ships for this undertaking, and according to Ephorus, 800 transports accompanied Xerxes' invasion fleet 10 years later. Estimates for the cavalry are usually in the 1,000–3,000 range,[22] though as noted earlier Cornelius Nepos gives 10,000. The Battle of Lade was fought in 494 BC between the Ionians and the Persians. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... Ephorus (c. ...

A reconstruction of beached Persian ships at Marathon prior to the battle.
A reconstruction of beached Persian ships at Marathon prior to the battle.

Other modern historians have proposed other numbers for the infantry. Bengtson[23] estimates there were no more than 20,000 Persians; Paul K. Davis[24] estimates there were 20,000 Persians; Martijn Moerbeek[25] estimates there were 25,000 Persians; How & Wells estimate 40,000 Persians landed in Marathon; Bussolt[26] and Glotz[27] talk of 50,000 battle troops; Stecchini estimates there to have been 60,000 Persian soldiers in Marathon;[11] Kleanthis Sandayiosis talks of 60,000 to 100,000 Persian soldiers;[28] while Peter Green[12] talks of 80,000 including the rowers; and Christian Meier[29] talks of 90,000 battle troops. Scholars estimating relatively small numbers for Persian troops argue that the army could not be very big in order to fit in the ships. The counterargument of scholars who claim large numbers is that if the Persian army was small, then the Eretrians combined with the Athenians and Plateans could match it, and possibly have sought battle outside Eretria. Naxos alone could field "8,000 shields" in 500 BC[30] and with this force successfully defended against the 200-ship Persian invasion 10 years earlier. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gustave Glotz (1862-1935) was a French historian of ancient Greece. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC - 450s BC Events and Trends 509 BC - Foundation of the Roman Republic 508 BC - Office of pontifex maximus created...


Modern historians favor that the whole Greek army numbered c. 10,000 hoplites,[31] with the Athenian hoplites numbered at c. 9,000 and the little Platean contigent at c. 1,000 men.[32] Others have given around 7,000–8,000,[33] for the whole Greek army. Pausanias asserts it did not surpass 9,000,[34] while Justinus[20] and Cornelius Nepos[35] both give 10,000 as the number of the Greeks. Herodotus tells us that at the battle of Plataea eleven years later the Athenians sent 8,000 hoplites while others were at the same time engaged as epibates in the fleet that later fought at the battle of Mycale. Pausanias noticed in the trophy of the battle the names of former slaves who were freed in exchange for military services.[36] Also, it is possible that metics, non-Athenian Greeks residing in Athens, were drafted since they had military obligations to Athens in times of great emergency (for example in 460 BC). However, for Marathon, this is not mentioned by any surviving source, and their number in Athens was not as significant in 490 BC as it became later in the century when Athens became head of the Delian League. Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... Slave redirects here. ... In Ancient Greece, the term metic meant simply a foreigner, a non-Greek, living in one of the Greek city-states. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Delian League (Athenian Empire), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. Corcyra was not part of the League The Delian League was an association of Greek city-states in the 5th century BC. It was led by Athens. ...


Athens at that time could have fielded at least four times the force it did had it also chosen to send light troops consisting of the lower classes, for ten years later at the Battle of Salamis it had a 180 trireme fleet[37] that was manned by 32,000 rowers, and had lost some 90 ships earlier in the Battle of Artemisium.[38] Why this did not happen has been subject to speculation. Kampouris,[21] among others, notes that the political leanings of the lower classes were unreliable. After the Ionic revolt had shown the general unreliability of tyrants to the Persian empire, Artaphernes, in 494 BC, had changed the regime of the Ionian city-states from tyranny to democracy, thus setting an example that was later copied, among others, by the Second Athenian Alliance and Alexander the Great. There the power rested on the poor with the Persian army in place to rein in any move that threatened Persia's position. Some of the poor who remembered Peisistratus well, since he had given them jobs, probably hoped for a victory of the Persians and a change in regime to give them more power, which is one of the reasons Hippias ordered the landing in Marathon where the vast majority of local inhabitants were from these social classes. On the other hand, the Persian army hoped for an internal revolution in Athens so as to have an easy victory as in Eretria. For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Eurybiades of Sparta Themistocles of Athens Adeimantus of Corinth Unknown Strength 333 ships 500 ships Casualties Half of Fleet (Herodotus) Unknown The naval Battle of Artemisium took place, according to tradition, on the same day as the Battle of Thermopylae on August 11, 480... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC - 494 BC - 493 BC 492 BC... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ...


Before the battle

For five days, the armies peacefully confronted each other, hoping for developments, with the Athenian army slowly narrowing the distance between the two camps, with pikes cut from trees covering their sides against cavalry movements.[39] Since time worked in favor of the Athenians, it probably was the Persian army that decided to move. On the sixth day, when Miltiades was the prytanevon general, a rather bureaucratic rank consistent with the duty officer of modern armies—either September 12 or possibly August 12, 490 BC reckoned in the proleptic Julian calendar—Artaphernes decided to move and attack Athens. The Athenians came to know from two Ionian defectors that the Persian cavalry was gone. Where and why, along with the Persian battle plan, has been a matter of debate. Several historians have supposed that this was either because the cavalry had boarded the ships, that it was inside the camp since it could not stay in the field during the night,[22] or because it was moving along with the whole army among the northern route to reach the walls of Athens.[21] It should be noted that Herodotus does not mention that the army was boarding the ships. Some light is given by the "χωρίς ἰππεῖς" (=without cavalry) entry of the Suda dictionary. It states: "The cavalry left. When Datis surrendered and was ready for retreat, the Ionians climbed the trees and gave the Athenians the signal that the cavalry had left. And when Miltiades realized that, he attacked and thus won. From there comes the above-mentioned quote, which is used when someone breaks ranks before battle". Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 45 BC. Historians since Bede have traditionally represented the years preceding AD 1 as 1 BC, 2 BC, etc. ... Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ...


According to Herodotus, by that point the generals had decided to give up their rotating leadership as prytanevon generals in favor of Miltiades. He chose the day his tribe was leading, for the attack, perhaps because he wanted to bear the full responsibility for the battle. He decided to move against the Persians very early in that morning. He ordered two tribes that were forming the center of the Greek formation, the Leontis tribe led by Themistocles and the Antiochis tribe that was led by Aristides,[40] to be arranged in the depth of 4 ranks while the rest of the tribes in the sides were in 8 men ranks. The distance between the two armies had narrowed to a distance not less than 8 stadia or about 1,500 meters, which they covered running shouting their war cry, "Ελελευ! Ελελευ!" (Eleleu, Eleleu), much to the surprise on the Persians who "in their minds they charged the Athenians with madness which must be fatal, seeing that they were few and yet were pressing forwards at a run, having neither cavalry nor archers."[41] It is also a matter of debate whether the Greek army ran the whole distance or marched until they reached the limit of the archers' effectiveness, the "beaten zone", or roughly 200 meters, and then ran towards the ranks of their enemy. Proponents of the latter opinion note that it is very hard to run that large a distance carrying the heavy weight of the hoplitic armor, estimated at 32 kilograms (70.5 pounds).[42] Proponents of the former opinion note the following arguments: the ancient Greeks—as indicated by the surviving statues—were in very good physical condition (the hoplite run had recently become an Olympic sport), and if they had run the entire distance, it would have been covered in about 5 minutes, whereas if they had marched, it would have probably taken 10, enough time for the Persians to react, which they did not. Miltiades the Younger Miltiades the Younger (c. ... Themistocles (Greek: ; c. ... This article is about Aristides the statesman. ... A large number of sports have been conducted at the Olympic Games. ...


Composition and formation of Persian forces

Immortal lancers, detail from the archers' frieze in Darius' palace, Susa. Silicious glazed bricks, c. 510 BC. Louvre
Immortal lancers, detail from the archers' frieze in Darius' palace, Susa. Silicious glazed bricks, c. 510 BC. Louvre

The bulk of Persian infantry were likely Takabara lightly armed archers. Several lines of evidence support this. First of all, Herodotus does not mention a shield wall in Marathon, that was typical of the heavier Sparabara formation, as he specifically mentions in the Battle of Plataea and the Battle of Mycale. Also, in the depiction of the Battle of Marathon in the Stoa that was dedicated a few years later in 460 BC when most veterans of the war were still alive, that is described by Pausanias, only Takabara infantry are depicted.[43] Finally, it seems more likely that the Persians would have sent the more multipurpose Takabara soldiers for a maritime operation than the specialized Sparabara heavy (by Persian standards) infantry.[21] The Takabara troops carried a small woven shield, probably incapable of withstanding heavy blows from the long spears of the hoplites. The usual tactic of the Persian army was for the archers to shoot volleys of arrows to weaken and disorganise their enemy, then their excellent cavalry moved in to deliver the coup de grace. On the other hand, the Ασπις (aspis), the heavy shield of the hoplites, was capable of protecting the man who was carrying it (or more usually the man on his left) from both the arrows and the spears of its enemies. The Persians were also at a severe disadvantage due to the size of their weapons. Hoplites carried much longer spears than their Persian enemies, extending their reach as well as protecting them.[44] Persian armies would usually have elite Iranian troops in the center and less reliable soldiers from subject peoples on the sides of the formation. It is confirmed by Herodotus that this is how the Persian army was arrayed in the battlefield.[45] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (924x1322, 1084 KB) Summary Description: Lancers, detail from the archers frieze in Darius palace, Susa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (924x1322, 1084 KB) Summary Description: Lancers, detail from the archers frieze in Darius palace, Susa. ... This article is about the museum. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... The Persian Sparabaras meaning shield bearers in Persian, were front line infantries of the Achaemenid Empire. ... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Pausanias Mardonius â€  Strength 110,000 (Herodotus) ~40,000 (Modern Consensus) 300,000 (Herodotus) 50,000-70,000 [1][2][3] (Modern Consensus) Casualties 10,000+ (Ephorus and Diodorus) 1,360 (Plutarch) 759 (Herodotus) 43,000 survived (Herodotus) The Battle of Plataea was the final... Combatants Greek city-states Persia Commanders Leotychides Artaÿntes Strength About 40,000 60,000 men, 300 ships Casualties 40,000 The Battle of Mycale, Greek Μάχη Μυκάλης, Mache tes Mycales , was one of the two major battles that ended the Persian invasion of Greece, during the Greco-Persian Wars. ... The Painted Porch (Stoa poikile), during the 3rd century BC, was where Zeno of Citium taught Stoicism. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... Arrows Grand Prix International was a Formula One team active from 1977 to 2002. ... Coup de Grace was a a multimedia project under which Michael Moynihan released recordings and print. ... An aspis (Ancient Greek Ασπις, IPA [aspis]) is the generic term for the word shield. ...


During the Ionian revolt, the phalanx was seriously weakened by the arrows of the Persian archers before it reached hand-to-hand combat with them—where it excelled—because it moved slowly in order to maintain formation. This is why Miltiades, who had great experience with the Persian army since he was forced to follow it during its campaign in Scythia in 513 BC, ordered his army to run.[21] This could have meant that they could end up fighting in disordered ranks. Herodotus, however, mentions in the description of the battle that the retreat of the center happened in order, meaning that the formation was not broken during the initial rush. This is supported by the fact that there were few casualties in that phase of the battle. The Greek center was reduced to four ranks, from the normal eight. The wings maintained their eight ranks. If Miltiades only wanted to extend the line and prevent the Persian line from overlapping the Greeks, he would have weakened, uniformly, the whole army so as not to leave weak points. But Herodotus categorically states that it was a conscious decision to strengthen the sides[46] probably in order to have a strong force to defeat the weaker-in-quality Persian sides. Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC - 460s BC Events and Trends Establishment of the Roman Republic March 12, 515 BC - Construction is completed on the...

The initial positions of the troops before the clash. The Greeks (blue) have pulled up their wings to bolster the corners of their significantly smaller centre in a ]] shape. The Persian fleet (red) waits some way off to the east. This great distance to the ships played a crucial role in the later stages of the battle.
The initial positions of the troops before the clash. The Greeks (blue) have pulled up their wings to bolster the corners of their significantly smaller centre in a ]] shape. The Persian fleet (red) waits some way off to the east. This great distance to the ships played a crucial role in the later stages of the battle.

The front of the Greek army numbered 250 × 2 (for the center tribes) plus 125 × 9 (for the side tribes and the Plateans) = 1,625 men. If the Persians had the same density as the Greeks and were 10 ranks strong then the Persian army opposing the Greeks numbered 16,000. men[21] But if the front had a gap of 1.4 meters between soldiers compared to 1 meters for every Greek and had a density of 40 to 50 ranks as seems to be the maximum possible for the plain—the Persian army had even fought in 110 ranks—then the Persian army numbered 44,000 to 55,000.[22] If the Persian front numbered 2,000 men and they fought in 30 ranks (as Xenophon in Cyropaedia claims) they numbered 60,000. Kampouris[21] suggests it numbered 60,000 since that was the standard size of a major Persian formation. Image File history File links Map of the Battle of Marathon, 490 BC. Taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links Map of the Battle of Marathon, 490 BC. Taken from http://www. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Cyropaedia (lit. ...


The enemies engage in hand to hand combat

The Greek wings (blue) envelop the Persian wings (red) while their strategically-thinned centre filled the gap made between them.
The Greek wings (blue) envelop the Persian wings (red) while their strategically-thinned centre filled the gap made between them.

As the Greeks advanced, their strong wings drew ahead of the center, which retreated according to plan. The retreat must have been significant since Herodotus mentions that the center retreated towards Mesogeia, not several steps.[47] However, ranks did not break since the overall casualties were low, and most were sustained during the last phase of the battle.[48] The Greek retreat in the center, besides pulling the Persians in, also brought the Greek wings inwards, shortening the Greek line. The result was a double envelopment, and the battle ended when the whole Persian army, crowded into confusion, broke back in panic towards their ships and were pursued by the Greeks.[49] The sides were left open so that the Persian ranks would break, since even a desperate army that maintained numerical advantage after a battle could still defeat its enemy. Some, unaware of the local terrain, ran towards the swamps where they drowned. Image File history File links Map of the Battle of Marathon, 490 BC. Taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links Map of the Battle of Marathon, 490 BC. Taken from http://www. ... A pincer movement whereby the red force envelops the advancing blue force. ... Panic is the primal urge to run and hide in the face of imminent danger. ...


Herodotus records that 6,400 Persian bodies were counted on the battlefield,[50] and it is unknown how many perished in the swamps. Also, seven Persian ships are mentioned captured though none are mentioned sunk.[51] The Athenians lost 192 men[50] and the Plateans 11,[52] most during the final chase when their heavy armor proved a disadvantage. Among the dead was the polemarch Callimachus and the general Stesilaos. One story documents that Kynaigeirus, brother of the playwright Aeschylus who was also among the fighters, charged into the sea, grabbed one Persian trireme, and started pulling it towards shore. A member of the crew saw him, cut off his hand, and Kynaigeirus died.[48] This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ...


It seems that Aeschylus considered that his participation in Marathon was his greatest achievement in life (rather than his plays) since in his gravestone there was the following epigram:

Αἰσχύλον Εὐφορίωνος Ἀθηναῖον τόδε κεύθει
μνῆμα καταφθίμενον πυροφόροιο Γέλας·
ἀλκὴν δ’ εὐδόκιμον Μαραθώνιον ἄλσος ἂν εἴποι
καὶ βαρυχαιτήεις Μῆδος ἐπιστάμενος[53]
This tomb the dust of Aeschylus doth hide,
Euphorion's son and fruitful Gela's pride
How tried his valor, Marathon may tell
And long-haired Medes, who knew it all too well.

According to Ctesias, Datis was slain at Marathon.[54] Herodotus, however, has him alive after the battle returning a statue of Apollo to Delos that had earlier been removed by his army,[55] though he does not mention him after the remnant of the army returned to Asia. Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of...


Aftermath

Hill where the Athenians were buried after the Battle of Marathon
Greek Corinthian Helmet and the skull reportedly found inside it from the Battle of Marathon, now residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.
Greek Corinthian Helmet and the skull reportedly found inside it from the Battle of Marathon, now residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

As soon as Datis had put to sea, the two center tribes stayed to guard the battlefield and the rest of the Athenians marched to Athens. A shield had been raised over the mountain near the battle plain, which was either the signal of a successful Alcmaeonid revolution or (according to Herodotus) a signal that the Persian fleet was moving towards Phaliro.[51] They arrived in time to prevent Artaphernes from securing a landing. Seeing his opportunity lost, Artaphernes turned about and returned to Asia.[56] On the next day, the Spartan army arrived, having covered the 220 kilometers (136.7 miles) in only three days. Some modern historians doubt they traveled so fast. The Spartans toured the battlefield at Marathon, and agreed that the Athenians had won a great victory.[57] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 306 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 2005 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 306 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 2005 pixel, file size: 2. ... The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM (rhyming with Tom), is a major museum for world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


The Greek upset of the Persians, who had not been defeated on land for many decades (except by Samagaetes and Scythes, both nomad tribes), caused great problems for the Persians. The Persians were shown as vulnerable. Many subject peoples revolted following the defeat of their overlords at Marathon. Order was not restored for several years.


The dead of Marathon were awarded by the Athenians the special honor of being the only ones who were buried where they died instead of the main cemetery of Athens in Kerameikos.[58] On the tomb of the Athenians this epigram composed by Simonides was written: The Kerameikos is the name of the deme or part of Athens to the northwest of the Acropolis and includes an extensive area both within and outside of the city walls. ... An epigram is a short poem with a clever twist at the end or a concise and witty statement. ...

Ελλήνων προμαχούντες Αθηναίοι Μαραθώνι
χρυσοφόρων Μήδων εστόρεσαν δύναμιν

which means

The Athenians, as defenders of the Hellenes, in Marathon
destroyed the might of the golden-dressed Medes

(translation by Major General Dimitris Gedeon, HEAR)


The tomb was excavated in the 1880s by German archaeologists. The team, however, did not include any anthropologists, and were therefore unable to determine the number of bodies in the tomb. The same team also found a ditch containing large numbers of hastily buried human bones which was identified as the burial place of the Persians.


For the Athenians, the victory gave confidence to the people. Two years later ostracism was exercised for the first time, its first victim being a friend of Peisistratus.[59] By one account, at the end of the battle the Athenians had killed 6,400 Persians but had lost only 192 soldiers themselves. The Persian losses may have been exaggerated. However, it is true that in a short amount of time this tiny state had defeated the giant that had come to destroy it. Pieces of broken pottery as voting tokens. ...


Conclusion

Marathon was in no sense a decisive victory over the Persians. However, it was the first time the Greeks had bested the Persians on land, and "their victory endowed the Greeks with a faith in their destiny that was to endure for three centuries, during which western culture was born." (J.F.C. Fuller, A Military History of the Western World). John Stuart Mill's famous opinion is that the Battle of Marathon was more important an event for British history than the Battle of Hastings. Kampouris sees the battle as a failure of purely maritime operations, due to their inherent weaknesses. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Belligerents Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,400-8,400 (maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms) 7,500 (2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd) Casualties...


The longest-lasting legacy of Marathon was the double envelopment. Some historians have claimed it was random rather than a conscious decision by Miltiades. As they say, was it really Cannae before Cannae?[60] In hoplitic battles, the two sides were usually stronger than the center because either they were the weakest point (right side) or the strongest point (left side). However, before Miltiades (and after him until Epaminondas), this was only a matter of quality, not quantity. Miltiades had personal experience from the Persian army and knew its weaknesses. As his course of action after the battle shows (invasions of the Cyclades islands), he had an integrated strategy upon defeating the Persians, hence there is no reason he could have not thought of a good tactic. The double envelopment has been used ever since, such as when the German Army used a tactic at the battle of Tannenberg during World War I similar to that used by the Greeks at Marathon. A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... For information about the modern board game of the same name, see Epaminondas (game). ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Combatants  Russian Empire  German Empire Commanders Alexander Samsonov, Paul von Rennenkampf Paul von Hindenburg, Erich Ludendorff Strength 190,000 150,000 Casualties 30,000 killed or wounded; 95,000 captured 20,000 The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive engagement between the Russian Empire and the German Empire... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Date of the battle

Herodotus mentions for several events a date in the lunisolar calendar, of which each Greek city-state used a variant. Astronomical computation allows us to derive an absolute date in the proleptic Julian calendar which is much used by historians as the chronological frame. August Böckh in 1855 concluded that the battle took place on 11 September 490 BC in the Julian calendar, and this is the conventionally accepted date. However, this depends on when the Spartans held their festival and it is possible that the Spartan calendar was one month ahead of that of Athens. In that case the battle took place on 11 August 490 BC. If the battle really occurred in August, temperatures in the area typically reach over 30 degrees Celsius and thus make the marathon run event less plausible. See D.W. Olson et al., "The Moon and the Marathon", Sky & Telescope Sep. 2004, pp. 34—41.1 A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 45 BC. Historians since Bede have traditionally represented the years preceding AD 1 as 1 BC, 2 BC, etc. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ...


Legends associated with the battle

A victory that important against a superior enemy was bound to have consequences on religious life. Herodotus mentions that Pheidippides was visited by the god Pan on his way to Sparta for help. He asked why the Athenians did not honor him and Pheidippides promised that they would do so from then on. After the battle, a temple was built to him, and a sacrifice was annually offered.[61] The festival of "Agroteras Thusia", (Thusia means sacrifice) was held at Agrae near Athens, in honor of Artemis Agrotera, in fulfillment of a vow made by the city, before the battle, to offer in sacrifice a number of goats equal to that of the Persians slain in the conflict. The number being so great, it was decided to offer 500 goats yearly until the number was filled. Xenophon notes that at his time, 90 years after the battle, goats were still offered yearly.[62] This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... Agrotera was an avatar of Artemis, and goddess of war. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


Plutarch mentions that the Athenians saw Theseus, the mythical hero of Athens leading the army in full battle gear in the charge against the Persians[63] and indeed he was depicted in the mural of the Poikele Stoa fighting for the Athenians along with the twelve gods and other heroes,[64] Pausanias tells us that those who fought at Marathon: Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ...

They say too that there chanced to be present in the battle a man of rustic appearance and dress. Having slaughtered many of the foreigners with a plough he was seen no more after the engagement. When the Athenians made enquiries at the oracle the god merely ordered them to honor Echetlaeus (He of the Plough-tail) as a hero. Pausanias 1.32.5

Furthermore Pausanias mentions that at times ghosts were seen and heard to engage in battle in Marathon.[36] This phenomenon appears to have also been reported in the modern era: according to newspapers of the time in the year 1930, visitors to the region claimed to have heard a sound of metal clashes and screams coming from the battlefield. This event is usually mentioned in books about paranormal events in Greece and is usually associated with the drosoulites phenomenon of Southern Crete, though the scientific explanation given for the latter (a mirage from North Africa) can not explain the former event. Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paranormal is an umbrella term used to describe a wide variety of reported anomalous phenomena. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the optical phenomenon. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


Another tale from the conflict is of the dog of Marathon. Claudius Aelianus[65] relates that one hoplite brought his dog to the Athenian encampment. The dog followed his master to battle and attacked the Persians at his master's side. A dog is also depicted in the mural of the Poikile Stoa. Claudius Aelianus (c. ...


Marathon run

According to Herodotus, an Athenian runner named Pheidippides ran from Athens to Sparta to ask for assistance before the battle. This event was later turned into the popular legend that Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Atens.The traditional story relates that Pheidippides, an Athenian herald, ran the distance between the battlefield by the town of Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victory over Persia in the Battle of Marathon (490 BC) with the word "Νενικήκαμεν!" (Nenikékamen, We are victorious!) and died on the spot. Most accounts incorrectly attribute this story to the historian Herodotus, who wrote the history of the Persian Wars in his Histories (composed about 440 BC). The story first appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD, who quotes from Heracleides of Pontus' lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles.[66] Lucian of Samosata (2nd century AD) also gives the story but names the runner Philippides (not Pheidippides).[67] It should be noted that in some medieval codices of Herodotus the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta before the battle is given as Philippides and in a few modern editions this name is preferred.[68] Pheidippides (Greek: , sometimes given as Phidippides or Philippides), hero of Ancient Greece, is the central figure in a story which was the inspiration for the modern sporting event, the marathon. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/ Katharevousa: , ) is an ancient Greek city-state, a contemporary town in Greece, the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Persia redirects here. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC - 490s BC - 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC - 490 BC - 489 BC 488 BC... The Greco-Persian Wars or Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC. The term can also refer to the continual warfare of the Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire against the Parthians and... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC - 440s BC - 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC Years: 445 BC 444 BC 443 BC 442 BC 441 BC - 440 BC - 439 BC 438 BC... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Heraclides Ponticus (387 - 312 BCE), also known as Heraklides, was a Greek philosopher who lived and died at Heraclea, now Eregli, Turkey. ... Lucian of Samosata (c. ...


Another point of debate is the path taken by the runner. There are two exits from the battlefields. One is towards the south that follows modern-day Marathonos avenue leading through Pikermi over the pass of Stavros Agias Paraskevis and down modern day Messogeion avenue to Athens, which is 40.8 kilometers (25.3 miles) long—following the ancient roads, the modern road has been lengthened somewhat to accommodate vehicular traffic to and from Mesogeia. The other is towards the north, over the modern village of Vranas, up the relatively high mountain pass towards modern day Dionyssos and the northern suburbs of Athens, which is 34.5 kilometers (21.4 miles) long. It is more likely that the runner followed the safer, shorter but more tiring northern route than the longer but unsafe southern route. For the first modern marathon during the 1896 Olympics, the southern route was chosen probably because it was the main modern route between Marathon and Athens. That event was won by the Greek Spyros Loues who, being a local, knew that he had to conserve energy to pass the Stavros Agias Paraskevis pass, unlike his foreign competitors who were unaware of the terrain and abandoned the race there. The race today is run over a distance of 42.2 kilometers (26.2 miles). This length was set during the 1908 Olympics because the British royal family wanted to see the runners starting from the balcony of Windsor Castle, and to have the end of the race in front of the Royal Box at the Olympic Stadium. Pikermi is a community of the Greek prefecture of Attica. ... Modern day marathon runners The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42. ... (Redirected from 1896 Olympics) The Games of the I Olympics were held in 1896 in Greece. ... Spiridon Louis Spiridon Spiros Louis (greek:Σπυρίδων Λούης; January 12, 1873 – March 26, 1940) was a Greek water-carrier who won the first modern-day Marathon at the 1896 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming a national hero. ... (Redirected from 1908 Olympics) The Games of the IV Olympiad, originally scheduled to be held in Rome, were instead held in 1908 in London, England. ... Members of the Royal Family, during the lifetime of the late Queen Mother, on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony. ...


A popular legend about the battle and the run was recorded by Andreas Karkavitsas in the 19th century and also Linos Politis[69] Andreas Karkavitsas (Lechaina, Greece 1866 - Amarousi October 10, 1922) was a Greek writer. ...

On the plain of Marathon there was once a big battle. Many Turks[70] with many ships came to enslave the land and from there pass to Athens...

The blood turned into a river, and reached from the roots of Vranas to Marathon on the other side. It reached the sea and painted the waves red. Lots of lamentation and evil took place. In the end the Greeks won... Then two men ran to bring the news to Athens. One of them went on horseback and the other on foot and in full gear. The rider went towards Halandri and the one on foot towards Stamata. Swift-footed he went up Aforesmos and down towards the village. As women saw him, they ran towards him: Chalandri, Halandri or sometimes Khalandri (Greek, Modern: Χαλάνδρι, Ancient/Katharevousa: -on), older forms, Chalandrion, Halandrion, Khalandrion is a northern suburb in Athens, Greece. ...


"Stop!" they shouted - stamata! (Greek for stop).


They wanted to ask what happened in the battle. He stopped a moment to catch his breath and then took the road again. Finally he reaches Psychiko. There he was almost near death , his feet were shaking, he felt like falling down. But he composed himself, took a deep breath, continued and finally reached Athens. Psychiko (Greek:Ψυχικό; older form Psychikon) is a suburb of Athens, Greece. ...


"We won," he said, and immediately he fell down and died. The rider had yet to come. But there where the foot runner stopped and took a breath is named after his act. The first village is called Stamata and the second Psychiko.

References

  1. ^ Herodotus VI,43
  2. ^ a b Herodotus V,65
  3. ^ Herodotus V,96
  4. ^ Herodotus 43-45
  5. ^ Herodotus VI,121
  6. ^ See the Introduction to Herodotus` Book VI by Gabriel Syntomoros, Zitros editions, Athens 2005
  7. ^ Herodotus VI,94
  8. ^ Herodotus VI,95
  9. ^ a b Miltiades IV
  10. ^ Herodotus VII,97
  11. ^ a b Stecchini, Livio. The Persian Wars. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  12. ^ a b The Greco-Persian Wars p.90
  13. ^ Herodotus V,31
  14. ^ Herodotus, book VI paragraph 94
  15. ^ Ethics 305b
  16. ^ Desription of Greece 4,22,5
  17. ^ s.v. Hippias
  18. ^ Plato Menexenus, 240A
  19. ^ Funeral Oration,21
  20. ^ a b Justinus II,9
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα, το λυκαυγές της κλασσικής Ελλάδος = The battle of Marathon, the dawn of classical Greece, Πόλεμος και ιστορία = War and History magazine, issue 26 January 2000, Communications editions, Athens
  22. ^ a b c Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους = History of the Greek nation volume Β', Athens 1971
  23. ^ Bengtson H., Griechische Geschichte Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft III, 4. München 1969
  24. ^ Paul K. Davis (1999). 100 Decisive Battles. Santa Barbara, California. ISBN 1-57607-075-1.
  25. ^ Moerbeek, Martijn (1997). The battle of Issus, 333 BC. Universiteit Twente.
  26. ^ Busolt D. Griechichse Geschichte bis zur Schlacht bei Chaeroneia, vol I, Gotha 1893
  27. ^ Glotz G., Roussel P., Cohen R., Histoire Grecque vol. I-IV, Paris 1948
  28. ^ Η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα (The battle of Marathon),Istorikes selides magazine issue 3 October 2006
  29. ^ Athen. Ein Neubegihn der Welt geschichte, Berlin 1993 p.242
  30. ^ Herodotus, IV 30
  31. ^ Roberts, John (2005). in (ed.): The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World. USA/UK: Oxford University Press, 448. ISBN : 0-19-280145-7. 
  32. ^ Geddes & Grosset (2004), Ancient Greece: A History, New Lamark, Scotland: David Dale House, revised edition of Cotterill, H. B., [1913], Ancient Greece, George Harrap & Company, ISBN 1-84205-185-7 pg. 267
  33. ^ Lex. Hist. Staetten s.v. Marathon 48
  34. ^ Pausanias 10,20,2
  35. ^ Miltiades V
  36. ^ a b Pausanias 1.32.3
  37. ^ Herodotus VIII,42
  38. ^ Herodotus VIII,18
  39. ^ Corenlius Nepos, Miltiades VI
  40. ^ Plutarch Aristeides 5
  41. ^ Herodotus VI,110
  42. ^ Nikos Giannopoulos, Μαραθώνας 490 πΧ (Marathon 490 BC) in Στρατιωτική Ιστορία, Μεγάλες Μάχες, Μαραθώνας 490 π.Χ (Military history, Great Battles, Marathon 490 BC),Periskopio editions, Athens March 2006,page 42
  43. ^ Garoufalis N. Demetrios Η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα, Η δόξα της οπλιτικής φάλαγγας = The battle of Marathon, the glory of the hoplitic phalanx, Στρατιωτική Ιστορία = Military History magazine, issue 13, September 1997, Perisopio editions, Athens
  44. ^ Martin, Thomas R. (2000). Ancient Greece from prehistoric to Hellinistic times. New Haven, New England: Yale University Press.
  45. ^ Herodotus VI,113
  46. ^ Herodotus VI,111
  47. ^ Herodotus VI,113.1
  48. ^ a b Herodotus VI,114
  49. ^ Herodotus VI,113.2
  50. ^ a b Herodotus VI,117
  51. ^ a b Herodotus VI,115
  52. ^ Siegel, Janice (August 2, 2005). Dr. J's Illustrated Persian Wars. Retrieved on 2007-10-17.
  53. ^ 'Anthologiae Graecae Appendix, vol. 3, Epigramma sepulcrale 17
  54. ^ Persica 24
  55. ^ Herodotus VI,118
  56. ^ Herodotus VI,116
  57. ^ Herodotus VI,120
  58. ^ Thucydides II,34
  59. ^ Aristotle, The Athenian Constitution, part 22
  60. ^ Christodoulou Demetrios, Η στρατιωτική ιστορία της αρχαίας Ελλάδος, μία άλλη προσέγγιση (=The military history of ancient Greece, another point of view), Στρατιωτική Ιστορία (=Military history) magazine, issue 20 April 1998, Periscopio editions Athens
  61. ^ Herodotus VI,105
  62. ^ Plutarch, De Malignitate Herodoti, 26; Xenophon, Anab. iii. 2. 12; Aelian, Var. Hist. ii. 25; Schol. on Aristophanes, Equites, 660.
  63. ^ Plutarch Theseus 35
  64. ^ Pausanias 1.15.3
  65. ^ Varia Historia 8,40
  66. ^ Moralia 347C
  67. ^ A slip of the tongue in Salutation, Chapter 3
  68. ^ Herodotus, Book VI Erato, Introduction, Translation and Comments by Gabriel Syntomoros, Zitros Editions 2006 p.341
  69. ^ I. Kakrides, Οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες στην νεοελληνική λαική παράδοση (=The ancient Greeks in modern Greek popular traditions), Athens 1989
  70. ^ Turks like Persians came from the east and in large numbers, this is why they are confused in popular Greek culture

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Art on the campus University Twente is a university located in Enschede, Netherlands. ... Gustave Glotz (1862-1935) was a French historian of ancient Greece. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

Primary sources

  • Isocrates (436 BC-338 BC), Επιταφειος τοις Κορινθειοις βοηθοις (Funeral Oration)
-Νόμοι (Laws)
  • Plutarch (46-127 AD), Βίοι Παραλληλοι (Parallel Lives), Theseus, Aristeides, Themistocles
- Περί του Ηροδότου κακοηθείας (On the malice of Herodotus)
  • Lucian (ca. 120 - ca. 180 AD), Ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἐν τῇ προσαγορεύσει πταίσματος (A slip in the tongue of salutation)

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC 482 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC 427 BC 426 BC - 425 BC - 424 BC 423 BC... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 465 BC 464 BC 463 BC 462 BC 461 BC - 460 BC - 459 BC 458 BC... The Celtics claim Vienna, Austria. ... Isocrates (436–338 BC), Greek rhetorician. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 441 BC 440 BC 439 BC 438 BC 437 BC - 436 BC - 435 BC 434 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC - 428 BC - 427 BC 426 BC... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 353 BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC - 348 BC - 347 BC 346 BC 345... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC - 340s BC - 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 352 BC 351 BC 350 BC 349 BC 348 BC 347 BC 346 BC 345 BC 344... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC - 420s BC - 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC Years: 432 BC 431 BC 430 BC 429 BC 428 BC - 427 BC - 426 BC 425 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC - 350s BC - 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 360 BC 359 BC 358 BC 357 BC 356 BC 355 BC 354 BC 353 BC 352... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC - 380s BC - 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC Years: 389 BC 388 BC 387 BC 386 BC 385 BC - 384 BC - 383 BC 382 BC... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 327 BC 326 BC 325 BC 324 BC 323 BC - 322 BC - 321 BC 320 BC 319... Cornelius Nepos (c. ... The world in 100 BC. The eastern hemisphere in 100 BC. Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Mariuss sixth consulship). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Events Rome The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see number 120. ... For other uses, see number 180. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Claudius Aelianus (c. ... Events Pope Eleuterus succeeds Pope Soter (approximate date) Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius defeats the Marcomanni. ... Events Maximinus Thrax becomes Roman Emperor. ... Justin or Marcus Junianus Justinus or Justinus Frontinus, 3rd century Roman historian. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century _ other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, 1st century BC Roman historian, of the Celtic tribe of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished during the age of Augustus, nearly contemporary with Livy. ... Photius (b. ... Tahir, the son of a slave, is rewarded with the governorship of Khurasan because he have supported the caliphate. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ... Ctesias of Cnidus (in Caria) (Greek ), was a Greek physician and historian, who flourished in the 5th century BC. In early life he was physician to Artaxerxes Mnemon, whom he accompanied in 401 BC on his expedition against his brother Cyrus the Younger. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... Suda (Σουδα or alternatively Suidas) is a massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...

Secondary sources

  • Peter Green, The Greco-Persian Wars
  • Dr. Manousos Kampouris, Η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα, το λυκαυγές της κλασσικής Ελλάδος = The battle of Marathon, the dawn of classical Greece, Πόλεμος και ιστορία = War and History magazine, issue 26 January 2000, Communications editions, Athens
  • Christian Meier, Athen. Ein Neubeginn der Weltgeschichte, Berlin 1993
  • Busolt D. Griechichse Geschichte bis zur Schlacht bei Chaeroneia, vol I, Gotha 1893
  • Glotz G., Roussel P., Cohen R., Histoire Grecque vol. I-IV, Paris 1948
  • Bengtson H., Griechische Geschichte Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft III, 4. München 1969
  • Lex. Hist. Staetten s.v. Marathon 48
  • Nikos Giannopoulos, Μαραθώνας 490 πΧ (Marathon 490 BC) in Στρατιωτική Ιστορία, Μεγάλες Μάχες, Μαραθώνας 490 π.Χ (Military history, Great Battles, Marathon 490 BC),Periskopio editions, Athens March 2006
  • Garoufalis N. Demetrios Η Μάχη του Μαραθώνα, Η δόξα της οπλιτικής φάλαγγας = The battle of Marathon, the glory of the hoplitic phalanx, Στρατιωτική Ιστορία = Military History magazine, issue 13, September 1997, Perisopio editions, Athens
  • Christodoulou Demetrios, Η στρατιωτική ιστορία της αρχαίας Ελλάδος, μία άλλη προσέγγιση (=The military history of ancient Greece, another point of view), Στρατιωτική Ιστορία (=Military history) magazine, issue 20 April 1998, Periscopio editions Athens
  • I. Kakrides, Οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες στην νεοελληνική λαική παράδοση (=The ancient Greeks in modern Greek popular traditions), Athens 1989
  • Martin, Thomas R. (2000). Ancient Greece from prehistoric to Hellinistic times. New Haven, New England: Yale University Press.
  • UT, Knoxville (2007). Ancient Greece and Rome in battle modes.Love and romance

In fiction

  • Alice Leader's 2004 children's novel Shield of Fire (ISBN 9780141315287) focuses on the Persian invasion and the Battle of Marathon as seen by a young Greek girl.
  • The film The 300 Spartans refers to Marathon through spoken recollections by the character of Xerxes.
  • The Macintosh game Marathon loosely references the Battle of Marathon throughout the game.

The 300 Spartans is a 1962 film depicting the Battle of Thermopylae. ... Xerxes may refer to these Persian kings: Xerxes I, reigned 485–465 BC, also known as Xerxes the Great. ... The Marathon Trilogy is a science fiction series of first-person shooter computer games from Bungie Software, originally released for the Macintosh. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
The Academic Publishing Wiki has a journal article about this subject:
The struggle for Greece: Marathon and Artemision

Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Marathon Battle of Artemisium Template:Academia ...


Coordinates: 38°07′05″N, 23°58′42″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Marathon - MSN Encarta (778 words)
T he battle of Marathon is one of history's most famous military engagements.
Battle of Marathon: The tomb of the 192 Athenians at Marathon: Battle of Marathon : famous clash between a Persian invasion force and an army of Athenians in 490 BCE.
Battle of Marathon, battle that took place between the Greeks and the Persians at Marathon, a plain on Athenian territory 40 km (25 mi) northeast of Athens, in 490 bc.
History of Iran: The Persian Wars (9668 words)
Marathon is at the northern limit of Attika at a distance of 42 kilometers from Athens.
As it is observed, the plain of Marathon was limited to the north by a large lagoon and to the south by a smaller one and was further cut by torrents, so that the Persian army was restricted to a relatively small area.
The figure of the men engaged at Marathon was not preserved because at the moment of the battle this was not particularly important; it was the nature, the location, and the timing of the operations that proved decisive.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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