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Encyclopedia > Battle of Manzikert
Battle of Manzikert
Part of the Byzantine-Seljuk wars
thumb.

In this 15th-century French miniature depicting the Battle of Manzikert, the combatants are clad in contemporary Western European armour.
Combatants Byzantine Empire Crusader States Seljuq Turks Strength Potential to raise 100,000 c. ... Image File history File links 131_Bataille_de_Malazgirt. ...

Date August 26, 1071
Location Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey)
Result Decisive Seljuk victory
Combatants
Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate
Commanders
Romanus IV #,
Nikephoros Bryennios,
Theodore Alyates,
Andronikos Doukas
Alp Arslan
Strength
~ 20,000 [1]
(40,000 initial)
~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1]
Casualties
~ 8,000 [3] Unknown

The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces led by Alp Arslan on August 26, 1071 near Manzikert, Armenia (modern Malazgirt, Turkey) in the Basprakania [2] theme (province) of the Empire. It resulted in the defeat of the Byzantine Empire and the capture of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Malazgirt (formerly also called Manzikert) is a town in Muş in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... Malazgirt (formerly also called Manzikert) is a town in Muş in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Image File history File links Buyuk_selcuklu_devleti. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Romanus IV Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... Nikephoros Bryennios or Nicephorus Bryennius (Greek: Νικηφόρος Βρυέννιος, Nikēphoros Bryennios), 1062–1137), Byzantine general, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ... Andronikos Doukas or Andronicus Ducas (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δούκας), (d. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Crusader States Seljuq Turks Strength Potential to raise 100,000 c. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Byzantine emperor Leader of the Seljuk Turks & Sultanate of Rum Strength Capable of raising 100,000 troops with theme system 30,000-40,000 of horsemen Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Caesarea occurred in 1064 when the Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan attacked... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Byzantine emperor Leader of the Seljuk Turks Strength Unknown but assumed less than Seljuk Turks Unknown, but assumed more than Byzantine empire Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses, see Siege of Nicaea (disambiguation) After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks had... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Byzantine emperor Leader of the Seljuk Turks & Sultanate of Rum Strength unknown unknown Casualties unknown unknown In 1071 the Seljuk Turks, originating from central Asia, had dealt a crushing blow to the Byzantine Empire and in 1078, Nicaea was captured by the Turks. ... Combatants Crusaders, Byzantine Empire Nicaean Turks, forces of Sultan Commanders Bohemund of Taranto, Raymond IV of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Manuel Boutoumites Kilij Arslan I Strength 30,000 Crusaders 2000 Byzantine peltasts[1] Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown For other uses, see Siege of Nicaea (disambiguation) The Siege of Nicaea took... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rum Strength Unknown Unknown Following the success of the First Crusade and the failure of the Crusade of 1101, the Turks resumed their offensive operations against the Byzantines. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rum Commanders Alexios I Komnenos Sultan Malik Shahr Strength Unknown Unknown Following the success of the First Crusade and the failure of the Crusade of 1101, the Turks resumed their offensive operations against the Byzantines. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Sultanate of Rüm Commanders Manuel I Comnenus Baldwin of Antioch † John Cantacuzenus Andronicus Vatatzes † Kilij Arslan II Strength About 25,000 (possibly 50,000?) 70,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Myriokephalon, also known as the Myriocephalum, or Miryakefalon Savaşı in Turkish, was a battle... Combatants Seljuq Turks Commanders Unknown Sultan Kilij Arslan II Strength Unknown Unknown The siege of Cotyaeum was the successful capture of the city by Seljuk Turk forces from the Byzantines. ... Combatants Empire of Nicaea Sultanate of Rum Commanders Unknown Sultan Kai-Khusrau Strength Unknown Unknown The siege of Antalya was a successful Turkic capture of a southern-western port in Asia Minor. ... Combatants Empire of Nicaea Sultanate of Rum Commanders Unknown Sultan Kai-Khusrau Strength Unknown Unknown The Siege of Nicaea in 1210 was an unsuccessful attempt to take the capital of the Nicaean Empire by the Sultanate of Rum. ... Combatants Empire of Nicaea Sultanate of Rum Commanders Unknown Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Sometime before 1231, the Nicaean Empire succeeded in driving back the Turks from the Meander valley and thus reestablishing Christian rule over some parts of Anatolia that had been lost after 1180. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army under Alp Arslan. ... Malazgirt (formerly also called Manzikert) is a town in Muş in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... Vaspurakan was a province and then kingdom of Greater Armenia during the Middle Ages. ... The themata in 950. ... Diptych of Romanus and Eudocia Macrembolitissa, crowned by Christ (Bibliothèque nationale de France) Romanos IV Diogenes or Romanus IV Diogenes (Greek: Ρωμανός Δ΄ Διογένης, Rōmanos IV Diogenēs) was Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071. ...

Contents

Background

During the 1060s, the Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan allowed his Turkish allies (Turks and Turkmens), as well as the Kurds, to migrate towards Armenia and Asia Minor. In 1064, they conquered the Armenian capital at Ani. In 1068, Romanos IV led an expedition against them, but his slow-moving infantry could not catch the speedy Turkish cavalry, although he was able to capture the city of Hierapolis Bambyce in Syria. In 1070, Romanus led a second expedition towards Malazgirt (then known as Manzikert) in the eastern end of Anatolia (in today's Muş Province), where a Byzantine fortress had been captured by the Seljuks, and offered a treaty with Alp Arslan; Romanos would give back Hierapolis if Arslan gave up the siege of Edessa (Urfa). Romanos threatened war if Alp Arslan did not comply, and prepared his troops anyway, expecting the sultan to decline his offer, which he did. 1061 Normans conquer Messina in Sicily 1062 Founding of Marrakech 1066 Normans conquer England William the conquerer was crowned King of England on Christmas Day in Westminster Abbey. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Events Sunset Crater Volcano first erupts. ... The picture shows the townwalls of Ani. ... Events Emperor Go-Sanjo ascends the throne of Japan William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege Births Henry I of England (d. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The theatre Hierapolis Bambyce or Mabug (Arabic Manbij or Mumbij) is not to be confused with the better known Hierapolis on top of the Pamukkale hot springs in western Turkey near Denizli, listed as a World Heritage Site. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... Malazgirt (formerly also called Manzikert) is a town in MuÅŸ in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Shows the Location of the Province MuÅŸ MuÅŸ (alternative transliteration: Mush) is a province in eastern Turkey. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Sanli Urfa (in Turkish Şanlıurfa) is a city in eastern Turkey, and the provincial capital of Sanliurfa Province. ...


Preparations

Accompanying Romanos was Andronikos Doukas, the co-regent and a direct rival. The army consisted of about 5,000 Byzantine troops from the western provinces and probably about the same number from the eastern provinces; 500 Frankish and Norman mercenaries under Roussel de Bailleul; some Turkish, Bulgarian, and Pecheneg mercenaries; infantry under the duke of Antioch; a contingent of Armenian troops; and some (but not all) of the Varangian Guard, to total around 60-70,000 troops. The quality of the Byzantine Thematic (provincial) troops had declined in the years prior to the succession of Romanus as the central government diverted resources to the recruitment of mercenaries who were considered less likely to become involved in coups or factional fighting within the Empire. Andronikos Doukas or Andronicus Ducas (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Δούκας), (d. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Roussel de Bailleul (also Roscelin or Roskelin de Baieul), a Norman adventurer (or exile), travelled to Byzantium and there receievd employ as a soldier and leader of men from the Emperor Romanus IV. He may have been a Frank, but whatever the case he joined the Normans of the Mediterranean... The Pechenegs or Patzinaks (in Hungarian: Besenyők, Russian: Печенеги, Ukrainian: Печеніги ) were a semi-nomadic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking a Turkic language. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes. ...


The march across Asia Minor was long and difficult, and Romanos did not endear himself to his troops by bringing a luxurious baggage train along with him; the Byzantine population also suffered some plundering by Romanos' Frankish mercenaries, whom he was forced to dismiss. The expedition first rested at Sebasteia on the Halys, and reached Theodosiopolis in June 1071. There, some of his generals suggested continuing the march into Seljuk territory and catching Arslan before he was ready. Some of the other generals, including Nikephoros Bryennios, suggested they wait there and fortify their position. Eventually it was decided to continue the march. For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... In the Aeneid, Halys is a Trojan who defends Aeneas camp from a Rutullian attack. ... Theodosiopolis redirects here; it is also a name of the ancient city of Apros, Thrace. ... Nikephoros Bryennios or Nicephorus Bryennius (Greek: Νικηφόρος Βρυέννιος, Nikēphoros Bryennios), 1062–1137), Byzantine general, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). ...


Thinking that Alp Arslan was either further away or not coming at all, Romanos marched towards Lake Van expecting to retake Manzikert rather quickly, as well as the nearby fortress of Khliat if possible. However, Arslan was actually in Armenia, with 30,000 cavalry from Aleppo, Mosul, and his other allies. Arslan's spies knew exactly where Romanus was, while Romanos was completely unaware of his opponent's movements. Lake Van Armenian: ; (Turkish: Van Gölü; Kurdish: ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Ahlat is a district of Bitlis Province of Turkey Categories: | ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ...


Romanos ordered his general Joseph Tarchaneiotes to take some of the Byzantine troops and Varangians and accompany the Pechenegs and Franks to Khliat, while Romanos and the rest of the army marched to Manzikert. This probably split the forces in half, each taking about 30,000 men. Although it is unknown precisely what happened to Tarchaneiotes and his half of the army after this, they apparently caught sight of the Seljuks and fled, as they later appeared at Melitene and did not take part in the battle. Malatya is a city in south-eastern Turkey, and the capital of Malatya Province. ...


The battle

Romanos was unaware of the loss of Tarchaneiotes and continued to Manzikert, which he easily captured on August 23. The next day some foraging parties under Bryennios discovered the Seljuk force and were forced to retreat back to Manzikert. The Armenian general Basilaces was sent out with some cavalry, as Romanos did not believe this was Arslan's full army; the cavalry was destroyed and Basilaces taken prisoner. Romanos drew up his troops into formation and sent the left wing out under Bryennios, who was almost surrounded by the quickly approaching Turks and was forced to retreat once more. The Turks hid among the nearby hills for the night, making it nearly impossible for Romanus to send a counterattack. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 25, some of Romanos' Turkish mercenaries came into contact with their Seljuk relatives and deserted. Romanos then rejected a Seljuk peace embassy as he wanted to settle the Turkish problem with a decisive military victory and understood that raising another army would be both difficult and expensive. The Emperor attempted to recall Tarchaneiotes, who was of course no longer in the area. There were no engagements that day, but on August 26 the Byzantine army gathered itself into a proper battle formation and began to march on the Turkish positions, with the left wing under Bryennios, the right wing under Theodore Alyates, and the centre under the emperor. Andronikos Doukas led the reserve forces in the rear. The Seljuks were organized into a crescent formation about four kilometres away, with Arslan observing events from a safe distance. Seljuk archers attacked the Byzantines as they drew closer; the centre of their crescent continually moved backwards while the wings moved to surround the Byzantine troops. is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Byzantines held off the arrow attacks and captured Arslan's camp by the end of the afternoon. However, the right and left wings, where the arrows did most of their damage, almost broke up when individual units tried to force the Seljuks into a pitched battle; the Seljuk cavalry simply fled when challenged, the classic hit and run tactics of steppe warriors. With the Seljuks avoiding battle, Romanos was forced to order a withdrawal by the time night fell. However, the right wing misunderstood the order, and Doukas, as an enemy of Romanos, deliberately ignored the emperor and marched back to the camp outside Manzikert, rather than covering the emperor's retreat. Now that the Byzantines were thoroughly confused, the Seljuks seized the opportunity and attacked. The Byzantine right wing was routed; the left under Bryennios held out a little longer but was soon routed as well. The remnants of the Byzantine centre, including the Emperor and the Varangian Guard, were encircled by the Seljuks. Romanus was injured, and taken prisoner when the Seljuks discovered him. The survivors fled the field and were pursued throughout the night; by dawn, the professional core of the Byzantine army had been destroyed. Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemys defense and/or retaliation. ...


When the Emperor Romanos IV was conducted into the presence of Alp Arslan, he was treated with considerable kindness, and again offered the terms of peace which he had offered previous to the battle. He was also loaded with presents and Alp Arslan had him respectfully escorted by a military guard to his own forces. But prior to that, when he first was brought to the Sultan, this famous conversation is reported to have taken place:

Alp Arslan: "What would you do if I were brought before you as a prisoner?"
Romanus: "Perhaps I'd kill you, or exhibit you in the streets of Constantinople."
Alp Arslan: "My punishment is far heavier. I forgive you, and set you free."

Shortly after his return to his subjects, Romanos was deposed, and then blinded and exiled in the island of Proti; soon after, he died as a result of an infection caused by an injury during his brutal blinding. Proti is a Greek island in the Ionian Islands. ...


Outcome

Despite being a complete tactical disaster and a long-term strategic catastrophe for Byzantium, Manzikert was by no means the massacre that earlier historians presumed. Modern scholars estimate that Byzantine losses were relatively low, considering that many units survived the battle intact and were fighting elsewhere within a few months. Certainly, all the commanders in the Byzantine side (Doukas, Tarchaneiotes, Bryennios, de Bailleul, and, above all, the Emperor) survived and took part in later events.


Doukas had escaped with no casualties, and quickly marched back to Constantinople where he led the coup against Romanos. Bryennios also lost few men in the rout of his wing. The Seljuks did not pursue the fleeing Byzantines, nor did they recapture Manzikert itself at this point. The Byzantine army regrouped and marched to Dokeia, where they were joined by Romanos when he was released a week later. The most serious loss materially seems to have been the emperor's extravagant baggage train.


The disaster the battle caused for the Empire was, in simplest terms, the loss of its Anatolian heartland. John Julius Norwich says in his trilogy on the Byzantine Empire that the defeat was "its death blow, though centuries remained before the remnant fell. The themes in Anatolia were literally the heart of the empire, and within decades after Manzikert, they were gone." Or, as Anna Komnene puts it a few decades after the actual battle, John Julius Cooper, 2nd Viscount Norwich CVO (born 15 September 1929) is an English historian, travel writer and television personality known as John Julius Norwich. ... Anna Komnene or Comnena (Greek: Άννα Κομνηνή, Anna Komnēnē), (December 1, 1083 – 1153). ...

"the fortunes of the Roman Empire had sunk to their lowest ebb. For the armies of the East were dispersed in all directions, because the Turks had over-spread, and gained command of, countries between the Euxine Sea (Black Sea) and the Hellespont, and the Aegean and Syrian Seas (Mediterranean Sea), and the various bays, especially those which wash Pamphylia, Cilicia, and empty themselves into the Egyptian Sea (Mediterranean Sea)."[4]

Years and decades later, Manzikert came to be seen as a disaster for the Empire; later sources therefore greatly exaggerate the numbers of troops and the number of casualties. Byzantine historians would often look back and lament the "disaster" of that day, pinpointing it as the moment the decline of the Empire began. It was not an immediate disaster, but the defeat showed the Seljuks that the Byzantines were not invincible — they were not the unconquerable, millennium-old Roman Empire (as both the Byzantines and Seljuks still called it). The usurpation of Andronikos Doukas also politically destabilized the empire and it was difficult to organize resistance to the Turkish migrations that followed the battle. Within a decade almost all of Asia Minor was overrun. Finally, while intrigue and deposing of Emperors had taken place before, the fate of Romanos was particularly horrific, and the destabilization caused by it also rippled through the centuries. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Helespont/Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Anatolia (Asia Minor). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Pamphylia, in ancient geography, was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


What followed the battle was a chain of events - of which the battle was the first link - that undermined the Empire in the years to come. They included intrigues for the throne, the horrific fate of Romanos and Roussel de Bailleul attempting to carve himself an independent kingdom in Galatia with his 3,000 Frankish, Norman and German mercenaries. He defeated the Emperor's uncle John Doukas who had come to suppress him, advancing toward the capital to destroy Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus. The Empire finally turned to the spreading Seljuks to crush de Bailleul (which they did, then delivering him over). These events all interacted to create a vacuum that the Turks filled. Their choice in establishing their capital in Nikaea (İznik) in 1077 could possibly be explained by a desire to see if the Empire's struggles could present new opportunities. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Norman conquests in red. ... John Doukas or Ducas (Greek: Ιωάννης Δούκας, IōannÄ“s Doukas), (died c. ... Maidens Tower, off the coast of Ãœsküdar A large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city, next to Kadıköy. ... Ãœsküdar (ancient Scutari) was a city in Bithynia in Anatolia. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Iznik ceramic pitcher with flower decoration from ca. ... Events January 26 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor visits Pope Gregory VII as a penitent, asking him remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of...


In hindsight, both Byzantine and contemporary historians are unanimous in dating the decline of Byzantine fortunes to this battle. It is interpreted as one of the root causes for the later Crusades, in that the First Crusade of 1095 was originally a western response to the Byzantine emperor's call for military assistance after the loss of Anatolia. From another perspective, the West saw Manzikert as a signal that Byzantium was no longer capable of being the protector of Eastern Christianity or Christian pilgrims to the Holy Places in the Middle East. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Delbruck considers that the importance of the battle has been exaggerated; but it is clear from the evidence that as a result of it, the Empire was unable to put an effective army into the field for many years to come.


Notes

  1. ^ David Eggenberger, An Encyclopedia of Battles, Dover Publications, 1985.
  2. ^ Hewsen, Robert H. (2001). Armenia: a historical atlas. The University of Chicago Press, p. 126. ISBN 0-226-33228-4. 

The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering...

References

  • Haldon, John. The Byzantine Wars: Battles and Campaigns of the Byzantine Era, 2001. ISBN 0-7524-1795-9.
  • Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society, Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2421-0.
  • Runciman, Sir Steven. A History of the Crusades (Volume One), Harper & Row, 1951.
  • Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium: The Apogee, Viking, 1991. ISBN 0-670-80252-2.
  • Carey, Brian Todd; Allfree, Joshua B.; Cairns, John. Warfare in the Medieval World, Pen & Sword Books ltd, 2006. ISBN 1-84415-339-8
  • Konstam, Angus. Historical Atlas of The Crusades

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