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Encyclopedia > Battle of Malaya
Battle of Malaya
Part of the Pacific Theatre of World War II

Japanese troops on a mopping-up operation in Kuala Lumpur.
Date 8 December 1941 - January 31, 1942
Location British Malaya
Result Japanese Victory, Japanese Occupation of Malaya, Emergence of Malayan Resistance
Combatants
Malaya Command:
Indian III Corps
Flag of Australia Australian 8th Div.
Flag of Malaysia Malay Regiment
Flag of the Netherlands ML-KNIL
Flag of the United Kingdom 53rd Infantry Brigade
Twenty-Fifth Army:
Flag of Japan Imperial Guards
Flag of Japan 5th Division
Flag of Japan 18th Division
Flag of Japan 3rd Air Division
Commanders
Flag of the United Kingdom Arthur Percival
Flag of Australia Gordon Bennett
Flag of the United Kingdom Herbert Duncan 
Flag of the United Kingdom Berthold Key
Flag of the United Kingdom Lewis Heath
Flag of the United Kingdom David Murray-Lyon (relieved Dec 23)
Flag of Japan Tomoyuki Yamashita
Flag of Japan Takuma Nishimura
Flag of Japan Renya Mutaguchi
Flag of Japan Takuro Matsui
Strength
140,000
158 aircraft
70,000
568 aircraft
Casualties
5,500 killed
5,000 wounded
40,000 captured[1]
1,793 killed
3,378 wounded[2]

The Battle of Malaya was a campaign fought by Allied and Japanese forces in Malaya, from December 8, 1941 to January 31, 1942 during the Second World War. The campaign was dominated by land battles between British Commonwealth army units, and the Imperial Japanese Army. For the British, Indian, Australian and Malayan forces defending the colony, the campaign was a disaster. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... British Malaya was a set of states that were colonized by the British from the 18th and the 19th until the 20th century. ... The Malayan Peoples Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) originated from among ethnic Chinese cadres of the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) who became increasingly opposed to Japan due to its invasion of China in 1937. ... The Malaya Command was a British Army World War II formation formed for the defence of Malaya and Singapore. ... Image File history File links Imperial-India-Blue-Ensign. ... The British Indian III Corps was the primary ground formation that took part in the campaign in Malaya in 1942. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 8th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force, who were in turn, part of the Allies of World War II. The 8th Division was raised from regular army units and new, all-volunteer infantry brigades... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Royal Malay Regiment (Malay: Rejimen Askar Melayu DiRaja) is one of two infantry regiments in the Malaysian Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force (Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger, ML-KNIL) was the air arm of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) from 1939 until 1950. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The 18th (East Anglian) Infantry Division was a Division of the British Army in World War II , A duplicate of the 54th (East Anglian) Division . ... The Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was the Japanese force that invaded and conquered the British colony of Malaya in late 1941 and early 1942. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The Japanese Imperial Guard (近衛師団 このえしだん Konoe Shidan) protects the Emperor, the Empress and Imperial Family, the Imperial Palaces and other imperial properties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The 5th Infantry Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... IJA 18th Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... The Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was the Japanese force that invaded and conquered the British colony of Malaya in late 1941 and early 1942. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, CB, DSO and Bar, OBE, MC, OStJ, DL (December 26, 1887 - January 31, 1966) was a British Army officer and World War I hero. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lieutenant-General Gordon Bennett Lieutenant-General Henry Gordon Bennett, CB, CMG, DSO (April 16, 1887 – August 1, 1962), Australian soldier, served in both World War I and World War II. Despite highly decorated achievements during World War I, including at Gallipoli, Bennett is best remembered for his role in the... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Brigadier Herbert Cecil Duncan (19 August 1895 - 16 January 1942) commanded the 45th Indian Infantry Brigade during the Battle of Malaya. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Lieutenant-General Berthold Wells Billy Key DSO MC ADC was a British Indian Army officer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Lieutenant-General Sir Lewis Macclesfield Heath, KBE, CB, CIE, DSO, MC (1885-1954) was a British Army officer and general during World War II. Having achieved some success as GOC 5th Indian Division during the East African Campaign, Heath was appointed to command III Indian Corps during the Battle of... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Major-General David Murrey Murray-Lyon (1890 - 1975) was an officer in the Indian Army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945 General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki) (November 8, 1885 – February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Army during the World War II era. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Takuma Nishimura (1899–1951) was a soldier of the Empire of Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... (1888-1966) Lieutenant-General Renya Mutaguchi Commanded the 18th Division in south China and in the World War II Campaigns in Malaya, Philippines and Burma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † J. C. Leach † W. G. Tennant T. A. Vigors N. Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (8,293 sq km on 139 islands), are a group of islands situated in the Bay of Bengal at about 780 miles from Kolkata, 740 miles from Chennai and 120 miles from Cape Nargis in Burma. ... The Pacific War conquest plan set out by the Empire of Japan for the South Sea lands concluded on March 31, 1942 with the attack on and occupation of Christmas Island. ... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Allied aircraft bombed Japanese forces in South-East Asia during 1944-45. ... Combatants United Kingdom Empire of Japan Commanders Arthur John Power Manley Laurence Power Shigeru Fukudome Shintaro Hashimoto† Kaju Sugiura† Strength 5 destroyers 1 cruiser 1 destroyer Casualties 1 destroyer damaged, 2 killed[1] 1 cruiser sunk, 1 destroyer damaged, 927 killed[2] The Battle of the Malacca Strait, sometimes called... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Federated Malay States (FMS) was a federation of four states on the Malay Peninsula - Pahang, Perak, Selangor, and Negeri Sembilan - established by the British government in 1895, and lasted until 1946, when they together with the Straits Settlements and the Unfederated Malay States formed the Malayan Union. ...

Contents

Background

Between the wars, Britain's military strategy in the Far East was undermined by a lack of attention and funding. The British government's plans relied primarily on the stationing of a strong fleet at the Singapore Naval Base in the event of any enemy hostility, both to defend Britain's Far Eastern possessions and the route to Australia. However, the expected arrival time of the Royal Navy, should Malaya or Singapore be threatened, was extended from weeks to months, until finally, by the time war broke out in Europe in 1939, it was evident that no fleet was likely to be forthcoming. The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... A coastal defence gun fires in Singapore The Singapore Naval Base was a cornerstone of British Defence polict in the Far East between the Wars. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Lieutenant-General Yamashita, Commander of the Japanese 25th Army
Lieutenant-General Yamashita, Commander of the Japanese 25th Army

Once World War II commenced, Britain, the Middle East and the Soviet Union received higher priorities in the allocation of men and material. The desired Malayan air force strength of 300 to 500 aircraft was never reached. Whereas the Japanese invaded with over two hundred tanks, the British Army in Malaya did not have a single one. Photo of Yamashita Tomoyuki. ... Photo of Yamashita Tomoyuki. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An air force, in some countries called an air army, is a military or armed service that primarily conducts aerial warfare. ...


The British had plans for a pre-emptive invasion of southern Thailand, named Operation Matador, to forestall Japanese landings, but decided not to use them. History Records a number of operations named Matador: // The British in Malaya Operation Matador was a plan of the British Malaya Command to move forces into position to counter a Japanese amphibious attack on Malaya. ...


Japan invades

The Battle of Malaya began when the 25th Army invaded Malaya on 8 December 1941. Japanese troops launched an amphibious assault on the northern coast of Malaya at Kota Bharu and started advancing down the eastern coast of Malaya. This was made in conjunction with landings at Pattani and Songkhla in Thailand, where they then proceeded south overland across the Thailand-Malayan border to attack the western portion of Malaya. The Japanese invasion of Malaya began just after midnight on 8th December 1941 before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. ... The Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was the Japanese force that invaded and conquered the British colony of Malaya in late 1941 and early 1942. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Amphibious Assault began when 17-year-old, former Kittie guitarist, Fallon Bowman was on a plane from Ontario to New Jersey, skimming through a Tom Clancy novel when she came upon the term amphibious assault. ... Website: http://www. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pattani (or Patani in Malay spelling) may refer to the town Pattani in southern Thailand the Pattani Province the region Pattani, which includes the above province. ... Songkhla is both a city and a province in Thailand. ... The international border that separates Malaysia and Thailand stretches from Kuala Perlis, Perlis in the west to Sungai Golok, Kelantan to the east. ...


The Japanese had already coerced the Thai government into letting them use Thai military bases to launch attacks into Malaya, after having fought Thai troops for eight hours early in the morning.


At 4:00 a.m., 17 Imperial Japanese Navy bombers attacked Singapore, killing 61 people and injuring more than 700. It was the first ever air raid aimed at Singapore. The streets were still lighted despite air raid sirens going off in time, and cloudy skies prevented allied anti-aircraft guns from finding the bombers. No Japanese planes were shot down, and they safely returned to their airfield in Saigon.[3] The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service or Dai Nippon Teikoku Kaigun Koku Hombu was a major force in the Pacific War during World War II. The Japanese military acquired their first aircraft in 1910 and followed the development of air combat during World War I with great interest. ... Combatants Singapore Imperial Japanese Navy Strength Anti-aircraft guns 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 17 aircraft Casualties 61 killed 700 wounded The first air raid on Singapore was conducted by seventeen bombers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnamese: Thành Chí Minh) is the largest city in Vietnam, located near the delta of the Mekong River. ...


The Japanese were initially resisted by III Corps of the Indian Army and several British Army battalions. The Japanese quickly isolated individual Indian units defending the coastline, before concentrating their forces to surround the defenders and force their surrender. The British Indian III Corps was the primary ground formation that took part in the campaign in Malaya in 1942. ... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ...


The Japanese forces held a slight advantage in numbers on the ground in northern Malaya, and were significantly superior in close air support, armour, co-ordination, tactics and experience, with the Japanese units having fought in China. The Allies had no tanks, which had put them at a severe disadvantage. The Japanese also used bicycle infantry and light tanks, which allowed swift movement of their forces overland through the terrain that was covered with thick tropical rainforest. An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... Bicycle infantry are infantry soldiers who maneuver on the battlefield using bicycles. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Amazon river rain forest in Brazil Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ...


A replacement for Operation Matador, named Operation Krohcol, was implemented on December 8, but the Indian troops were easily defeated by the Japanese 5th Division, which had already landed in Pattani Province, Thailand. Operation Krohcol was a British operation in 1942 to move into Siam just after the Japanese attack on Malaya during World War II. It was named Krohcol as it was a column operating on the Kroh-Patani road. ... The 5th Infantry Division ) was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Pattani (Thai ปัตตานี) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ...

Lieutenant-General Percival, GOC of Malaya at the time of the Japanese invasion
Lieutenant-General Percival, GOC of Malaya at the time of the Japanese invasion

The naval Force Z, consisting of the battleships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse, together with four destroyers, and commanded by Admiral Tom Phillips had arrived right before the outbreak of hostilities. However, Japanese air superiority led to the sinking of the capital ships on December 10 1941, leaving the east coast of Malaya exposed and allowing the Japanese to continue their landings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x673, 46 KB) Description: Lieutenant-General A E Percival, General Officer Commanding Malaya at the time of the Japanese attack. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (486x673, 46 KB) Description: Lieutenant-General A E Percival, General Officer Commanding Malaya at the time of the Japanese attack. ... General Officer Commanding (GOC) is the usual title given in the armies of Commonwealth (and some other) nations to a general officer who holds a command appointment. ... Two World War II military groups were called Force Z An Allied force attached to General Sir Archibald Wavells Middle East Command in 1941, consisting of Nos. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. ... HMS Repulse was a Renown-class battlecruiser, the second to last battlecruiser built for the Royal Navy. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Acting Admiral Tom Phillips Admiral Sir Thomas Tom Spencer Vaughan Phillips KCB (1888-1941) had a successful career in the Royal Navy. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia Japan Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † J. C. Leach † W. G. Tennant T. A. Vigors N. Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ...


The air war

Bristol Blenheim bombers of No. 62 Squadron RAF lined up at Tengah, Singapore, circa February 8, 1941, just before they flew north to their new base at Alor Star, Kedah. Captain Patrick Heenan, who betrayed the Allies to Japanese military intelligence, was attached to the squadron at Alor Star, between June 1941 and his arrest in December.

While the Japanese had slightly fewer aircraft than the Australian, British, New Zealand and Dutch squadrons in Malaya,[citation needed] they quickly prevailed in the air. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ... Alor Stars City Emblem Menara Alor Star, the start-of-art communication tower Alor Star (Traditional Chinese: 亞羅士打, Simplified Chinese: 亚罗士打, Pinyin: yàluóshìdÇŽ), City of Rice Bowl of Malaysia(Chinese: 米都), formally known as Alor Setar, with a colourful past that spanned over more than 250 years. ... State anthem: Allah Selamatkan Sultan Mahkota Capital Alor Star Royal capital Anak Bukit Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim  - Menteri Besar Mahdzir Khalid History    - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 9,426 km² Population  - 2003 estimate 1,778,188  - Density... Circa February 8, 1941. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ...


The Allied fighter squadrons in Malaya, equipped with Brewster Buffaloes, were beset with numerous problems, including: poorly-built and ill-equipped planes;[4] inadequate supplies of spare parts;[5] inadequate numbers of support staff;[6] airfields that were difficult to defend against air attack;[7] lack of a clear and coherent command structure;[8] antagonism between RAF and Royal Australian Air Force squadrons and personnel,[9] and; inexperienced pilots lacking appropriate training.[10] They suffered severe losses in the first week of the campaign, resulting in the ongoing merger of squadrons and their gradual evacuation to the Dutch East Indies. A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, was a U.S. fighter plane which saw extensive service with both Allied and Axis air forces during World War II. The fighters, derided by some American servicemen as flying coffins,[1] had a reputation for poor construction and performance, though they were relatively... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The remaining offensive aircraft were obsolete types — Bristol Blenheim and Lockheed Hudson light bombers and Vickers Vildebeest biplane torpedo bombers — most of these aircraft were quickly destroyed by Japanese fighters in the air and on the ground, and played an insignificant part in the campaign. Nevertheless, one Blenheim pilot, Squadron Leader Arthur Scarf, was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for an attack on December 9. The Bristol Blenheim is also the name of the main model produced by Bristol Cars since 1994. ... Lockheed Hudson Mk V The Lockheed Hudson was a light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force shortly before the outbreak of World War II. The Hudson was the first significant aircraft construction contract for the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation—the initial RAF order for 200... A light bomber is a military bomber aircraft which, when compared to other bombers, is relatively small and fast; such aircraft will probably not carry more than one ton of ordnance. ... The Vickers Vildebeest was a very large 2- to 3-seat single-engined biplane acting as a light bomber, torpedo bomber and in the army cooperation role. ... Hs123 biplane. ... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Squadron Leader Arthur Stewart King Scarf VC RAF was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Posthumous means after death. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ...


In addition, recent research has shown that the Japanese military intelligence service had managed to recruit a British officer, Captain Patrick Heenan, an Air Liaison Officer with the Indian Army.[11] While the effects of Heenan's actions are disputed, the Japanese were able to destroy almost every Allied aircraft in northern Malaya within three days. Heenan was arrested on December 10 and sent to Singapore. However, the Japanese had already achieved air superiority. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Circa February 8, 1941. ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ...


Advance down the Malayan Peninsula

The Brewster Buffalo had initial successes against the Ki-27 Nate, but were outclassed by the A6M Zero.
Map of the Malayan Campaign
Map of the Malayan Campaign
Main article: Battle of Jitra

The defeat of British and Indian troops at Jitra by Japanese forces, supported by tanks moving south from Thailand on December 11, 1941 and the rapid advance of the Japanese inland from their Kota Bharu beachhead on the north-east coast of Malaya overwhelmed the northern defences. Without any real naval presence, the British were unable to challenge Japanese naval operations off the Malayan coast, operations which proved invaluable to the invading army. With virtually no remaining Allied planes, the Japanese also had mastery of the skies, leaving the Commonwealth ground troops and civilian population exposed to air attack. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Brewster Buffalo, or Brewster F2A, was a U.S. fighter plane which saw extensive service with both Allied and Axis air forces during World War II. The fighters, derided by some American servicemen as flying coffins,[1] had a reputation for poor construction and performance, though they were relatively... Nakajima Ki-27 The Nakajima Ki-27 (Allied codename Nate) was the main fighter aircraft used by the Japanese Imperial Army up until 1940, and the Armys first monoplane. ... Mitsubishi A6M3 Zero wreck abandoned at Munda Airfield, Central Solomons, 1943. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1261x971, 224 KB) Description: Pacific War - Malaya 1941-42 Source: www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1261x971, 224 KB) Description: Pacific War - Malaya 1941-42 Source: www. ... Combatants 11th Indian Division 1st Leicestershires 2nd East Surreys Imperial Guards Division 5th Division Commanders David Murray-Lyon Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 2000 civilians killed The Battle of Jitra was the first major engagement fought between the invading Japanese and British forces in Malaya. ... Combatants 11th Indian Division 1st Leicestershires 2nd East Surreys Imperial Guards Division 5th Division Commanders David Murray-Lyon Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 2000 civilians killed The Battle of Jitra was the first major engagement fought between the invading Japanese and British forces in Malaya. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Malayan island of Penang was bombed daily by the Japanese from December 8 and abandoned on December 17. Arms, boats, supplies and a working radio station were left in haste to the Japanese. The evacuation of Europeans from Penang, with local inhabitants being left to the mercy of the Japanese, caused much embarrassment for the British and alienated them from the local population. State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 23 Major-General David Murray-Lyon of the Indian 11th Infantry Division was removed from command to little effect. By the end of the first week in January, the entire northern region of Malaya had been lost to the Japanese. At the same time, Thailand officially signed a Treaty of Friendship with Imperial Japan, which completed the formation of their loose military alliance. Thailand was then allowed by the Japanese to resume sovereignty over several sultanates in northern Malaya, thus consolidating their occupation. It did not take long for the Japanese army's next objective, the city of Kuala Lumpur, to fall. The Japanese entered and occupied the city unopposed on January 11, 1942. Singapore Island was now less than 200 miles away for the invading Japanese army. is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Major-General David Murrey Murray-Lyon (1890 - 1975) was an officer in the Indian Army. ... The 11th Indian Infantry Division was a Indian division which formed part of Indian III Corps in the British forces during the Battle of Malaya. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese later faced opposition against allied forces at Kampar, followed by the disastrous Slim River battle (at Slim River), in which two Indian brigades were nearly annhilated. Another Indian brigade would also suffer close annhilation at Muar. Kampar is a town in the state of Perak, Malaysia. ... Combatants 11th Indian Division 5th Division Commanders Archibald Paris Hajime Shimada The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya. ... Slim River is a small town in Perak state, Malaysia. ...


Defence of Johore

Main article: Battle of Muar
This article is part of
the History of Malaysia series.

Prehistoric Malaysia (60,000–2,000 BCE)
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By mid-January the Japanese had reached the southern Malayan state of Johore where, on 14 January, they encountered troops from the Australian 8th Division, commanded by Major-General Gordon Bennett, for the first time in the campaign. During engagements with the Australians, the Japanese experienced their first major tactical setback, due to the stubborn resistance put up by the Australians at Gemas. The battle, centred around the Gemensah Bridge, proved costly for the Japanese, who suffered up to 600 casualties but the bridge itself, which had been demolished during the fighting, was repaired within six hours. State Motto: the state moto as appeared on the coat of arms reads kepada Allah berserah which literally means all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Bandar DiRaja Bandar Maharani Sultan Iskandar Al-haj Chief minister Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 2. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 8th Division of the Australian Army was formed to serve in World War II, as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force, who were in turn, part of the Allies of World War II. The 8th Division was raised from regular army units and new, all-volunteer infantry brigades... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Henry Gordon Bennett (April 16, 1887 – August 1, 1962) was an Australian soldier who served in both World War I and World War II. Despite highly decorated achievements during World War I, including at Gallipoli, Bennett is best remembered for his role in the Fall of Singapore in the Pacific... Gemas is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. ... Gemas is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, just near the Negeri Sembilan-Johor state border. ...


As the Japanese attempted to outflank the Australians to the west of Gemas, one of the bloodiest battles of the campaign began on January 15 on the peninsula's West coast near the Muar River. Bennett allocated the weak 45th Indian Brigade (a new and half trained formation) to defend the river's South bank but the unit was outflanked by Japanese units landing from the sea and the Brigade was effectively destroyed with its commander, Brigadier H. C. Duncan, and all three of his battalion commanders killed. is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Muar River is a river which flows through the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor in Malaysia. ... Brigadier (IPA pronunciation: ) is a military rank, the meaning of which has a considerable variation. ... Brigadier Herbert Cecil Duncan (19 August 1895 - 16 January 1942) commanded the 45th Indian Infantry Brigade during the Battle of Malaya. ...


Led by Australian Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Anderson, the retreating Indian troops, supported by Australians, formed Muar Force and fought a desperate four day withdrawal, to allow the remnants of the Commonwealth troops withdrawing from northern Malaya to avoid being cut off and to withdraw past the Japanese to safety. When Muar Force reached the bridge at Parit Sulong and found it to be firmly in enemy hands, Anderson, with mounting numbers of dead and wounded, ordered "every man for himself". Those that could took to the jungles, swamps and rubber plantations in search of their battalion headquarters at Yong Peng. The wounded were left to the mercy of the Japanese and all but two out of 135 were tortured and killed in the Parit Sulong Massacre. Anderson was awarded a Victoria Cross for his fighting withdrawal. Lieutenant Colonel (Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grades spelling) is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine corps and air forces of the world, typically ranking above a Major and below a Colonel. ... Charles Groves Wright Anderson, VC, MC (12 February 1897 – 11 November 1988) was a South African-born, Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross and member of the Australian House of Representatives. ... Parit Sulong is a small village in Johor, Malaysia on the Simpang Kiri River, 30 km east of Muar. ... Yong Peng is a small town located in the northern part of Johor state, Malaysia. ... On January 23, 1942, the Parit Sulong Massacre was committed against Allied soldiers by members of the Imperial Guards Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. ... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration awarded for valour in the face of the enemy to members of armed forces of some Commonwealth countries and previous British Empire territories. ...


On January 20, further Japanese landings took place at Endau, in spite of an air attack by Vildebeests. The final Commonwealth defensive line in Johore of Batu Pahat-Kluang-Mersing was now being attacked along its full length. Unfortunately Percival had resisted the construction of fixed defences in Johore , as on the North shore of Singapore, dismissing them in the face of repeated requests to start construction from his Chief Engineer, Brigadier Ivan Simson, with the comment "Defences are bad for morale". January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Endau is a small town in Malaysia. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Kluang is a town and district located roughly in the middle of the state of Johor in Malaysia. ... Mersing is the name of a town and district in the northeast corner in the state of Johor, Malaysia. ... Brigadier Ivan Simson (1890-1971) was the Chief Engineer in Malaya before its surrender to the Japanese in 1942. ...


On January 27, 1942 Percival received permission from the commander of the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, General Archibald Wavell, to order a retreat across the Johore Strait to the island of Singapore. is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ABDACOM Area The American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Command, code name ABDACOM, was a short-lived, supreme command for all Allied forces in South East Asia, in early 1942, during the Pacific War. ... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 - May 24, 1950) was a British Field Marshal and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ... Geography The Straits of Johor (also known as the Tebrau Strait, Johor Strait, Selat Johor, Selat Tebrau, and Tebrau Reach) is a narrow stretch of water that separates Johor state, Malaysia from Singapore. ...


The retreat to Singapore

Main article: Battle of Singapore
A view of the causeway, blown up after the Allied retreat, with the visible gap in the middle.
A view of the causeway, blown up after the Allied retreat, with the visible gap in the middle.

On January 31 the last organised Allied forces left Malaya, and Allied engineers blew a hole, 70 feet (20 metres) wide, in the causeway that linked Johore and Singapore (a few stragglers would wade across over the next few days). Japanese raiders and infiltrators, often disguised as Singaporean civilians, began to cross the Straits of Johor in inflatable boats soon afterwards. Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Johor Causeway is a 1,056-meter causeway that that links the city of Johor Bahru in Malaysia across the Straits of Johor to the town of Woodlands in Singapore. ... State Motto: the state moto as appeared on the coat of arms reads kepada Allah berserah which literally means all hopes is to God (Allah) Capital Johor Bahru Bandar DiRaja Bandar Maharani Sultan Iskandar Al-haj Chief minister Abdul Ghani Othman Area 19,984 km² Population 2. ... Geography The Straits of Johor (also known as the Tebrau Strait, Johor Strait, Selat Johor, Selat Tebrau, and Tebrau Reach) is a narrow stretch of water that separates Johor state, Malaysia from Singapore. ...


In less than two months, the Battle for Malaya had ended in comprehensive defeat for the Commonwealth forces and their retreat from the Malay Peninsula. Nearly 50,000 Commonwealth troops had been captured or killed during the battle. The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ...


By the end of January, Patrick Heenan had been court-martialled and sentenced to death.[12] On February 13, five days after the invasion of Singapore Island, and with Japanese forces approaching the city centre, Heenan was taken by military police to the waterside and was hastily executed. His body was thrown into the sea. Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ...


See also

The Japanese invasion of Malaya began just after midnight on 8th December 1941 before the bombing of Pearl Harbor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants 11th Indian Division 1st Leicestershires 2nd East Surreys Imperial Guards Division 5th Division Commanders David Murray-Lyon Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 2000 civilians killed The Battle of Jitra was the first major engagement fought between the invading Japanese and British forces in Malaya. ... Combatants 11th Indian Division 5th Division Commanders Archibald Paris Hajime Shimada The Battle of Slim River occurred during the Malayan campaign in January 1942 between the Imperial Japanese Army and the British Indian Army on the west coast of Malaya. ... Combatants Australian 8th Division Indian III Corps 53rd British Infantry Brigade Royal Air Force Imperial Guards Division IJA Commanders Gordon Bennett Charles Anderson H. C. Duncan â€  Black Jack Galleghan Takuma Nishimura Strength 4000 Infantry 60 aircraft Several Thousand Infantry 400 aircraft Casualties Large number killed or wounded (+200 POWs executed... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The Greater East Asia War was a term used, at least publicly in December of 1941, by Japans Imperial General Headquarters (Imperial GHQ) to refer to the conflict that followed (and ultimately reversed) Japans invasions in the 1930s and early 1940s of other nations in eastern Asia and... The Malaya Command was a British Army World War II formation formed for the defence of Malaya and Singapore. ... Operation Krohcol was a British operation in 1942 to move into Siam just after the Japanese attack on Malaya during World War II. It was named Krohcol as it was a column operating on the Kroh-Patani road. ... History Records a number of operations named Matador: // The British in Malaya Operation Matador was a plan of the British Malaya Command to move forces into position to counter a Japanese amphibious attack on Malaya. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Campaign in Malaya on The Children (& Families) of the Far East Prisoners of War
  • Royal Engineers Museum Royal Engineers and the Second World War - the Far East
  • Australia's War 1939-1945: Battle of Malaya
  • Animated History of the Fall of Malaya and Singapore

Footnotes

  1. ^ Altogether allied forces lost 7,500 killed, 10,000 wounded and about 120,000 captured for the entire Malayan Campaign
  2. ^ Smith, Colin (2006). Singapore Burning. Penguin Books, p. 547. ISBN 0-141-01036-3. 
  3. ^ First air raid on Singapore Access date: August 12, 2007
  4. ^ Squadron Leader W.J. Harper, 1946, "REPORT ON NO. 21 AND NO. 453 RAAF SQUADRONS" (UK Air Ministry), p.1 (Source: UK Public Records Office, ref. AIR 20/5578; transcribed by Dan Ford for Warbird's Forum.) Access date: September 8, 2007; Ibid, p.2
  5. ^ Ibid, p.2
  6. ^ Ibid, p.1-2
  7. ^ Ibid, p.1
  8. ^ Ibid, p.1
  9. ^ Ibid, p.1-2
  10. ^ Ibid, p.1
  11. ^ Peter Elphick, 2001, "Cover-ups and the Singapore Traitor Affair" Access date: March 5, 2007.
  12. ^ Elphick, Ibid.

It has been suggested that Penguin Modern Poets, Penguin Great Ideas be merged into this article or section. ...

References

  • Dixon, Norman F, On the Psychology of Military Incompetence, London, 1976
  • Bose, Romen, "SECRETS OF THE BATTLEBOX:The Role and history of Britain's Command HQ during the Malayan Campaign", MArshall Cavendish, Singapore, 2005
  • Seki, Eiji, Sinking of the SS Automedon And the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation, University of Hawaii Press, 2007
  • Smyth, John George Smyth, Percival and the Tragedy of Singapore, MacDonald and Company, 1971
  • Thompson, Peter, The Battle for Singapore, London, 2005, ISBN 0-7499-5068-4 (HB)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Invasion of Malaya: Overview (987 words)
On the west coast of Malaya, No 21 Squadron RAAF at Sungei Patani suffered devastating air raids and by the evening of 8 December both Sungei Patani and Kota Bharu airfields had been evacuated.
The battle for Gemas raged that night and next day and on the afternoon of 15 January the Japanese called in aircraft and tanks and the Australians withdrew.
On 15 January 1942, the 45th Indian Brigade on the west coast, defending the line of the Muar River, was also involved in a battle with the veteran Japanese Imperial Guards Division.
Battle of Malaya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1569 words)
The Battle of Malaya was a conflict between a Commonwealth army, comprised of British, Indian, Australian and Malays from the Federated Malay States forces, and the Japanese Imperial Army from December 8, 1941 until January 31, 1942 during the Second World War.
The battle, centred around the Gemensah Bridge, proved costly for the Japanese, who suffered up to 600 casualties but the bridge itself, which had been demolished during the fighting, was repaired within six hours.
As the Japanese attempted to outflank the Australians to the west of Gemas, one of the bloodiest battles of the campaign began on January 15 on the peninsula's the West coast near the Muar River.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

Kaiser Hameed Khan
22nd May 2010
Dear readers my grandfather Captain Abdul Aziz Sultan Mohammad Tajik of the Indian British Army was also a POW in Malaya.Could any one givre me any information or insight on him? I shall be grateful.

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