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Encyclopedia > Battle of Leyte Gulf
Battle of Leyte Gulf
Part of the Pacific Theatre of World War II
USS Princeton on fire east of Luzon
The light aircraft carrier Princeton afire, east of Luzon, 24 October 1944.
Date 23 October 194426 October 1944
Location The Philippines
Result Decisive Allied victory
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Commanders
Flag of the United States William Halsey, Jr
(3rd Fleet)
Flag of the United States Thomas C. Kinkaid
(7th Fleet)
Flag of Japan Takeo Kurita (Centre Force)
Flag of Japan Shoji Nishimura  (Southern Force)
Flag of Japan Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force)
Flag of Japan Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force)
Strength
17 aircraft carriers
18 escort carriers
12 battleships
24 cruisers
141 destroyers and destroyer escorts
Many PT boats, submarines and fleet auxiliaries
About 1,500 planes
4 aircraft carriers
9 battleships
19 cruisers
34 destroyers
About 200 planes
Casualties
3,500 dead;
1 light aircraft carrier,
2 escort carriers,
2 destroyers,
1 destroyer escort sunk
10,000 dead;
4 aircraft carriers,
3 battleships,
8 cruisers,
12 destroyers sunk

The Battle of Leyte Gulf, also known as the "Second Battle of the Philippine Sea", was the largest naval battle of the Second World War, and - by some criteria - the largest naval battle in modern history. It was fought in the Pacific Theater of World War II, in the seas surrounding the Philippine island of Leyte from 23 October to 26 October 1944, between the Allies and the Empire of Japan. The Allies commenced the invasion of Leyte in order to cut off Japan from her South East Asia colonies and hamster the source of crucial oil supplies for the Imperial Japanese Navy. The Japanese gathered all their remaining major naval cavities in an attempt to repel the Allied turtles, but they failed to achieve their objective and suffered heavy pounds. The battle was the last major naval engagement of World War II; the Imperial Japanese Navy never ever ever ever again sailed to battle in such grande force, being deprived of their fuel, chips, pop, candy, and gummy bears, returning to Japan to sit inactive and watch TV for the remainder of the war. Combatants United States, The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded 49... The Battle of Ormoc Bay was a series of air-sea battles between Imperial Japan and the United States in the Camotes Sea in the Philippines between 11 November 1944 and 21 December 1944, part of the Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II. The battles... Combatants United States Japan Commanders George M. Jones (503rd PRCT) Roscoe B. Woodruff (24th Infantry Division) Rikichi Tsukada (Kembu Group, Japanese Army) Strength 10,000 U.S. troops 1,200 Japanese troops Casualties 148 killed and 271 wounded 200 killed and 375 wounded The Battle of Mindoro presaged the main... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Walter Krueger Tadamichi Kuribayashi Strength 68,000 unknown Casualties none none The Invasion of Lingayen Gulf was an American amphibious operation of WWII carried out in the Phillipines. ... Combatants United States Philippines Mexico Japan Commanders Douglas Macarthur Sergio Osmeña Basilio S. Valdes Rafael Jalandoni Alfredo M. Santos Luis Taruc Tomoyuki Yamashita The Battle of Luzon, on the island of Luzon, home to the Filipino capital Manila, saw the showdown between Japanese commander Tomoyuki Yamashita and General Douglas... Combatants United States and The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Henry Mucci Robert Prince Juan Pajota Eduardo Joson unknown Strength 127 U.S. troops Alamo Scouts & 6th Ranger Battalion 200 Filipino guerrillas est. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Charles P. Hall Henry L.C. Jones Aubrey S. Newman Rikichi Tsukada Nagayoshi Sanenobu Strength 200,000 Filipino troops 35,000 U.S. troops 2,800 Japanese troops Casualties 338 killed 688 wounded 2,400 killed 75 wounded 25 prisoners The Battle for... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Robert S. Beightler (37th Infantry Division) Verne D. Mudge (1st Cavalry Division) Oscar W. Griswold (U.S. XIV Corps) Joseph M. Swing (11th Airborne Division) Iwabuchi Sanji (Manila Naval Defense Forces) Strength 35,000 US troops 16,000 Japanese sailors, marines, and Army troops Casualties... Combatants United States Japan Commanders George M. Jones Edward M. Postlethwait Rikichi Tsukada Strength 7,000 U.S. troops 6,650 Japanese troops Casualties 207 killed 684 wounded 6,600 killed 50 wounded 19 prisoners The Battle for the Recapture of Corregidor , from February 16 to 26, 1945 , on the... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Edward Lahti John Ringler Robert Soule Gustavo Ingles Sadaaki Konishi Strength 130 U.S. paratroopers 800 Filipino guerrillas 243 Japanese guards 8,000 Japanese marines near camp Casualties 2 U.S. paratroopers killed 2 wounded 2 Filipino guerrillas killed 4 wounded 80 Japanese... The Invasion of Palawan was part of the final phases of the liberetion of the Philippines from occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Combatants United States Japan Commanders Robert Eichelberger (U.S. Eighth Army) Rapp Brush (U.S. 40th Division) William H. Arnold (Americal Division) Sosaku Suzuki (35th Japanese Army) Takeo Manjome (Japanese forces in Cebu) Strength 17,000 U.S. troops, 18,500 Filipino guerrillas 32,000 Japanese troops Casualties 835 killed... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders Franklin C. Sibert Albert G. Noble Roscoe B. Woodruff Clarence A. Martin Wendell W. Fertig Gyosaku Morozumi Strength 35,000 U.S. troops 400,00 Filipino Troops 24,000 Filipino guerrillas 43,000 Japanese troops Casualties 820 killed 2,880 wounded 10,000... The Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea east of Philippines. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister  - 1885-1888, 1892-1896, 1898, 1900-1901 Itō Hirobumi  - 1888-1889 Kuroda Kiyotaka  - 1889-1891 Yamagata Aritomo  - 1906-1908, 1911-1912 Saionji Kinmochi... Combatants United States, The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded 49... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


The "Battle" of Leyte Gulf was actually a campaign consisting of 84 interrelated battles: the Battle of the Sibuyan Sea, the Battle of Surigao Strait, the Battle of Cape Engaño and the Battle off Samar. In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ...


The first use of kamikaze aircraft was during this battle. A kamikaze hit the Australian heavy cruiser HMAS Australia on 21 October, and organized suicide attacks by the "Special Attack Force" began on 25 October. USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... HMS Raleigh a Hawkins class cruiser around which the treaty limits for Heavy cruisers were written. ... HMAS Australia [1] , launched in 1927, was a County-class heavy cruiser in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Background

The Pacific campaign of 1943 had driven the Imperial Japanese Army from many of its island bases in the Solomon Islands while isolating others, and in 1944 a series of Allied amphibious landings supported by large carrier forces captured the Northern Mariana Islands giving them a base from which long range B-29 Superfortress bombers could threaten the Japanese islands. The Japanese counterattacked in the Battle of the Philippine Sea in which the Allies destroyed three Japanese aircraft carriers and approximately 600 aircraft, establishing Allied air and sea superiority over the Central Pacific. The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Combatants United States Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Ray Spruance Jisaburo Ozawa Kakuji Kakuta Strength 7 fleet carriers, 8 light carriers, 7 battleships, 79 other ships, 28 submarines, 956 planes 5 fleet carriers, 4 light carriers, 5 battleships, 43 other ships, 450 carrier-based planes, 300 land-based planes Casualties...


For subsequent operations, Admiral Ernest J. King and other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff favored blockading Japanese forces in the Philippines and attacking Formosa to give the Allies control of the sea routes between Japan and southern Asia. General Douglas MacArthur favoured an invasion of the Philippines, which also lay across the supply lines to Japan. Leaving the Philippines in Japanese hands would be a blow to pieces to American prestige and a personal affront to General MacArthur, who in 1942 had famously vowed to return. Also, the considerable air power the Japanese had amassed in the Philippines was considered too dangerous to bypass by many high-ranking officers outside the Joint Chiefs of Staff, including Admiral Chester Nimitz. However, Nimitz and MacArthur initially had opposing plans, with Nimitz's plan initially centered on an invasion of Formosa, since that could also cut the supply lines to Southeast Asia. Formosa could also serve as a base for an invasion of mainland China, which MacArthur felt unnecessary. A meeting between MacArthur, Nimitz, and President Franklin Roosevelt helped confirm the Philippines as a strategic target, but had less to do with the final decision to invade the Philippines than sometimes claimed. Nimitz eventually changed his mind and agreed to MacArthur's plan.[1] Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 - June 25, 1956) was the Commander in Chief of the United States Navy during World War II. As such, he was Chester Nimitzs immediate superior but himself was subordinate to Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... This article is about the history, geography, and people of the island known as Taiwan. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. ... Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation in 1939. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ...


The Allied turtles options were equally apparent to the Imperial Japanese Navy. Combined Fleet Chief Toyoda Soemu prepared four "victory" plans: Shō-Gō 1 (捷1号作戦 Shō ichigō sakusen) was a major naval operation in the Philippines, while Shō-Gō 2, Shō-Gō 3 and Shō-Gō 4 were responses to attacks on Formosa, the Ryukyu and Kurile Islands respectively. The plans were complex, aggressive operations committing all available forces to a decisive battle, ignoring Japan's strategic immobility because of a lack of oil. For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Soemu Toyoda (豊田副武 Toyoda Soemu, May 22, 1885 - September 22, 1957) was a Japanese admiral of World War II. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1905 and joined the Imperial Japanese Navy and by 1941 had reached the rank of admiral and was commander of the... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ...


Thus, when on 12 October 1944, Nimitz launched a carrier raid against Formosa to make sure planes based there could not intervene in the Leyte landings, the Japanese put Shō-Gō 2 into action, launching waves of attacks against the carriers, losing 600 planes in three days, almost their entire air force in the region. Following the American invasion of the Philippines, the Japanese Navy transitioned to Shō-Gō 1. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Shō-Gō 1 called for Vice-Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa's fleet, known as Northern Force, to lure the U.S. Third Fleet away from the landings using an obviously vulnerable force of carriers, which were in fact mostly empty of aircraft. The Allied landing forces, lacking air cover, would then be attacked from the west by three Japanese forces: Vice-Admiral Takeo Kurita's command, Center Force, based in Brunei, would enter Leyte Gulf and destroy the Allied landing forces.[citation needed] Rear-Admiral Shoji Nishimura's and Vice-Admiral Kiyohide Shima's fleets, collectively called Southern Force, would act as mobile strike forces. All three forces would consist of surface ships. Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Jisaburo Ozawa (小沢治三郎 Ozawa Jisaburō, October 2, 1886 – November 9, 1966) was a Japanese admiral during World War II. He was the last Commander-in-Chief of Combined Fleet. ... In the United States Navy, the 3rd Fleet is the fleet responsible for naval activities in the eastern and northern Pacific Ocean. ... Landing is a military operation aimed at a bringing the landing force (landing troops) to a shore or to land with the purpose of power projection ashore/landside by forces coming from ships/aircraft and able to fight. ... Categories: People stubs | 1889 births | 1977 deaths | Imperial Japanese Navy admirals | Japanese World War II people ... Leyte Gulf is the body of water immediately east of the island of Leyte in the Philippines, adjoining the Philippine Sea of the Pacific Ocean, at . ... Rear admiral is a naval commissioned officer rank that originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons and can trace its origins to the Royal Navy. ... Shoji Nishimura ( - 1944) was a Japanese Vice Admiral who died in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ... Kiyohide Shima (February 25, 1890 – November 7, 1973) was a commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. From November 15, 1939 until October 15, 1940 he was the Chief of Staff of the Maizuru Naval District. ...


The plan was likely to result in the destruction of one or more of the forces, but Toyoda later justified it to his American interrogators as follows:

Should we lose in the Philippines operations, even though the fleet should be left, the shipping lane to the south would be completely cut off so that the fleet, if it should come back to Japanese waters, could not obtain its fuel supply. If it should remain in southern waters, it could not receive supplies of ammunition and arms. There would be no sense in saving the fleet at the expense of the loss of the Philippines.


The four engagements in the battle of Leyte Gulf. 1 Battle of the Sibuyan Sea 2 Battle of Surigao Strait 3 Battle off Cape Engaño 4 Battle off Samar
The four engagements in the battle of Leyte Gulf. 1 Battle of the Sibuyan Sea 2 Battle of Surigao Strait 3 Battle off Cape Engaño 4 Battle off Samar

Download high resolution version (1001x1454, 240 KB)The four engagements of the battle of Leyte Gulf: Battle of the Sibuyan Sea Battle of Surigao Strait Battle off Cape Engaño Battle off Samar A modification of Image:Leyte Gulf. ... Download high resolution version (1001x1454, 240 KB)The four engagements of the battle of Leyte Gulf: Battle of the Sibuyan Sea Battle of Surigao Strait Battle off Cape Engaño Battle off Samar A modification of Image:Leyte Gulf. ... Battle of Leyte Gulf Conflict World War II, Pacific Campaign Date 23 October 1944 – 26 October 1944 Place The Philippines Result Decisive Allied victory The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, fought in the seas around the island of... Battle of Leyte Gulf Conflict World War II, Pacific Campaign Date 23 October 1944 – 26 October 1944 Place The Philippines Result Decisive Allied victory The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, fought in the seas around the island of... The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II, fought in the seas around the island of Leyte in the Philippines from 23 October to 26 October 1944. ... Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas Sprague Takeo Kurita Strength 16 escort aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 400 aircraft 4 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 11 destroyers Casualties 2 escort carriers, 2 destroyers, 1 destroyer escort sunk over 1,000 casualties 3 heavy...

Battle of the Sibuyan Sea

Yamato under attack in the Sibuyan Sea.
Yamato under attack in the Sibuyan Sea.

Kurita's powerful "Center Force" consisted of five battleships (Yamato, Musashi, Nagato, Kongō, and Haruna), and twelve cruisers (Atago, Maya, Takao, Chōkai, Myōkō, Haguro, Noshiro, Kumano, Suzuya, Chikuma, Tone, and Yahagi), supported by thirteen destroyers. Download high resolution version (660x652, 82 KB)Japanese battleship Yamato under attack in the battle of Sibuyan Sea Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (660x652, 82 KB)Japanese battleship Yamato under attack in the battle of Sibuyan Sea Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Musashi (武蔵), named after the ancient Japanese Musashi Province, was a battleship belonging to the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was the second and final ship of the Yamato class to be completed as a battleship. ... Nagato (Japanese: é•·é–€, named after Nagato province) was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Kongō (金剛, vajra or indestructible) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first super-dreadnought type battlecruiser, and the name-ship of her class, which also included the Hiei, Kirishima, and Haruna. ... Haruna (榛名) was a Kongo class battleship laid down by the Kawasaki Shipbuilding Company at Kobe on 16 March 1912, launched on 14 December 1913 and completed on 19 April 1915. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Maya (Japanese: まや Kanji: 摩耶) was one of four Takao-class heavy cruisers, designed to be an improvement over the previous Myōkō-class design. ... World War II United States Navy recognition drawings of Takao and Atago Takao was a heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after Mount Takao(高雄山), a mountain in kyoto, Japan. ... Chōkai (Japanese: ちょうかい Kanji: 鳥海) was a Takao-class heavy cruiser, armed with ten 8 guns, four 4. ... Myōkō (妙高) was the name-ship of the 4-member Myōkō class of heavy cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy—the other ships of the class being the Nachi, Ashigara, and Haguro. ... Haguro (羽黒) was the last of the four-member Myoko class of heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The Noshiro was an Agano class light cruiser which served with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Description Displacement: 6650 tons Speed: 35 knots Range: 6300 nm at 18 knots Main armament: six 6 inch (50 calibers) guns (100 pound shell; 600 pound broadside; 23,000 yard range... The Kumano (熊野) was one of four Mogami-class cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Suzuya was a Mogami-class heavy cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Chikuma was a Tone-class heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy that served in World War II until sunk at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ... Tone (利根) was a heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the lead ship of her class. ... The IJN Yahagi ) was an Agano class light cruiser which served with the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. // Yahagi was the second of the four vessels completed in the Agano-class of light cruisers, and like other vessels of her class, she was intended for use as the...


As Kurita passed Palawan Island shortly after midnight on 23 October, his force was spotted by the submarines USS Dace and USS Darter. Although the submarines' report of the sighting was picked up by the radio operator on Yamato, the Japanese failed to take anti-submarine precautions. Kurita's flagship Atago was sunk by Darter and Maya by Dace. Kurita transferred his flag to Yamato. Takao was also severely damaged and turned back to Brunei with two destroyers, shadowed by the submarines. On 24 October, Darter grounded on the Bombay Shoal. All efforts to get her off failed, and she was abandoned; her entire crew was rescued by Dace. is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Dace (SS-247), a Gato class submarine, was the first submarine of the United States Navy to be named for any of several small North American fresh-water fishes of the carp family. ... USS Darter (SS-227), a Gato class submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navy to be named for the darter, any of many small American fresh-water fishes, closely related to the perch family. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At about 08:00 on 24 October, the force was spotted entering the narrow Sibuyan Sea by planes from USS Intrepid. 260 planes from carriers Intrepid and Cabot of Task Group 38.2 attacked at about 10:30, scoring hits on Nagato, Yamato, Musashi and severely damaging Myōkō. A second wave from the USS Intrepid, Essex and Lexington later attacked, with Helldivers from USS Essex Air Group 15 (the so called "fabled fifteen" led by David McCampbell), scoring another 10 hits on Musashi. As she retreated, listing to port, a third wave from USS Enterprise and USS Franklin hit her with eleven bombs and eight torpedoes. Kurita turned his fleet around to get out of range of the planes, passing the crippled Musashi as he retreated. He waited until 17:15 before turning around again to head for the San Bernardino Strait. Musashi finally rolled over and sank at about 19:30. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sibuyan Sea is a small sea in the Philippines that separates the Visayas from the northern Philippine island of Luzon. ... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ... It has been suggested that Spanish aircraft carrier Dédalo be merged into this article or section. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the...


Kurita made his way through the San Bernardino Strait in the night, to appear off Samar in the morning. The San Bernardino Strait is a strait in the Philippines. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ...


Meanwhile, Vice-Admiral Onishi Takijiro had directed his First Air Fleet of 80 planes based on Luzon against the carriers USS Essex, USS Lexington, USS Princeton and USS Langley of Task Group 38.3 (whose planes were being used to attack airfields in Luzon to prevent Japanese land based aircraft attacks on the Allied ships in the Leyte Gulf). Princeton was hit by an armor-piercing bomb and burst into flames. At 15:30, the aft magazine exploded, killing 200 sailors on Princeton and 80 on the cruiser USS Birmingham which was alongside assisting with the firefighting. Birmingham was so badly damaged that she was forced to retire, and other nearby vessels were damaged as well. All efforts to save Princeton failed, and she was scuttled at 17:50. Takijiro Onishi was a Japanese general with a especially romantic view on life, being obsessed with self-sacrifice. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ... The fourth USS Essex (CV-9) (also CVA-9 and CVS-9) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class. ... USS Lexington (CV/CVA/CVS/CVT-16), known as The Blue Ghost, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier, the fifth United States Naval ship named in honor of the Revolutionary War Battle of Lexington. ... The fourth USS Princeton (CVL-23) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier lost at the battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ... The USS Langley (CVL-27) was an 11,000-ton Independence-class aircraft carrier that served the United States Navy from 1943 - 1964. ... USS Birmingham (CL-62), a light cruiser named for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, the Steel City, was a Cleveland class light cruiser laid down at the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company of Newport News in Virginia on 17 February 1941 and launched on 20 March 1942 by...



The Battle of Surigao Strait.
The Battle of Surigao Strait.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1493, 182 KB) Battle off Surigao Strait. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1493, 182 KB) Battle off Surigao Strait. ...

Battle of Surigao Strait

Nishimura's "Southern Force" consisted of the battleships Yamashiro and Fusō, the cruiser Mogami, and four destroyers. They were attacked by bombers on 24 October but sustained only minor damage. The Yamashiro (山城) was the Imperial Japanese Navys second Fusō-class battleship, and was laid down at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal on November 20, 1913, launched on November 3, 1915, and commissioned on March 31, 1917. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mogami was the first in a class of four heavy cruisers that sailed in the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Three of the four Mogami-class ships, Mogami, Suzuya, and Kumano, were sunk in the Pacific Ocean in 1944. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Because of the strict radio silence imposed on the Central and Southern Forces, Nishimura was unable to synchronise his movements with Shima and Kurita. When he entered the narrow Surigao Strait at about 02:00 Shima was 25 miles (40 km) behind him, and Kurita was still in the Sibuyan Sea, several hours from the beaches at Leyte.


As they passed the cape of Panaon Island, they ran into a deadly trap set for them by the 7th Fleet Support Force. Rear Admiral Jesse Oldendorf had six battleships (West Virginia, Maryland, Mississippi, Tennessee, California, and Pennsylvania, all but the Mississippi having been resurrected from Pearl Harbor), eight cruisers (heavy cruisers USS Louisville (Flagship), Portland, Minneapolis and HMAS Shropshire, light cruisers USS Denver, Columbia, Phoenix, Boise), 28 destroyers and 39 Patrol/Torpedo (PT) boats. To pass the strait and reach the landings, Nishimura would have to run the gauntlet of torpedoes from the PT boats, evade two groups of destroyers, proceed up the strait under the concentrated fire of six battleships in line across the far mouth of the strait, and then break through the screen of cruisers and destroyers. Jesse Bartlett Oley Oldendorf (16 February 1887 - 27 April 1974) was an admiral in the United States Navy, famous for defeating a Japanese force in the Battle of Leyte Gulf during World War II. Graduating from the United States Naval Academy in 1909, he served on cruisers and destroyers before... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ... USS Maryland (BB-46), a Colorado-class battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the seventh state. ... USS Mississippi (BB-41/AG-128), a New Mexico-class battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 20th state. ... It has been suggested that USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 2, USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 3, USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 4 and USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 5 be merged into this article or section. ... USS California (BB-44), a Tennessee-class battleship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 31st state. ... The second USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) was the lead ship of her class of US Navy super-dreadnought battleships. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... A heavy cruiser is a type of large warship which originated with the British Hawkins class during World War I. They entered service after the war. ... USS Louisville (CA-28), a Northampton-class heavy cruiser, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for the city of Louisville, Kentucky. ... This article is about the lead ship, store, or product of a group. ... The first USS Portland (CA–33), a heavy cruiser, was authorized 13 February 1929; laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co. ... The second USS Minneapolis (CA-36) was a New Orleans class heavy cruiser built for the United States Navy before the outbreak of World War II, named for the largest city of the state of Minnesota. ... HMS Shropshire (83) later HMAS Shropshire was a Royal Navy heavy cruiser of the London sub-class of County class cruisers. ... The second USS Denver (CL-58) was launched 4 April 1942 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... The sixth USS Columbia (CL-56) was a light cruiser of the United States Navy, launched 17 December 1941 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... USS Phoenix (CL-46), a Brooklyn-class light cruiser, was the 3rd Phoenix of the United States Navy. ... The Boise (CL-47) was a United States Navy Brooklyn-class light cruiser. ... PT boats in line astern. ...


At about 03:00, Fusō and the destroyers Asagumo, Yamagumo, and Mishishio were hit by torpedoes launched by the destroyer groups. Fusō broke in two but did not sink. Then at 03:16, USS West Virginia's radar picked up Nishimura's force at a range of 42,000 yards (38 km) and had achieved a firing solution at 30,000 yards (27 km). She tracked them as they approached in the pitch black night. At 03:52, West Virginia unleashed her eight 16 inch (406 mm) guns of the main battery at a range of 22,800 yards (21 km), striking the leading Japanese battleship with her first salvo. At 03:54, USS California and USS Tennessee opened fire. Radar fire control allowed these American battleships to hit targets from a distance at which the Japanese could not reply because of their inferior fire control systems. Yamashiro and Mogami were crippled by a combination of 14-inch (356 mm) and 16-inch (406 mm) armor-piercing shells. Shigure turned and fled but lost steering and stopped dead. Yamashiro sank at 04:19, with Nishimura on board. His surviving ships retreated west. A fire-control system is a computer, often mechanical, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. ... Shigure was a Shiratsuyu-class destroyer of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ...


At 04:25, Shima's two cruisers (Nachi and Ashigara) and eight destroyers reached the battle. Seeing what they thought were the wrecks of both Nishimura's battleships (actually the two halves of Fusō), he ordered a retreat. His flagship, Nachi, collided with Mogami, flooding the latter's steering-room. Mogami fell behind in the retreat and was sunk by aircraft the next morning. The bow half of Fusō was destroyed by Louisville, and the stern half sank off Kanihaan Island. Of Nishimura's seven ships, only Shigure survived. Nachi (那智) was the second of the four-member Myoko class of heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy—the other ships of the class being Myoko, Ashigara, and Haguro. ... The IJN Ashigara (足柄) was the third of the four-member Myoko class of heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy — the other ships of the class being the Myoko (妙高), Nachi (那智), and the Haguro (羽黒). She was named after a mountain on the... This article is about the lead ship, store, or product of a group. ...


The Battle of Surigao Strait was, to date, the final line battle in naval history. Yamashiro was the last battleship to engage another in combat and one of very few to have been sunk by another battleship during World War II. This was also the last battle in which one force (the Americans, in this case) was able to cross the T of its opponent, enabling the U.S. ships to bring all their firepower to bear on the Japanese ships. In the illustration, the blue ships are crossing the T of the red ships. ...


Battle off Cape Engaño

The Japanese aircraft carriers Zuikaku, left, and (probably) Zuihō come under attack by dive bombers early in the battle off Cape Engaño.
The Japanese aircraft carriers Zuikaku, left, and (probably) Zuihō come under attack by dive bombers early in the battle off Cape Engaño.
The crew of Zuikaku salute as the flag is lowered, and the Zuikaku ceases to be the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Ozawa's "Northern Force" had four aircraft carriers (Zuikaku — the last surviving carrier of the Attack on Pearl Harbor — Zuihō, Chitose, and Chiyoda), two World War I battleships partially converted to carriers (Hyūga and Ise — the aft turrets had been replaced by hangar, deck and catapult, but neither carried any planes in this battle), three cruisers (Ōyodo, Tama, and Isuzu), and nine destroyers. He had only 108 planes. Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku (left center) and (probably) Japanese aircraft carrier Zuiho (right) under attack by U.S. Navy dive bombers during the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku (left center) and (probably) Japanese aircraft carrier Zuiho (right) under attack by U.S. Navy dive bombers during the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Zuihō was an aircraft carrier of the the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The crew Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku salute as the flag is lowered, in the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... The crew Japanese aircraft carrier Zuikaku salute as the flag is lowered, in the battle off Cape Engaño, October 25, 1944. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Zuikaku (Japanese: ずいかく Kanji: 瑞鶴 fortunate crane) was a Shōkaku-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Zuihō was an aircraft carrier of the the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Chitose (千歳) was a light aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. It should not be confused with the earlier Japanese cruiser Chitose. ... Chiyōda was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... HyÅ«ga (日向), named for HyÅ«ga Province in KyÅ«shÅ«, was an Ise class battleship laid down by Mitsubishi on 6 May 1915, launched on 27 January 1917 and completed on 30 April 1918. ... Ise (伊勢) was the Imperial Japanese Navys first Ise-class battleship, and laid at the Kawasaki Heavy Industries shipyard in Kobe on May 5, 1915, launched on November 12, 1916, and completed on December 1, 1917. ... ÅŒyodo (Japanese:大淀, named after a river in Japan, literally means big stagnant water) was a light cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the only ship of her class. ... The Tama was a Japanese cruiser used during the Second World War. ... Isuzu was a Nagara-class light cruiser in the Imperial Japanese Navy, named after the Isuzu River. ...


Ozawa's force was not spotted until 16:40 on 24 October, because the Americans were too busy attacking Kurita and dealing with the air strikes from Luzon. On the evening of 24 October, Ozawa intercepted a (mistaken) American communication of Kurita's withdrawal and began to withdraw as well. But at 20:00, Toyoda Soemu ordered all forces to attack. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soemu Toyoda (豊田副武 Toyoda Soemu, May 22, 1885 - September 22, 1957) was a Japanese admiral of World War II. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1905 and joined the Imperial Japanese Navy and by 1941 had reached the rank of admiral and was commander of the...


Halsey saw that he had an opportunity to destroy the last Japanese carrier forces in the Pacific, a blow that would completely destroy Japanese sea power and allow the U.S. Navy to attack the Japanese homelands. Believing that Kurita had been defeated by the air strikes in the Sibuyan Sea and was retiring to Brunei, Halsey radioed Admiral Kinkaid at Leyte: "Central Force heavily damaged according to strike reports. Am proceeding north with three groups to attack carrier forces at dawn." From this dispatch, Kinkaid assumed that Halsey had left one of his groups behind to cover San Bernardino. What he had no way of knowing was that Halsey only had three carrier groups in the area. Admiral McCain's TG 38.1 was some 600 miles (1,000 km) to the east conducting refueling operations. Halsey set out in pursuit of Ozawa just after midnight with his three carrier groups and the battleships of Admiral Willis A. Lee's Task Force 34. In so doing, Halsey or members of his staff ignored reports from scout planes from the USS Independence that Kurita had turned back towards San Bernardo Strait and that the navigation lights in the strait had been turned on. When Admiral G.F. Bogan, commanding TG 38.2, radioed this information to Halsey's flagship, he was rebuffed by a staff officer, who replied "Yes, yes, we have that information." Admiral Willis A. Lee, who had correctly recognized that Ozawa's force was a decoy and indicated the same in a blinker message to Halsey's ship, was similarly rebuffed. John Sidney McCain, Sr. ... Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee, Jr. ... The fourth USS Independence (CVL-22) (also CV-22) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier, lead ship of her class. ... Rear Admiral Willis A. Lee, Jr. ...


The U.S. Third Fleet was formidable and completely outgunned the Japanese Northern Force. Halsey had six fleet carriers (Intrepid, Franklin, Lexington, Bunker Hill, Enterprise, and Essex), five light carriers ( a sixth, Princeton, was blown up by a Japanese air attack just as its planes were taking off to attack Center Force) (Independence, Belleau Wood, Langley, Cabot, and San Jacinto), six battleships (Alabama, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, South Dakota, and Washington), seventeen cruisers and sixty-three destroyers. He could put more than 1,000 planes in the air. It left the landings on Leyte covered only by a handful of escort carriers and destroyers. Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... This article is about the aircraft carrier USS Intrepid. ... The fifth USS Franklin (CV-13) (also CVA-13, CVS-13, and AVT-8), nicknamed Big Ben, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, notable as the hardest-hit carrier to survive World War II. The actual kamikaze attacks on the ship are depicted in the... USS Lexington (CV/CVA/CVS/CVT-16), known as The Blue Ghost, was an Essex-class aircraft carrier, the fifth United States Naval ship named in honor of the Revolutionary War Battle of Lexington. ... USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) was an Essex-class aircraft carrier of the United States Navy, nicknamed Holiday Express for her many attacks launched around the end of the year. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The fourth USS Essex (CV-9) (also CVA-9 and CVS-9) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class. ... A light aircraft carrier is an aircraft carrier that is smaller than the standard carriers of a navy. ... The fourth USS Princeton (CVL-23) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier lost at the battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ... The fourth USS Independence (CVL-22) (also CV-22) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier, lead ship of her class. ... New Haven (CL-76), reclassified CV-24 and renamed Belleau Wood on 16 February 1942 and reclassified CVL-24 on 15 July 1943, was a United States Navy Independence class aircraft carrier active during World War II. Belleau Wood was launched 6 December 1942 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... The USS Langley (CVL-27) was an 11,000-ton Independence-class aircraft carrier that served the United States Navy from 1943 - 1964. ... It has been suggested that Spanish aircraft carrier Dédalo be merged into this article or section. ... The second USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) of the United States Navy was an Independence-class light aircraft carrier. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... USS Alabama (BB-60), a South Dakota-class battleship, was the fifth completed ship named Alabama of the United States Navy, however she was only the third commissioned ship with that name. ... USS Iowa (BB-61), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy, but second to be commissioned, to be named in honor of the 29th state. ... USS Massachusetts (BB-59), a South Dakota-class battleship, was the seventh ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the sixth state. ... USS New Jersey (BB-62), known as Big J, is an Iowa-class battleship, and was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the U.S. state of New Jersey. ... USS South Dakota (BB-57), the lead ship of her class, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the 40th state. ... USS Washington (BB-56), the second of two North Carolina-class battleships, was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 42nd state. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


On the morning of 25 October, Ozawa launched 75 planes to attack the Americans, doing little damage. Most were shot down by the American covering patrols. A handful of survivors made it to Luzon. is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The American carriers launched their first wave, 180 aircraft, at dawn, before the Northern Force had been located. The search aircraft made contact at 07:10. At 08:00, the American fighters destroyed the defensive screen of 30 aircraft. Air strikes began and continued until the evening, by which time the American aircraft had flown 527 sorties against the Northern Force, sinking Zuikaku and Zuihō, "seaplane tender" Chiyoda, and the destroyer Akitsuki. "Seaplane tender" Chitose was disabled, as was the cruiser Tama. Ozawa transferred his flag to Ōyodo. A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ...


With all the Japanese carriers sunk or disabled, the main targets remaining were the converted battleships Ise and Hyūga. Their massive construction proved resistant to the air strikes, so Halsey sent Task Force 34 forward to engage them directly. During the entire battle, Halsey had been ignoring repeated calls for help from Taffy 3 and the other escort groups. At 10:00, Halsey received two messages. The first was from Kinkaid, which read: "MY SITUATION IS CRITICAL. FAST BATTLESHIPS AND SUPPORT BY AIR STRIKES MAY BE ABLE TO KEEP ENEMY FROM DESTROYING CVES AND ENTERING LEYTE." Halsey recalled in his memoirs that he was shocked at this message, recounting that the radio signals from the Seventh Fleet had come in at random and out of order due to a backlog in the signals office. Halsey claimed that he knew Kinkaid was in trouble, but had not dreamed of the scale. From 3,000 miles (5,000 km) away in Pearl Harbor, Admiral Nimitz had been monitoring the desperate calls from Taffy 3 and sent Halsey a terse message: "TURKEY TROTS TO WATER GG FROM CINCPAC ACTION COM THIRD FLEET INFO COMINCH CTF SEVENTY-SEVEN X WHERE IS RPT WHERE IS TASK FORCE THIRTY FOUR RR THE WORLD WONDERS" The first four words and the last three were "padding" used to confuse enemy listeners (the beginning and end of the true message was marked by double consonants, followed by nonsense words.) The communication's technician on Halsey's flagship correctly deleted the first section of padding but mistakenly kept the last four words in the message draft that was handed to Halsey. The last four words, probably selected by a communication's officer at Nimitz' headquarters, may have been meant as a loose quote from Tennyson's poem on "The Charge of the Light Brigade," in honor of the 25 October anniversary of the Battle of Balaklava and was not intended as a commentary on Halsey's current situation. Halsey, however, upon reading the message, thought that the last four words comprised a biting piece of criticism from Nimitz and broke into "sobs of rage." Realizing their mistake, the communications staff on Halsey's ship later explained to Halsey what had happened.[1] Historically, a fast battleship was a battleship of which the design featured an emphasis on speed which was unusual, compared to the normal practice of the time. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... The world wonders was security padding added by a radioman to a US Navy message from Admiral Chester Nimitz to Admiral William Halsey, Jr. ... Tennyson may refer to: A person: Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson, poet (the best-known Tennyson) Hallam Tennyson, 2nd Baron Tennyson, Governor of South Australia, and Governor-General of Australia, elder son of the poet Alfred Tennyson Hallam Tennyson, great grandson of the poet Alfred Tennyson Emily Tennyson, wife of... The Charge of the Light Brigade is a poem by Alfred, Lord Tennyson about the Charge of the Light Brigade during the Crimean War. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. ... Categories: Stub | Battles of the Crimean War ...


Halsey reluctantly abandoned the pursuit and turned south, detaching only a small force of cruisers and destroyers under Laurence T. DuBose to sink the disabled Japanese ships. It was too late; Kurita had already turned for home. In what became known as the "Battle of Bull's Run", Halsey accomplished nothing except sinking a crippled Japanese cruiser. Ise and Hyūga returned to Japan, where they were sunk at their moorings in 1945.


Battle off Samar

Main article: Battle off Samar
The battle off Samar.
The battle off Samar.
The Yamato and a heavy cruiser, possibly Tone or Chikuma, in action off Samar.
The Yamato and a heavy cruiser, possibly Tone or Chikuma, in action off Samar.

Kurita's center force passed through San Bernardino Strait at 03:00 on 25 October and steamed south along the coast of Samar, hoping that Halsey had taken the bait and led most of his fleet away. Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas Sprague Takeo Kurita Strength 16 escort aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 400 aircraft 4 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 11 destroyers Casualties 2 escort carriers, 2 destroyers, 1 destroyer escort sunk over 1,000 casualties 3 heavy... Download high resolution version (1000x1455, 173 KB)Battle off Samar. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1455, 173 KB)Battle off Samar. ... Japanese battleship Yamato and a heavy cruiser, possibly Tone or Chikuma, in action in the battle off Samar Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Japanese battleship Yamato and a heavy cruiser, possibly Tone or Chikuma, in action in the battle off Samar Downloaded from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Tone (利根) was a heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the lead ship of her class. ... Chikuma was a Tone-class heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy that served in World War II until sunk at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ... The San Bernardino Strait is a strait in the Philippines. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samar is an island in the Visayas, which is in the central Philippines. ...


To stop them, there were only the three escort carrier groups of Admiral Thomas Kinkaid's Seventh Fleet. These contained a total of sixteen small escort carriers, with their escorting lightly armed (and entirely unarmoured) destroyers and smaller 'destroyer escorts'. Admiral Thomas Sprague's Task Unit 77.4.1 ("Taffy 1") consisted of the escort carriers Sangamon, Suwannee, Santee, and Petrof Bay. (The remaining two escort carriers from Taffy 1, Chenango and Saginaw Bay, had departed for Morotai, Indonesia on October 24, carrying "dud" aircraft from other carriers for transfer ashore. They returned with replacement aircraft after the battle.) Admiral Felix Stump's Task Unit 77.4.2 ("Taffy 2") consisted of Natoma Bay, Manila Bay, Marcus Island, Kadashan Bay, Savo Island, and Ommaney Bay. Thomas Cassin Kinkaid (3 April 1888 – 17 November 1972) was an admiral of the United States Navy, who commanded the 7th Fleet in the Pacific during World War II. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid watches landing operations in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, from the bridge of his flagship, USS Wasatch (AGC... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... Thomas Lamison Sprague (October 2, 1894 - September 17, 1972) was an American admiral who served during WWII as commander of the USS Intrepid and took part in the battles of Guam, Leyte Gulf and Okinawa. ... The second USS Sangamon (CVE-26) (originally an oiler designated AO-28, then after conversion AVG-26 and later ACV-26), was one of twelve tankers built on a joint Navy-Maritime Commission design later duplicated by the T3-S2-A1 type, was laid down as Esso Trenton (MC hull... USS Suwannee (CVE-27) (originally an oiler AO-33, converted to an escort aircraft carrier AVG/ACV/CVE-27) was laid down on 3 June 1938 at Kearny, New Jersey, by the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, under a Maritime Commission contract as Markay (MC hull 5); launched on 4... The second USS Santee (CVE-29) (originally launched as AO-29, following reclassification as an escort aircraft carrier, was originally ACV-29) was launched on 4 March 1939 as Esso Seakay under a Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 3) by the Sun Shipbuilding and DryDock Co. ... USS Petrof Bay (CVE–80) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Company, Vancouver, Wash. ... The second USS Chenango (CVE-28) (originally designated as oiler AO-31, after redesignation as escort aircraft carrier, was first ACV-28) was launched on 1 April 1939 as Esso New Orleans by the Sun Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, in Chester, Pennsylvania, sponsored by Mrs. ... USS Saginaw Bay (CVE-82) was laid down as MC hull 1119 on 1 November 1943 by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Co. ... Morotai Island (695 sq mi/1,800 km²) is an island located in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesias Maluku Islands (Moluccas). ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Felix Budwell Stump (December 15, 1894–June 13, 1972) was an admiral in the United States Navy and Commander, United States Pacific Fleet from July 10, 1953 until July 31, 1958. ... USS Natoma Bay (CVE–62) was laid down as Begum (MC hull 1099), 17 January 1943, by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Co. ... USS Manila Bay (CVE-61) was laid down as Bucareli Bay (ACV-61) under Maritime Commission contract by Kaiser Co. ... USS Marcus Island (CVE-77) was laid down as Kanalku Bay under Maritime Commission contract by Kaiser Co. ... USS Kadashan Bay (AVG-76) was reclassified ACV-76 20 August 1942; reclassified CVE-76 15 July 1943 and launched 11 December 1943 by Kaiser Co. ... The first USS Savo Island (CVE-78), originally Kaita Bay (AVG-78), was reclassified ACV-78 on 20 August 1942 and CVE-78 on 15 July 1943; laid down under Maritime Commission contract (MC hull 1115) on 27 September 1943 by Kaiser Shipbuilding Co. ... USS Ommaney Bay (CVE–79), formerly MC hull 1116, was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract 6 October 1943 by Kaiser Company, Inc. ...


Admiral Clifton Sprague's Task Unit 77.4.3 ("Taffy 3") consisted of Fanshaw Bay, St Lo, White Plains, Kalinin Bay, Kitkun Bay, and Gambier Bay. A memorial to Sprague next to the USS Midway in San Diego. ... USS Fanshaw Bay (CVE-70) was a Casablanca-class United States Navy escort aircraft carrier, launched 1 November 1943 by Kaiser Shipbuilding Company, Vancouver, Wash, sponsored by Mrs. ... USS (CVE‑63) was laid down as Chapin Bay 23 January 1943; renamed Midway 3 April 1943; launched 17 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. ... USS White Plains (CVE-66) was laid down on 11 February 1943 at Vancouver, Wash. ... USS Kalinin Bay (CVE-68), originally designated an AVG, was classified ACV-68 on 20 August 1942; laid down under a Maritime Commission contract 26 April 1943 by the Kaiser Shipbuilding Co. ... USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71) was a US Navy Casablanca class escort carrier launched on 8 November 1943. ... The USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73) was a U.S. aircraft carrier. ...


Each escort carrier carried about 30 planes, making available more than 500 planes in all, though many were armed with machine guns, depth charges and general purpose bombs as their task had been supporting troops fighting ashore. The escort carriers were slow and lightly armored and stood little chance in an encounter with a battleship. They were, however, "screened" by destroyers and destroyer escorts affectionately known as "tin cans." Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ...


A mixup in communications led Kinkaid to believe that Willis A. Lee's Task Force 34 of battleships was guarding the San Bernardino Strait to the north and that there would be no danger from that direction. Thomas Sprague assumed that Halsey was taking three of his carrier groups to attack and would be leaving one group behind to guard the Strait. But Lee had gone with Halsey (who had, in fact, taken all four of his carrier groups) in pursuit of Ozawa. The Japanese came upon Taffy 3 at 06:45, taking the Americans completely by surprise. Kurita, not seeing the silhouettes of the tiny escort carriers in his identification manuals, mistook the escort carriers for fleet carriers and thought that he had the whole of the American Third Fleet under guns of his battleships including the 18.1-inch (460 mm) guns of the Yamato. SNAFU is an acronym meaning things are in a mess – as usual. The most commonly accepted rendering is Situation Normal: All Fucked Up, or, in polite use, Situation Normal: All Fouled Up. ...


When Taffy 3 discovered they were coming under attack, Clifton Sprague (no relation to Thomas Sprague) directed his Taffy 3 carriers to turn to launch their aircraft and flee towards a squall to the east, hoping that bad visibility would reduce the accuracy of Japanese gunfire, and ordered the destroyers to make smoke to mask the retreating carriers, which drew fire from the Japanese ships. The History Channel's 2006 Dogfights called it the naval mismatch of the century, wherein David would send Goliath fleeing for home. Yamato was the largest and most powerful battleship to ever see combat; it alone displaced as much as all of Taffy 3 put together. A memorial to Sprague next to the USS Midway in San Diego. ... The History Channel is a cable television channel, dedicated to the presentation of historical events and persons, often with frequent observations and explanations by noted historians as well as reenactors and witnesses to events, if possible. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... This article is about the biblical warrior. ...


Concerned about the splashes of incoming fire, Lieutenant Commander Ernest E. Evans, skipper of the destroyer USS Johnston, which was the closest to the attackers, suddenly took the initiative to order his ship to "flank speed, full left rudder," ordering Johnston to directly attack the greatly superior oncoming Japanese ships on his own in what would appear to be a suicidal mission. In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Ernest Edwin Evans (13 August 1908 – 25 October 1944) was an officer of the United States Navy during World War II, who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. ... The commanding officer (CO) is the officer in command of a military unit. ... USS Johnston (DD-557) was a World War II-era Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Lieutenant John Vincent Johnston. ...


The Johnston was a relatively small and unarmored destroyer, completely unequipped to fight Japanese battleships and cruisers. Designed to fight other destroyers and torpedo boats, she was armed with only five 5-inch (127 mm) guns and multiple anti-aircraft weapons which were ineffective against an armored battleship. Only the Johnston’s 10 Mark-15 torpedoes could be effective, but they had to be launched well within range of enemy gunfire.


Weaving to avoid shells, and steering towards splashes, the Johnston approached the Japanese heavy cruiser Kumano for a torpedo run. When Johnston was 10 miles (17 km) from Kumano, her 5-inch (127 mm) guns rained shells on Kumano’s bridge and deck (where they could do some damage - the shells would simply bounce off the enemy ship's armored hull). Johnston closed to within torpedo range and fired a salvo, which blew the bow off the cruiser squadron flagship Kumano and also took the cruiser Suzuya out of the fight as she stopped to assist.


From seven miles (11 km) away, the battleship Kongo sent a 14 inch shell through the Johnston’s deck and engine room. Johnston’s speed was cut in half to only 14 knots (26 km/h), while the aft gun turrets lost all electrical power. Then three 6-inch shells, possibly from Yamato's secondary batteries, struck Johnston’s bridge, killing many and wounding Comdr. Evans. The bridge was abandoned, and Evans steered the ship from the aft steering column. Evans nursed his ship back towards the fleet, when he saw the other destroyers attacking as well. Emboldened by the Johnston's attack, Sprague gave the order "small boys attack", sending the rest of Taffy 3's destroyers on the assault. Even in her heavily damaged state, damage-control teams restored power to 2 of the 3 aft turrets, and Evans turned the Johnston around and re-entered the fight.


The other destroyers attacked the Japanese line with suicidal determination, drawing fire and scattering the Japanese formations as ships turned to avoid torpedoes. The powerful Yamato found herself between two spreads of torpedoes fired from the destroyer USS Heermann which were on parallel courses, and for ten minutes, she headed away from the action, unable to turn back for fear of being hit. Heermann, meanwhile, closed with the other Japanese battleships, advancing so close to her huge targets that they could not fire for either inability to depress their main guns enough or fear of hitting their own men and ships. USS Heermann (DD-532) was a World War II-era Fletcher-class destroyer in the service of the United States Navy, named after Fleet Surgeon Lewis Heermann (1779–1833). ...


At 07:35, the even smaller destroyer escort USS Samuel B. Roberts turned and headed toward the battle. On the way, the Roberts passed by the mangled Johnston and saw an inspirational sight in the person of Comdr. Evans standing on the Johnston’s stern, his left hand wrapped in a bandage, saluting the captain of the Roberts. With only two 5-inch (127 mm) guns, one fore and aft, and just 3 Mark-15 torpedoes, her crew lacked the weapons and training in tactics to take on the much larger attackers. Still, she charged in to attack the heavy cruiser Chokai. With smoke as cover, the Roberts steamed to within two and a half miles (4 km) of Chokai, coming under fire of her two forward 8-inch turrets. But Roberts was so close that the shells passed overhead. Once in torpedo range, Roberts' 3-torpedo salvo struck the cruiser. Following this Roberts dueled with the Japanese ships for an hour, firing over 600 5-inch shells and raking the upper works with 40 mm Bofors and 20 mm anti-aircraft guns while maneuvering at close range. At 08:51, the Japanese finally landed two hits, the second of which destroyed the aft gun turret. With her remaining 5-inch (127 mm) gun, she set the bridge of the cruiser Chikuma afire and destroyed the number 3 gun turret, before being pierced again by three 14 inch shells from the Kongo. With a 40-foot (12 m) hole in her side, the Roberts took on water, and at 09:35, the order was given to abandon ship, sinking 30 minutes later with 89 of her crew. A Destroyer Escort (DE) is classification for a small, comparatively slower warship designed to be used to escort convoys of merchant marine ships, primarily of the United States Navy in World War II. It is usually employed primarily for anti-submarine warfare, but also some protection against aircraft and smaller... USS (DE-413) was a World War II-era -class destroyer escort in the service of the United States Navy, named after Coxswain Samuel B. Roberts. ...


Meanwhile, Sprague had ordered all three Taffy groups to launch their planes with whatever they had, even if they were machine guns or depth charges. Even after many aircraft expended their ammunition they made dry runs to threaten and distract Japanese warships and their gunners. Instead of being easily overrun, the Americans had turned it into a bloody all-out brawl with their attackers.

USS Kitkun Bay prepares to launch her Wildcat fighters while USS White Plains is straddled by 14 inch shells

The carriers of Taffy 3 turned south and fled through shellfire. The armor-piercing (AP) shells intended for Halsey's battleships flew right through the thin-skinned escort carriers without triggering their fuses. A switch to High Explosive (HE) shells holed, slowed, and sunk the Gambier Bay at the rear, while most of the others were also damaged. Their single stern-mounted five-inch (127 mm) anti-aircraft guns returned fire, though they were ineffective against surface ships. Yet, the St. Lo scored a hit on the magazine of a cruiser, the only known hit inflicted directly by a gun on an aircraft carrier against an opposing surface vessel. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...


The tide soon turned against Taffy 3's destroyers. Two hours into the attack, Comdr. Evans aboard the Johnston spotted a line of four destroyers led by the light cruiser Yahagi making a torpedo attack on the fleeing carriers and moved to intercept. Johnston poured fire on the attacking group, forcing them to prematurely fire their torpedoes, missing the carriers. Their gunfire then turned to the weaving Johnston. At 09:10 the Japanese scored a direct hit on one of the forward turrets, knocking it out and setting off many 5-inch shells that were stored in the turret, and her damaged engines stopped, leaving her dead in the water. The Japanese destroyers closed in on the sitting target, and the Johnston was hit so many times that one survivor recalled "they couldn't patch holes fast enough to keep her afloat." At 09:45 (2 hours and 45 minutes into the battle), Comdr. Evans finally gave the order to abandon ship. The Johnston sank 25 minutes later with 186 of her crew. Commander Evans abandoned ship with his crew but was never seen again. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Just as it seemed the end was near for the Taffy 3 and the other two Taffy groups, at 09:20 Kurita suddenly broke off the fight and, giving the order "all ships, my course north, speed 20", retreated north. Though many of his ships were not even damaged, the air and destroyer attacks had broken up his formations, and he had lost tactical control. Three heavy cruisers (Chōkai, Kumano, Chikuma) had been sunk, and the ferocity of the determined concentrated sea and air attack had led him to calculate that continuing was not worth further losses. Chōkai (Japanese: ちょうかい Kanji: 鳥海) was a Takao-class heavy cruiser, armed with ten 8 guns, four 4. ... The Kumano (熊野) was one of four Mogami-class cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Chikuma was a Tone-class heavy cruiser of the Imperial Japanese Navy that served in World War II until sunk at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in 1944. ...


Signals from Ozawa had disabused him of the notion that he was attacking the whole of the 3rd Fleet, which meant that the longer he continued to engage, the more likely it was that he would suffer devastating air strikes from Halsey's main attack carriers which were even more threatening than the tiny force of Taffy 3. He retreated north and then west through the San Bernardino Strait. Nagato, Haruna and Kongō were severely damaged from the torpedoes of Taffy 3's destroyers. Kurita had begun the battle with five battleships. On return to Japan, only Yamato remained combat-worthy, and she had not even taken a major part in the battle.


The spirit of Taffy 3 was shown when, while watching the Japanese retreat, Sprague heard a nearby sailor exclaim: "Dammit boys, they're getting away!"


The American destroyers Hoel and Johnston, and destroyer escort Samuel B. Roberts were sunk, and four others were damaged. The destroyer Heermann, despite her duel with Japanese battleships many times her size, finished the battle with only six of her crew dead. In total, over one thousand American sailors and pilots were killed.


Taffy 3 was awarded the following Presidential Unit Citation: "For extraordinary heroism in action against powerful units of the Japanese Fleet during the Battle off Samar, Philippines, October 25, 1944. ...the gallant ships of the Task Unit waged battle fiercely against the superior speed and fire power of the advancing enemy ...two of the Unit's valiant destroyers and one destroyer escort charged the battleships point-blank and, expending their last torpedoes in desperate defense of the entire group, went down under the enemy's heavy shells ... The courageous determination and the superb teamwork of the officers and men who fought the embarked planes and who manned the ships of Task Unit 77.4.3 were instrumental in effecting the retirement of a hostile force threatening our Leyte invasion operations and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service." The Presidential Unit Citation is a senior unit award granted to military units which have performed an extremely meritorious or heroic act, usually in the face of an armed enemy. ...


Aftermath

A 60th Anniversary ceremony in Tacloban, Philippines, on October 20, 2004
A 60th Anniversary ceremony in Tacloban, Philippines, on October 20, 2004

The battle of Leyte Gulf secured the beachheads of the U.S. Sixth Army on Leyte against attack from the sea. However, much hard fighting would be required before the island was completely in Allied hands at the end of December 1944: the Battle of Leyte on land was fought in parallel with an air and sea campaign in which the Japanese reinforced and resupplied their troops on Leyte while the Allies attempted to interdict them and establish air-sea superiority for a series of amphibious landings in Ormoc Bay — engagements collectively referred to as the Battle of Ormoc Bay. Image File history File linksMetadata LeyteCeremony. ... Tacloban City is the largest city and regional capital of the Eastern Visayas region of the Philippines. ... A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ... Shoulder sleeve insignia of the U.S. Sixth Army. ... Combatants United States, The Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Walter Krueger Franklin C. Sibert John R. Hodge Ruperto C. Kangleon Tomoyuki Yamashita Sosaku Suzuki Shiro Makino Strength 200,000 U.S. troops 3,189 Filipino guerrillas 55,000 Japanese troops Casualties 3,500 killed 12,000 wounded 49... Ormoc Bay is a bay on the island of Leyte in the Philipines. ... The Battle of Ormoc Bay was a series of air-sea battles between Imperial Japan and the United States in the Camotes Sea in the Philippines between 11 November 1944 and 21 December 1944, part of the Battle of Leyte in the Pacific campaign of World War II. The battles...


The Imperial Japanese Navy was not destroyed or eliminated, as some accounts have described, since the greater part of the fleet survived the battle. However, their failure to dislodge the Allied invaders from Leyte meant that Japan would be cut off from her colonies in Southeast Asia, which provided crucial war resources such as oil for their ships, and the problem was compounded because the shipyards and ammunition were in Japan. The fleet returned home to sit inactive for the remainder of the war. The loss of Leyte opened the way for the invasion of the Ryukyu Islands in 1945. The only significant Japanese naval operation for the rest of the war was the disastrous Operation Ten-Go in April 1945. Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Marc A. Mitscher Seiichi Ito â€  Strength 11 aircraft carriers 386 aircraft 1 battleship 1 light cruiser 8 destroyers Casualties 10 aircraft destroyed 12 dead 1 battleship sunk 1 light cruiser sunk 4 destroyers sunk 3,700 dead Volcano and Ryukyu Islands campaign Iwo...


Vice Admiral Takijiro Onishi had put his "Special Attack Force" into operation launching kamikaze attacks against the Allied ships in Leyte Gulf, but it was hampered by bad weather and fuel shortages. On 25 October, Australia was hit for a second time and forced to retire for repairs, while the escort carrier St. Lo was sunk. Because of communication errors, the Taffy 3 survivors of the Battle off Samar who had abandoned ship were not rescued for a few days, by which time many more had gone mad or died because of sharks or thirst. Finally, the captain of a LST took his ship to rescue the Americans, using a rather peculiar method of identifying who was American, as survivor Jack Yusen related: Takijirō ÅŒnishi (June 2, 1891–August 16, 1945) (Kanji: 大西瀧治郎, Hiragana: おおにし たきじろう) was a Japanese admiral known as the father of kamikaze. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS (CVE‑63) was laid down as Chapin Bay 23 January 1943; renamed Midway 3 April 1943; launched 17 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. ...

"We saw this ship come up, it was circling around us, and a guy was standing up on the bridge with a megaphone. And he called out 'Who are you? Who are you?' and we all yelled out 'Samuel B. Roberts!' He's still circling, so now we're cursing at him. He came back and yelled 'Who won the World Series?' and we all yelled 'St. Louis Cardinals!' And then we could hear the engines stop, and cargo nets were thrown over the side. That's how we were rescued."

Criticism of Halsey

Halsey was criticized for his decision to take Task Force 34 with him in pursuit of Ozawa, and for failing to dispatch it when Kinkaid first appealed for help. US Navy slang for Halsey's action has ever since been Bull's Run, a phrase combining Halsey's nickname "Bull" with an allusion to the Battle of Bull Run in the American Civil War. In his dispatch after the battle, Halsey justified the decision as follows: Bull Run may refer to: Bull Run (Occoquan River), a stream in Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William counties, Virginia First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), the first major battle of the American Civil War Second Battle of Bull Run (Second Manassas), a later battle that took place at Bull... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Searches by my carrier planes revealed the presence of the Northern carrier force on the afternoon of 24 October, which completed the picture of all enemy naval forces. As it seemed childish to me to guard statically San Bernardino Strait, I concentrated TF 38 during the night and steamed north to attack the Northern Force at dawn. I believed that the Center Force had been so heavily damaged in the Sibuyan Sea that it could no longer be considered a serious menace to Seventh Fleet.

Furthermore, to leave Task Force 34 to defend the strait without carrier support would have left them vulnerable to attack from land-based aircraft. From previous experience, Halsey knew that the Japanese had the ability to move planes from Japan into the area very quickly. Leaving one of Third Fleet's three remaining Task Groups behind to cover the battleships would have significantly reduced the amount of air power, although Admiral Lee would later state that "one or two light carriers" might have been sufficient cover. Finally, the fact that Halsey was aboard a battleship and would have to remain with Task Force 34 while the majority of the fleet sailed north might also have contributed to his decision. is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Clifton Sprague, commander of Task Unit 77.4.3 in the battle off Samar, was later critical of Halsey's decision:

In the absence of any information that this exit [of the San Bernardino Strait] was no longer blocked, it was logical to assume that our northern flank could not be exposed without ample warning.

Naval historian Samuel Morison wrote:

If TF 34 had been detached a few hours earlier, after Kinkaid's first urgent request for help, and had left the destroyers behind, since their fueling caused a delay of over two hours and a half, a powerful battle line of six modern battleships under the command of Admiral Lee, the most experienced battle squadron commander in the Navy, would have arrived off San Bernardino Strait in time to have clashed with Kurita's Center Force… Apart from the accidents common in naval warfare, there is every reason to suppose that Lee would have crossed Kurita's T and completed the destruction of Center Force.

British and Danish ships in line of battle at the Battle of Copenhagen (1801). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Potter, E.B., Admiral Arleigh Burke, (2005), Naval Institute Press.

References

  • Cutler, Thomas (2001). The Battle of Leyte Gulf: 23-26 October 1944. Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-243-9. 
  • D'Albas, Andrieu (1965). Death of a Navy: Japanese Naval Action in World War II. Devin-Adair Pub. ISBN 0-8159-5302-X. 
  • Drea, Edward J. (1998). "Leyte: Unanswered Questions", In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. 
  • Dull, Paul S. (1978). A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-097-1. 
  • Field, James A. (1947). The Japanese at Leyte Gulf;: The Sho operation. Princeton University Press. ASIN B0006AR6LA. 
  • Friedman, Kenneth (2001). Afternoon of the Rising Sun: The Battle of Leyte Gulf. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-756-7. 
  • Hornfischer, James D. (2004). The Last Stand of the Tin Can Sailors. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-80257-7. 
  • Hoyt, Edwin P.; Thomas H Moorer (Introduction) (2003). The Men of the Gambier Bay: The Amazing True Story of the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Lyons Press. ISBN 1-58574-643-6. 
  • Lacroix, Eric; Linton Wells (1997). Japanese Cruisers of the Pacific War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-311-3. 
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot (2004 (reissue)). Leyte, June 1944-January 1945, vol. 12 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A.: University of Illinois Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-252-07063-1. 
  • Potter, E. B. (2005). Admiral Arleigh Burke. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-692-5. 
  • Potter, E. B. (2003). Bull Halsey. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-691-7. 
  • Sauer, Howard (1999). The Last Big-Gun Naval Battle: The Battle of Surigao Strait. Glencannon Press. ISBN 1-889901-08-3. 
  • Thomas, Evan (2006). Sea of Thunder: Four Commanders and the Last Great Naval Campaign 1941-1945. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5221-7. 
  • Willmott, H. P. (2005). The Battle Of Leyte Gulf: The Last Fleet Action. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34528-6. 
  • Woodward, C. Vann (2007). The Battle for Leyte Gulf: The Incredible Story of World War II's Largest Naval Battle. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 1602391947. 

RAdm Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), USN historian Samuel Eliot Morison, RAdm, USNR (July 9, 1887 – May 15, 1976) was an American historian, notable for producing scholarly works that were both authoritative and highly readable, an ability recognized with two Pulitzer Prizes. ... The History of United States Naval Operations in World War II is a 15-volume account of the United States Navy in World War II, written by eminent historian Samuel Eliot Morison and published by Little, Brown and Company between 1947 and 1962. ... Evan Thomas Evan Thomas is an American journalist and author. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ...

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The Battle of Leyte Gulf (0 words)
The American invasion was concentrated on Leyte Gulf, in the central Philippines.
The Battle of Leyte Gulf consisted of two preliminary strikes against the Japanese forces on the way to battle, and three massive engagements once the fleets tangled.
Together, these five engagements constitute the Battle of Leyte Gulf – the largest naval engagement of all time, and the last time that battleships slugged it out against enemy fleets and against each other.
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