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Encyclopedia > Battle of Lepanto (1571)

Contents

Battle of Lepanto
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe and Ottoman-Habsburg wars

The Battle of Lepanto artist unknown
Date 7 October 1571
Location Gulf of Patras, Ionian Sea
Result Decisive Holy League victory
Combatants
Holy League:

Spain
Flag of Republic of Venice Republic of Venice
Papal States
Republic of Genoa
Duchy of Savoy
Knights of Malta The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire... The Battle of Lepanto. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Gulf of Patras from space, March 1994 The Gulf of Patras (Greek: Πατραϊκός Κόλπος Patraikós Kólpos) is a branch of the Ionian Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Genoa. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... Image File history File links Savoie_flag. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta. ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080...

Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Don John of Austria Ali Pasha
Strength
206 galleys,
6 galleasses
230 galleys,
56 galliots
Casualties
8,000 dead or wounded,
12 galleys lost
20,000 dead or wounded,
137 ships captured,
50 ships sunk

The Battle of Lepanto (Ναύπακτος in Greek, İnebahtı in Turkish) took place on 7 October 1571 when a galley fleet of the Holy League, a coalition of Venice, the Papacy (under Pope Pius V), Spain (including Naples, Sicily and Sardinia), Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Savoy, the Knights of Malta and others, defeated a force of Ottoman galleys. The 5-hour battle was fought at the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off western Greece, where the Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto met the Holy League forces, which had come from Messina, in the morning of Sunday 7 October.[1] This was the last major naval battle to be fought solely between rowing vessels. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Spain. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Also, Ali Pasha - Commander of Ottoman Turkish naval forces at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). ... The galleass or galliass (known as a mahon in Turkey) was a larger, higher and heavier form of galley; it usually carried three masts and had a forecastle and aftcastle (this form developed into the sailing carrack and then the Mediterranean galleon. ... Galiot in Willaumezs Dictionnaire de la Marine Galiots (or galliots) were types of ships from the Age of Sail. ... Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire... This article explains the more well known Battle of Mohacs of 1526. ... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor John Szapolyai Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties unknown unknown Following the Battle of Mohacs the Ottomans were forced to withdraw as events elsewhere in their now massive Empire required the Sultans attention[1] Seizing upon their absence was Ferdinand I... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor John Szapolyai Suleiman the Magnificent Strength Unknown, 16,000 reserve troops in Vienna[1] Over 120,000 soldiers[2] Casualties Unknown Unknown Following Ferdinand Is daring assault on Ottoman Hungary, Suleiman launched a campaign to take the Austrian capital... // Combatants Austria with Bohemian, German & Spanish mercenaries Ottoman Empire Commanders Nicholas, Graf von Salm Suleiman I Strength over 16,000 [1] 120,000 [1] Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, was the Ottoman Empires first attempt to... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Captain Nikola JuriÅ¡ić John Szapolyai Suleiman the Magnificent Strength Unknown Over 120,000 soldiers[1] Casualties Unknown, heavy Unknown, heavy The Little War is a name[2] given to a series of conflicts between the Habsburgs and their allies... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Captain Nikola JuriÅ¡ić John Szapolyai Suleiman the Magnificent Strength Unknown Over 120,000 soldiers[1] Casualties Unknown, heavy Unknown, heavy The Little War is a name[2] given to a series of conflicts between the Habsburgs and their allies... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Captain Nikola JuriÅ¡ić John Szapolyai Suleiman the Magnificent Strength Unknown Over 120,000 soldiers[1] Casualties Unknown, heavy Unknown, heavy The Little War is a name[2] given to a series of conflicts between the Habsburgs and their allies... The naval Battle of Preveza took place on 28 September 1538 near Preveza in northwest Greece and was an important victory for an Ottoman fleet commanded by Khair ad Din (Barbarossa) over a Spanish-Venetian fleet commanded by the great Genoese admiral Andrea Doria fleet despite the allies having a... Combatants Austria Ottoman Turks Commanders Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor Captain Nikola JuriÅ¡ić John Szapolyai Suleiman the Magnificent Strength Unknown Over 120,000 soldiers[1] Casualties Unknown, heavy Unknown, heavy The Little War is a name[2] given to a series of conflicts between the Habsburgs and their allies... // Combatants Ottoman Empire Hungarian defenders Commanders Ahmed Pasha and Ali Pasha István Dobó Strength Between 150,000 and 200,000[1] Approx 2,100, including civilians[2] The 1552 Siege of Eger occurred during the 16th Century Ottoman Wars in Europe It was a major Austrian victory after a... The Battle of Szigetvar was a monumental battle in the small fort of Szigetvár in Hungary in 1566 between the defending forces of the Kingdom of Hungary under the leadership of Croatian ban Miklós Zrinyi, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. ... For other conflicts called the Long War, see Long War. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire [1] Habsburg Austria Transylvania Commanders Mehmed III Archduke Maximilian Sigismund of Transylvania Strength ~150,000 at least 43 cannon ~50,000 including ~5,000 cavalry 97 cannon Casualties Unknown ~ 30,000 [1] The Battle of Keresztes or Battle of Mezokeresztes (MezÅ‘keresztes) took place on October 24... // Combatants Austria, Holy Roman Empire, League of the Rhine, France Ottoman Empire Commanders Raimondo Montecuccoli, Leopold Wilhelm of Baden-Baden, Count Coligny Ahmed Köprülü Strength ~ 40,000 including Imperial and French troops [1] ~ 60,000 Casualties Minimal 10,000 The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: ) was fought on... // For siege of Vienna in 1529 see Siege of Vienna Combatants Holy League: Poland-Lithuania, Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Franconia, Swabia Ottoman Empire, Khanate of Crimea, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders John III Sobieski, Charles V of Lorraine Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000 138,000 Casualties 4,000 killed 15,000... Combatants Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Bavaria Ottoman Empire Commanders Duke of Lorraine Maximilian II Emanuel Süleyman PaÅŸa† (Grand Vizier) Strength 60,000[1] 40,000 Mameluk slaves, 40,000 Balkan mercenaries and 800 Ottoman Turks Casualties 15,000-18,000 killed or wounded ~40,000 killed or wounded The... Combatants Holy Roman Empire (Austria and Baden) Ottoman Empire Commanders Louis William of Baden Mustafa Köprülü Strength 30,000 55,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Slankamen was fought on August 19, 1691 near Slankamen (Salankamen), northwest of Belgrade, between Ottoman and Austrian and German forces. ... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Sultan Mustafa II Strength 34,000 infantry, 16,000 cavalry, 60 guns above 80,000 Casualties 500 (2) 30,000 (2) The Battle of Zenta or Battle of Senta, fought on September 11, 1697 just south of modern Serbian town of... Combatants Austria Ottoman Empire Commanders Prince Eugene of Savoy Damad Ali † Strength cca 90,000 120,000-190,000 Casualties 5,000 10,000-30,000 The Battle of Petrovaradin was a decisive victory for Austrian forces in the war between Austria and the Ottoman Empire (1716–1718), at Petrovaradin... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Holy League was formed between several Catholic maritime states in the Mediterranean in 1571 in attempt to break Ottoman Turks control of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Pope St. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Gulf of Patras from space, March 1994 The Gulf of Patras (Greek: Πατραϊκός Κόλπος Patraikós Kólpos) is a branch of the Ionian Sea. ... Naupactus or Nafpaktos (Latin: Naupactus or Naupactos; Turkish: Ä°nebahtı; Italian, Spanish and Portuguese Lepanto; modern Greek, Ναύπακτος, rarely Epakto), is a town in the prefecture of Aetolia-Acarnania, Greece, situated on a bay on the north side of the straits of Lepanto. ... Location within Italy Messina with a population of about 260,000 is the third largest city on the island of Sicily, Italy and the capital of the province of Messina. ... The French battleship Orient burns, 1 August 1798, during the Battle of the Nile A naval battle is a battle fought using ships or other waterborne vessels. ...


Forces

See Battle of Lepanto order of battle for a detailed list of ships and commanders involved in the battle.

The Holy League's fleet consisted of 206 galleys and six galleasses (large converted merchant galleys carrying substantial artillery), and was ably commanded by Don John (or Don Juan) of Austria, the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles V and half brother of King Philip II of Spain. Vessels had been contributed by the various Christian states: 109 galleys and six galleasses from Venice, 80 galleys from Spain and Naples/Sicily, 12 Tuscan galleys hired by the Papal States, three galleys each from Genoa, Malta, and Savoy, and several privately owned galleys. All members of the alliance viewed the Turkish navy as a significant threat to their maritime trade in the Mediterranean Sea. The various Christian contingents met the main force, that of Venice (under Veniero), in July and August 1571 at Messina, Sicily. Don John arrived on 23 August. This is the order of battle during the Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Legitimacy (law). ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sebastiano Venier. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


This fleet of the Christian alliance was manned by 12,920 sailors. In addition, it carried almost 28,000 fighting troops: 10,000 Spanish regular infantry of excellent quality, 7,000 German and 6,000 Italian mercenary, and 5,000 Venetian soldiers. Also, Venetian oarsmen were free citizens unlike the slaves used by the Turkish navy and were therefore able to bear arms and fight for their city. A mercenary is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is not a national of a Party to the conflict and is motivated to take part in the hostilities essentially by the desire for private gain and, in fact, is promised, by or on behalf of a...


The Ottoman galleys were manned by 13,000 sailors and 34,000 soldiers. Ali Pasha (Turkish: "Kaptan-ı Derya Ali Paşa"), supported by the corsairs Chulouk Bey of Alexandria and Uluj Ali (Ulich Ali), commanded an Ottoman force of 222 war galleys, 56 galliots, and some smaller vessels. The Turks had skilled and experienced crews of sailors, but were somewhat deficient in their elite corps of Janissaries. Also, Ali Pasha - Commander of Ottoman Turkish naval forces at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). ... Kaptan-ı Derya (English: Captain of the Sea) was the title given to the chief commander of the navy in the Ottoman Empire. ... Nickname: Alexandria on the map of Egypt Map of Alexandria Coordinates: , Country Egypt Founded 334 BC Government  - Governor Adel Labib Population (2001)  - City 3,500,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2)  - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Twin Cities  - Baltimore  United States  - Cleveland  United States  - ConstanÅ£a  Romania  - Durban  South Africa... Ulaj Ali (also, Uluj or Uluj, in Turkish: Uluç Ali Pasha) - 16th century Muslim Ottoman admiral and privateer. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


Deployment

The Christian fleet formed up in four divisions in a North-South line. At the northern end, closest to the coast, was the Left Division of 53 galleys, mainly Venetian, led by Agostino Barbarigo, with Marco Querini and Antonio da Canale in support. The Centre Division consisted of 62 galleys under Don Juan himself in his Real, along with Sebastiano Venier, later Doge of Venice, and Marcantonio Colonna. The Right Division to the south consisted of another 53 galleys under the Genoese Giovanni Andrea Doria, great-nephew of the famous Andrea Doria. Two galleasses, which had side-mounted cannon, were positioned in front of each main division, for the purpose, according to Miguel de Cervantes (who served on the galleass Marquesa during the battle), of preventing the Turks from sneaking in small boats and sapping, sabotaging or boarding the Christian vessels. A Reserve Division was stationed behind (that is, to the west of) the main fleet, to lend support wherever it might be needed. This reserve division consisted of 38 galleys - 30 behind the Centre Division commanded by Álvaro de Bazán, and four behind each wing. A scouting group was formed, from two Right Wing and six Reserve Division galleys. As the Christian fleet was slowly turning around Point Scropha, Doria's Right Division, at the off-shore side, was delayed at the start of the battle and the Right's galleasses did not get into position. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Sebastiano Venier. ... The word doge (pronounced /dôdj/ in English, /do-dje/ in Italian; plural dogi or doges) is a dialectical Italian word (in standard Italian it became duce) that comes from Latin dux, meaning leader, especially military, and giving rise to the noble or princely title duke in English. ... Marcantonio Colonna. ... For other uses, see Andrea Doria (disambiguation). ... “Cervantes” redirects here. ... Alvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz (12 December 1526-1588) was a Spanish admiral born at Granada. ...


The Turkish fleet consisted of 54 galleys and 2 galliots on its Right under Chulouk Bey, 61 galleys and 32 galliots in the Centre under Ali Pasha in the Sultana, and about 63 galleys and 30 galliots in the South off-shore under Uluj Ali. A small reserve existed of 8 galleys, 22 galliots and 64 fustas, behind the Centre body. Ali Pasha is supposed to have told his Christian galley-slaves: "If I win the battle, I promise you your liberty. If the day is yours, then God has given it to you." Ulaj Ali (also, Uluj or Uluj, in Turkish: Uluç Ali Pasha) - 16th century Muslim Ottoman admiral and privateer. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ...


The battle

The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. Oil on canvas
The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. Oil on canvas

The Left and Centre galleasses had been towed half a mile ahead of the Christian line, and were able to sink two Turkish galleys, and damage some more, before the Turkish fleet left them behind. Their attacks also disrupted the Ottoman formations. As the battle started, Doria found that Uluj Ali's galleys extended further to the south than his own, and so headed south to avoid being out-flanked. This meant he was even later coming into action. He ended up being outmanœuvered by Uluj Ali, who turned back and attacked the southern end of the Centre Division, taking advantage of the big gap that Doria had left. Download high resolution version (706x910, 171 KB)Template:English The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. ... Download high resolution version (706x910, 171 KB)Template:English The Battle of Lepanto by Paolo Veronese. ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


In the north, Chulouk Bey had managed to get between the shore and the Christian North Division, with six galleys in an outflanking move, and initially the Christian fleet suffered. Barbarigo was killed by an arrow, but the Venetians, turning to face the threat, held their line. The return of a galleass saved the Christian North Division. The Christian Centre also held the line with the help of the Reserve, after taking a great deal of damage, and caused great damage to the Muslim Centre. In the south, off-shore side, Doria was engaged in a melee with Uluj Ali's ships, taking the worse part. Meanwhile Uluj Ali himself commanded 16 galleys in a fast attack on the Christian Centre, taking six galleys - amongst them the Maltese Capitana, killing all but three men on board. Its commander, Pietro Giustiniani, Prior of the Order of St. John, was severely wounded by five arrows, but was found alive in his cabin. The intervention of the Spaniards Álvaro de Bazán and Joan de Cardona with the reserve turned the battle, both in the Centre and in Doria's South Wing. Uluj Ali was forced to flee with 16 galleys and 24 galliots, abandoning all but one of his captures. During the course of the battle, the Ottoman Commander's ship was boarded and the Spanish tercios from 3 galleys and the Turkish janissaries from seven galleys fought on the deck of the Sultana. Twice the Spanish were repelled with great loss, but at the third attempt, with reinforcements from Álvaro de Bazán's galley, they prevailed. Müezzenzade Ali Pasha was killed and beheaded, against the wishes of Don Juan. However, when his head was displayed on a pike from the Spanish flagship, it contributed greatly to the destruction of Turkish morale. The battle concluded around 4 pm. Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... Don Álvaro de Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz de Mudela Don Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz (es: Don Álvaro de Bazán, marqués de Santa Cruz de Mudela) (12 December 1526 – February 9, 1588), was a Spanish admiral born at Granada. ... Tercio was a term used by the Spanish army to describe a mixed infantry formation of about 3,000 pikemen and musketeers, sometimes referred to by other nations as a Spanish Square. ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


The Turkish fleet suffered the loss of about 210 ships -- of which 117 galleys, 10 galliots and three fustas were captured and in good enough condition for the Christians to keep. On the Christian side 20 galleys were destroyed and 30 were damaged so seriously that they had to be scuttled. One Venetian galley was the only one kept by the Turks. All others were abandoned by them and recaptured.


Uluj Ali, who had captured the flagship of the Maltese Knights, succeeded in extricating most of his ships from the battle when defeat was certain. Although he had cut the tow on the Maltese flagship in order to get away, he sailed to Istanbul, gathering up other Ottoman ships along the way and finally arriving there with 87 vessels. He presented the huge Maltese flag to Sultan Selim who thereupon bestowed upon him the honorary title of "kιlιç" (Sword); Uluj thus became known as Kιlιç Ali Pasha. Kılıç Ali PaÅŸa Statue of Kılıç Ali PaÅŸa Uluj Ali (Turkish: Uluç Ali Reis and later Kılıç Ali PaÅŸa) was a Muslim corsair and Ottoman admiral in the 16th century. ...


The Holy League had suffered around 13,000 soldiers, sailors and rowers dead, but freed about as many Christian prisoners. Turkish casualties were around 25,000, and at least 3,500 were captured. The Holy League credited the victory to the Virgin Mary, whose intercession with God they had implored for victory through the use of the Rosary. Andrea Doria had kept a copy of the miraculous image of our Our Lady of Guadeloupe given to him by King Philip II of Spain in his ship's state room.[2] Pius V instituted a new Catholic feast day of Our Lady of Victory to commemorate the battle, which is now celebrated by the Catholic Church as the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary.[3] The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept... // Christianity In Christian practice, intercessory prayer is the act of one person praying for or on behalf of another person or situation. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Our Lady of Victory is an upcoming American movie set in 1972 which tells the true story of Cathy Rush, a sassy 23 year old former tomboy whose life has been filled with a series of setbacks. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... FYI: The page is a Google translation. ...


Aftermath

Fresco of the battle in the Vatican Museum Hall of Maps
Fresco of the battle in the Vatican Museum Hall of Maps

The engagement was a crushing defeat for the Ottomans, who had not lost a major naval battle since the fifteenth century. To half of Christendom, this event encouraged hope for the downfall of "the Turk", whom they regarded as the "Sempiternal Enemy of the Christian". Indeed, the Empire lost all but 30 of its ships and as many as 30,000 men, and some Western historians have held it to be the most decisive naval battle anywhere on the globe since the Battle of Actium of 31 BC. Image File history File links Fernando_Bertelli,_Die_Seeschlacht_von_Lepanto,_Venedig_1572,_Museo_Storico_Navale_(550x500). ... Image File history File links Fernando_Bertelli,_Die_Seeschlacht_von_Lepanto,_Venedig_1572,_Museo_Storico_Navale_(550x500). ... Categories: Stub | Vatican City ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


Despite the massive defeat, however, the Holy League's disunity prevented the victors from capitalizing on their triumph. Plans to seize the Dardanelles as a step towards recovering Istanbul, formerly Constantinople, for Christendom, were scuppered by bickering amongst the allies. With a massive effort, the Empire rebuilt its navy, adding eight of the largest capital ships ever seen in the Mediterranean. Within six months this new fleet was able to reassert Ottoman naval supremacy in the eastern Mediterranean. On 7 March 1573 the Venetians thus recognized by treaty the Ottoman possession of Cyprus, which had fallen to the Turks under Piyale Pasha on 3 August 1571, just two months before Lepanto, and remained Turkish for the next three centuries, and that summer the Ottoman navy ravaged the geographically vulnerable coasts of Sicily and southern Italy. A Turkish Grand Vizier famously said "In wresting Cyprus from you we deprived you of an arm; in defeating our fleet you have only shaved our beard. An arm when cut off cannot grow again; but a shorn beard will grow all the better for the razor." Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale Paşa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ...


In 1574 the Ottomans retook the strategic city of Tunis from the Spanish supported Hafsid dynasty, that had been re-installed when Don Juan's forces reconquered the city from the Ottomans the year before. With their long-standing alliance with the French coming into play they were able to resume naval activity in the western Mediterranean. In 1579 the capture of Fez completed Ottoman conquests in Morocco that had begun under Süleyman the Magnificent. The establishment of Ottoman suzerainty over the area placed the entire coast of the Mediterranean from the Straits of Gibraltar to Croatia (with the exceptions of the Spanish controlled trading city of Oran and strategic settlements such as Melilla and Ceuta) – under Ottoman authority. However the loss of so many of its experienced sailors at Lepanto sapped the fighting effectiveness of the Ottoman navy, a fact underlined by their minimizing confrontations with Christian navies in the years immediately after. Historian Paul K. Davis said: Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  28 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  75,861    2,709. ...

"This Turkish defeat stopped Turkey's expansion into the Mediterranean, thus maintaining western dominance, and confidence grew in the west that Turks, previously unstoppable, could be beaten."[4]

Thus, this victory for the Holy League was primarily important not because the Turks lost 80 ships sunk and 130 captured by the allies, and 30,000 men killed (not including 12,000 Christian galley slaves, who were freed; allied losses were 7,500 men and 17 galleys), but because this was a victory which heralded the end of Turkish supremacy in the Mediterranean.[1]


Depictions in Art and Culture

The immense importance of Lepanto has led it to inspire many artists in various fields.


There are many pictorial representations of the battle, including two in the Doge's Palace in Venice: by Paolo Veronese (above) in the Sala del Collegio and by Andrea Vicentino on the walls of the Sala dello Scrutinio, which replaced Tintoretto's Victory of Lepanto, destroyed by fire in 1577. Titian's Allegory of the Battle of Lepanto, using the battle as a background, hangs in the Prado in Madrid. The picture at the top of this article is the work of an unknown artist. Doges Palace. ... The Feast in the House of Levi (1573), one of the largest canvases of the 16th century. ... Andrea Vicentino (c. ... Tintoretto (real name Jacopo Comin) September 29, 1518 - May 31, 1594) was one of the greatest painters of the Venetian school and probably the last great painter of the Italian Renaissance. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Bold text The Museo del Prado is a famous museum and art gallery located in Madrid; the capital of Spain. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ...


The American abstract painter Cy Twombly refers with 12 big pictures ('Lepanto', 2001) to the battle, one of his main works. Cy Twombly (born April 25, 1928) is an American abstract artist. ...


The English author G. K. Chesterton wrote a poem Lepanto, first published in 1911 and republished many times since. It provides a series of poetic visions of the major characters in the battle, particularly the leader of the Christian forces, Don Juan of Austria (John of Austria). It closes with verses linking Miguel de Cervantes, who fought in the battle, with the "lean and foolish knight" he would later immortalize in Don Quixote. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (May 29, 1874–June 14, 1936) was an influential English writer of the early 20th century. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan De Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was the illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and a military leader whose most famous victory was at the Battle of Lepanto. ... “Cervantes” redirects here. ... (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ...


Playwright Howard Barker refers to the Battle of Lepanto in his play Scenes from an Execution, which premiered in 1986. In it, a fictional Venetian painter named Galactia, a character who bears much in common with the artist Artemisia Gentileschi, has been commissioned by the doge to paint a commemorative depiction of the battle. Her refusal to make the scene one which will inspire patriotism and pride in the Venetian people leads to conflict with state officials. Howard Barker (born 1946) is a British playwright. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Self-portrait (1630s) Artemisia Gentileschi (July 8, 1593 - 1653) was an Italian Early Baroque painter, today considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation influenced by Caravaggio (Caravaggisti). ... The word doge (pronounced /dôdj/ in English, /do-dje/ in Italian; plural dogi or doges) is a dialectical Italian word (in standard Italian it became duce) that comes from Latin dux, meaning leader, especially military, and giving rise to the noble or princely title duke in English. ...


The Italian author Emilio Salgari references the Battle of Lepanto in his novel Il Leone di Damasco published in 1910. Emilio Salgari. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


See also

Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire... The Turkish Navy was once the largest sea power in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean; entering the history books of many countries in distant lands such as the British Isles, Scandinavia, Iceland, Labrador, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, Newfoundland and Virginia in the... Neolithic Europe The outcomes of battles have often been assessed by historians in respect to their influence on the development of polities, states or cultures. ... The following is an List of Ottoman sieges and landings from the 14th century to World War One. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An anachronous map of the Spanish Empire (1492-1898). ... FYI: The page is a Google translation. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Luggis, Telemachus: "Sunday, 7 October 1571" pp. 19-23 Epsilon Istorica, Eleftherotypia, 9 November 2000. See also Chasiotis, Ioannis "The signing of 'Sacra Liga Antiturca' and the naval battle of Lepanto (7 October 1571)", Istoria tou Ellinikou Ethnous. Ekdotiki Athinon, vol. 10, Athens, 1974
  2. ^ Badde, Paul. Maria von Guadalupe. Wie das Erscheinen der Jungfrau Weltgeschichte schrieb. ISBN 3548605613. 
  3. ^ http://www.udayton.edu/mary/questions/yq/yq103.html
  4. ^ Davis, Paul K. "100 Decisive Battles: From Ancient Times to the Present"

References

  • Anderson, R. C. Naval Wars in the Levant 1559-1853 (2006), ISBN 1-57898-538-2
  • Bicheno, Hugh. Crescent and Cross: The Battle of Lepanto 1571, pbk., Phoenix, London, 2004, ISBN 1-84212-753-5
  • Chesterton, G. K. Lepanto with Explanatory Notes and Commentary, Dale Ahlquist, ed. (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2003). ISBN 1-58617-030-9
  • Cook, M.A. (ed.), "A History of the Ottoman Empire to 1730", Cambridge University Press, 1976; ISBN 0-521-20891-2
  • Currey, E. Hamilton, "Sea-Wolves of the Mediterranean", John Murrey, 1910
  • Hanson, Victor D.. Carnage and Culture: Landmark Battles in the Rise of Western Power, Anchor Books, 2001. Published in the UK as Why the West has Won, Faber and Faber, 2001. ISBN 0-571-21640-4. Includes a chapter about the battle of Lepanto
  • Hess, Andrew C. "The Battle of Lepanto and Its Place in Mediterranean History", Past and Present, No. 57. (Nov., 1972), pp. 53–73
  • Stevens, William Oliver. A History of Sea Power New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1942
  • Harbottle's Dictionary of Battles, third revision by George Bruce, 1979
  • Oliver Warner's Great Sea Battles (1968) has "Lepanto 1571" as its opening chapter. ISBN 0-89673-100-6.
  • The New Cambridge Modern History, Volume I - The Renaissance 1493-1520, edited by G. R. Potter, Cambridge University Press 1964

Victor Davis Hanson giving a lecture at Kenyon College. ...

External links

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Coordinates: 38°12′N, 21°18′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Battle of Lepanto (1571) (6112 words)
The 5-hour battle was fought at the northern edge of the Gulf of Patras, off western Greece, where the Ottoman forces sailing westwards from their naval station in Lepanto met the Holy League forces, which had come from Messina, in the morning of Sunday 7 October.
The Battle of Szigetvar was a monumental battle in the small fort of Szigetvár in Hungary in 1566 between the defending forces of the Kingdom of Hungary under the leadership of Croatian ban Miklós Zrinyi, and the invading army of the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent.
Titian's Allegory of the Battle of Lepanto, using the battle as a background, hangs in the Prado in Madrid.
The Battle of Lepanto, lepanto, Nafpaktos.com,The Internet Tourist Guide for Nafpaktos and Greece (1128 words)
With the first light of dawn the following morning, October 7, 1571, lookouts stationed high on a peak guarding the northern shore of the gulf's entrance signaled to Kara Kosh that the enemy was heading south along the coast and would soon round the headland into the gulf itself.
ccording to naval practice in those days, the moment two rival fleets finally assumed their respective battle formations, the leader of one would fire a piece of artillery as a challenge to fight, and the opponent would answer by firing two cannon to signify that he was ready to give battle.
Perhaps the most important result of the battle was its effect on men's minds: the victory had ended the myth that the Turks could not be beaten.
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