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Encyclopedia > Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
Part of the War of the Sixth Coalition

Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia
Date 1619 October 1813
Location Leipzig, Saxony
Result Decisive Coalition victory
Belligerents
Flag of France French Empire
Flag of Russia Russia
Flag of Austria Austria
Prussia
Flag of Sweden Sweden
Flag of Saxony Saxony[1]
Commanders
Flag of France Napoleon I
Flag of Poland Jozef Antoni Poniatowski 
Flag of Saxony Frederick Augustus
Flag of Austria Prince of Schwarzenberg
Flag of Prussia Gebhard von Blücher
Flag of Sweden Carl Johan
Flag of Russia Barclay De Tolly
Flag of Russia Count Benningsen
Strength
195,000[2] 365,000[2]
Casualties and losses
38,000 dead or wounded
30,000 captured
54,000 dead or wounded[2]
Napoleon and Poniatowski at Leipzig, painted by January Suchodolski
Napoleon and Poniatowski at Leipzig, painted by January Suchodolski
Battle of Leipzig by Vladimir Moshkov; painted in 1815
Battle of Leipzig by Vladimir Moshkov; painted in 1815

The Battle of the Nations (or Battle of Leipzig or German: Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig) on 1619 October 1813 was one of the most decisive defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Battle of Leipzig was fought on German soil and involved German troops on both sides, as a large proportion of Napoleon's troops actually came from the German Confederation of the Rhine. It is considered the largest battle in Europe before World War I, with over 500,000 troops involved. Combatants Prussia Russia Austria United Kingdom Sweden Sicily Sardinia French Empire Italy Naples Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Swiss Confederation Commanders Gebhard von Blücher Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Wittgenstein Prince Schwarzenberg Prince Charles John Napoleon I of France Michel Ney Jozef Antoni Poniatowski Europe... Download high resolution version (741x739, 133 KB)1888 German map of the at Leipzig on 18 October 1813 File links The following pages link to this file: Leipzig Battle of Leipzig Categories: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (Redirected from 16 October) October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Capital Naples Government Monarchy King  - 1285-1309 Charles II  - 1815-1816 Ferdinand I History  - Established 1285  - Formal union with Sicily to form Kingdom of Two Sicilies 1816 The Kingdom of Naples was an informal name of the polity officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily which existed on the mainland... Image File history File links State_Flag_of_Poland. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Image File history File links State_Flag_of_Poland. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia Sitańska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia Sitańska Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski with Zofia Potocka Karol Józef Poniatowski Date of Birth May 7, 1763 Place of Birth Vienna Date of Death October 19, 1813 Place of Death... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Schwarzenberg Monument at Schwarzenbergplatz, Vienna Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (or Prince Charles Philip of Schwarzenberg (April 18, 1771 – October 15, 1820), Austrian Feldmarshall, was born at Vienna. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher (December 16, 1742 in Rostock (Mecklenburg) - September 12, 1819 in Krieblowitz (Silesia) (now Krobielowice in Poland)), Graf (Count), later elevated to Fürst von Wahlstatt, was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall who led his army against Napoleon I at the Battle of... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... King Charles XIV of Sweden, Charles III of Norway, or domestically Carl XIV Johan and Carl III Johan respectively, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 - March 8, 1844) was born at Pau, France, the son of Henri Bernadotte (1711-1780), procurator at Pau, and Jeanne St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Portrait by George Dawe in the Military Gallery Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), Count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire. ... Combatants Prussia Russia Austria United Kingdom Sweden Sicily Sardinia French Empire Italy Naples Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine[1] Swiss Confederation Commanders Gebhard von Blücher Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Mikhail Kutuzov Prince Wittgenstein Prince Schwarzenberg Prince Charles John Napoleon I of France Michel Ney Jozef Antoni Poniatowski Europe... Combatants First French Empire Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon I of France Jacques Lauriston Michel Ney Nicolas Oudinot Auguste Marmont Gebhard von Blücher Peter Wittgenstein Gerhard von Scharnhorst† Strength 120,000 73,000 Casualties 18-22,000 18-22,000 The Battle of Lützen was the first major engagement... The Battle of Bautzen was fought on May 21, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoléon Bonaparte against the Kingdom of Prussians and Russians. ... The Battle of Großbeeren took place on 23 August 1813, between forces of the First French Empire and an allied Prussian-Swedish army of the Sixth Coalition. ... The Battle of Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was an accidental engagement of the Napoleonic Wars which took place in a heavy thunderstorm between the forces of the First French Empire under Marshal MacDonald and a Russo-Prussian army of the Sixth Coalition under Prussian Marshal Graf (Count) von Bl... The Battle of Dresden was fought on August 26-27, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians, Russians and Prussians under General Schwartzenberg. ... Combatants First French Empire Sixth Coalition Russia Prussia Austria Commanders General Dominique Vandamme Marshal Saint-Cyr Marshal Auguste Marmont Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly Prince Peter Wittgenstein Count Alexander Tolstoy General Kleist Strength 32,000 54,000 Casualties 5,000 killed or wounded, 7,000-13,000 captured around 11... Battle of Dennewitz 6 September 1813 Prelude: Marshall Oudinot advanced his corp along 3 separate roads on an advance to Berlin. ... Combatants First French Empire Bavaria Austria Commanders Napoleon I Karl Philipp von Wrede Strength 17,000 43,000 Casualties ~4,500[1] 9,000 In the Battle of Hanau (October 30-31, 1813) Wredes Austro-Bavarian corps attacked Napoleons retreating French army a few miles to the east... Battle of Sehested was fought between Danish and Swedish (with Prussian-Russian battalions) troops at Sehested (in Holstein) on December 10, 1813 during the War of the Sixth Coalition. ... The Battle of Brienne was fought on January 29, 1814, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon Bonaparte against the Russians and Prussians under General Blücher. ... Combatants France Prussia Commanders Napoleon I of France Blücher Strength 40,000 110,000 Casualties 6,000 6,000 The Battle of La Rothière was fought on February 1, 1814 between France and Prussia. ... The Six Days Campaign was a critical series of battles in Napoleons final defence of France in 1814 as the Allies advanced on Paris. ... The Battle of Mormans was a competition of harcore Morman rock bands aginst against the well known new wave band A Flock of Gay Jewish Inlaws and several Buddist British techno punk fusion bands. ... The battle of Montereau was fought on February 18, 1814 and resulted the victory of the French under Napoleon Bonaparte against Austrians and Wütembergeois under Prince Royal of Würtemberg. ... The Battle of Bar-sur-Aube was fought on February 27, 1814, between France and Austria. ... War memorial des Marie-Louise et des Bleuets de 1914 The Battle of Craonne was fought on March 7, 1814, and resulted in a French victory under Napoleon I of France against Russians and Prussians under General Blücher. ... The Battle of Laon was fought on March 9 and March 10 of 1814 between the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte and the Prussian army of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Combatants France, Prussia Commanders Napoleon I of France The Battle of Reims was fought on March 13, 1814 between France and a Prussian force. ... The Napoleonic Wars lasted from 1804 until 1815. ... The Battle of La Fère-Champenoise was fought on March 25, 1814, between France and the Sixth Coalition. ... Combatants France Allies Commanders Auguste Marmont Strength {{{strength1}}} Casualties The Battle of Montmartre was fought on March 30, 1814, between Allied forces and the forces of Napoleons First French Empire. ... The Battle of Paris was fought during the Napoleonic Wars in 1814. ... Download high resolution version (800x627, 90 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Leipzig Categories: Public domain images ... Download high resolution version (800x627, 90 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Battle of Leipzig Categories: Public domain images ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Maria Teresa Kinsky Consorts Zelia Sitańska Zofia Potocka Children with Zelia Sitańska Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski with Zofia Potocka Karol Józef Poniatowski Date of Birth May 7, 1763 Place of Birth Vienna Date of Death October 19, 1813 Place of Death... January Suchodolski (September 19, 1797 in Grodno – March 20, 1875 in Boimie near Siedlce) was a Polish painter and Army officer. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1200, 696 KB) МОШКОВ Владимир Иванович (1792—1839) Сражение под Лейпцигом 6 октября 1813 года. 1815 Vladimir Ivanovich Moshkov (1792—1839) en:Battle of Leipzig, painted in 1815 From http://lj. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1200, 696 KB) МОШКОВ Владимир Иванович (1792—1839) Сражение под Лейпцигом 6 октября 1813 года. 1815 Vladimir Ivanovich Moshkov (1792—1839) en:Battle of Leipzig, painted in 1815 From http://lj. ... (Redirected from 16 October) October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... The Confederation of the Rhine in 1812 Capital Frankfurt Political structure Confederation Protector Napoleon I Primate  - 1806-1813 Karl von Dalberg  - 1813 Eugène de Beauharnais Historical era Napoleonic Wars  - Formation 12 July, 1806  - Collapse 19 October, 1813 The Confederation of the Rhine or Rhine Confederation (German: ; French: ) lasted from... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...

Contents

Prelude

Following Napoleon's disastrous campaign in Russia and his defeats in the Peninsular War, the anti-French forces had cautiously regrouped as the Sixth Coalition, comprising Britain, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Prussia, Austria, Sweden and certain smaller German states. In total, the Coalition could put into the field well over a million troops — indeed by the time of Leipzig, total Allied armies east of the Rhine probably exceeded a million. By contrast Napoleon's forces had dwindled to just a few hundred thousand. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ...


Napoleon sought to re-establish his hold in Germany, winning two hard-fought victories, at Lützen on 2 May and Bautzen on 2021 May, over Russo-Prussian forces. The victories led to a brief armistice. The Coalition forces, under the command of Gebhard von Blücher, Crown Prince Carl Johan of Sweden and Karl von Schwarzenberg, Count Benningsen, and Barclay De Tolly followed the strategy outlined in the Trachenburg Plan to avoid clashes with Napoleon but to seek confrontations with his marshals, which led to victories at Großbeeren, Kulm, Katzbach and at Dennewitz. Combatants First French Empire Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon I of France Jacques Lauriston Michel Ney Nicolas Oudinot Auguste Marmont Gebhard von Blücher Peter Wittgenstein Gerhard von Scharnhorst† Strength 120,000 73,000 Casualties 18-22,000 18-22,000 The Battle of Lützen was the first major engagement... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of Bautzen was fought on May 21, 1813, and resulted in a French victory under Napoléon Bonaparte against the Kingdom of Prussians and Russians. ... (Redirected from 20 May) May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... King Charles XIV of Sweden, Charles III of Norway, or domestically Carl XIV Johan and Carl III Johan respectively, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 - March 8, 1844) was born at Pau, France, the son of Henri Bernadotte (1711-1780), procurator at Pau, and Jeanne St. ... Karl Philipp, prince zu Schwarzenberg (April 18, 1771 - October 15, 1820), Austrian generalissimo, was born at Vienna. ... Portrait by George Dawe in the Military Gallery Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), Count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a German general in the service of the Russian Empire. ... Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ... Plan concocted by Allied commanders during the Great French War in 1813 during the Campaign for Germany. ... The Battle of Großbeeren took place on 23 August 1813, between forces of the First French Empire and an allied Prussian-Swedish army of the Sixth Coalition. ... Combatants First French Empire Sixth Coalition Russia Prussia Austria Commanders General Dominique Vandamme Marshal Saint-Cyr Marshal Auguste Marmont Field Marshal Barclay de Tolly Prince Peter Wittgenstein Count Alexander Tolstoy General Kleist Strength 32,000 54,000 Casualties 5,000 killed or wounded, 7,000-13,000 captured around 11... The Battle of Katzbach on 26 August 1813, was an accidental engagement of the Napoleonic Wars which took place in a heavy thunderstorm between the forces of the First French Empire under Marshal MacDonald and a Russo-Prussian army of the Sixth Coalition under Prussian Marshal Graf (Count) von Bl... Battle of Dennewitz 6 September 1813 Prelude: Marshall Oudinot advanced his corp along 3 separate roads on an advance to Berlin. ...


Marshal Nicolas Oudinot failed to capture Berlin with his army of 120,000 and Napoleon was forced to withdraw westwards due to the threat to the north, crossing the Elbe in late September and organizing his forces around Leipzig to protect his supply lines and meet the Allies. Napoleon arranged his army around Leipzig, but concentrated his force from Taucha through Stötteritz (where Napoleon placed his command). The Prussians advanced from Wartenburg, the Austrians and Russians from Dresden and the Swedish force from the north. Nicolas Charles Oudinot (April 25, 1767 - September 13, 1847), duke of Reggio, was a marshal of France. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ...


16th October

In total, the French had around 190,000 soldiers and the Allies almost 330,000 with both sides having significant artillery — in total there were over two and a half thousand pieces of ordnance on the field. The battle began on 16 October with an attack by 78,000 Allied troops from the south and 54,000 from the north, with Napoleon using the bulk of his army in the south. The allied offensives achieved little and were soon forced back, but Napoleon's outnumbered forces were unable to break the allied lines, resulting in a hard fought stalemate. is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Austrian II Corps Dölitz

The Austrian II Corps (Gen. von Merveldt) advanced towards Connewitz via Gautzsch and attempted to attack the position only to find that the avenue of advance was well covered and did not permit the Austrians to deploy their artillery in support of the attack. Repulsed, the Austrians then moved to attack nearby Dölitz, down a road crossed by two bridges and leading to a manor house and a mill. Two companies of the 24th regiment threw out the small Polish garrison and took the position. A prompt counter attack ejected the Austrians and the battle seesawed until the Austrians brought up a strong artillery battery and blew the Poles out of the position. The Poles left bodies everywhere in their furious defense and set fire to both the manor and the mill on the way out.[3]


Battle of Markkleeberg

General Kleist, moving along the Pleisse River, attacked Marshals Poniatowski and Augereau in the village of Markkleeberg. The Austrians repaired a bridge and took a school building and manor. The French counter attacked throwing the Austrians out of the school and back over the river. French attacks on the manor only resulted in repulse and mounting casualties for the French and Poles. The Russian 14th Division began a series of flanking attacks that forced the Poles out of Markkleeberg. Marshal Poniatowski stopped the retreat and stopped the advancing Russians. Catching four battalions of the Prussian 12th Brigade in the open Poniatowski directed attacks by artillery and cavalry until they were relieved by Russian Hussars. Marshal Poniatowski retook Markkleeberg but was thrown out by two Prussian battalions. Austrian Grenadiers then formed in front of Markkleeberg and by flank attack drove the Poles and French out of the area.[4] Friedrich Emil Ferdinand Heinrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf (April 9, 1762 - February 17, 1823), born and died in Berlin, was a Prussian field marshal and a member of the old junker family von Kleist. ... Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms Ciołek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Teresa Kinsky Sibling Maria Teresa Tyszkiewiczowa Consorts none Children with Zelia Sitańska: Józef Szczęsny Poniatowski; with Zofia Czosnowska: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione Pierre François Charles Augereau, duc de Castiglione (October 21, 1757 – June 12, 1816) was a French General, marshal of France and protagonist of both the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. ... Markkleeberg is a town in the Leipziger Land district, in Saxony, Germany. ...


Attack on Wachau

The Russian II Infantry Corps attacked Wachau with support from the Prussian 9th Brigade. The Russians advanced unaware that French forces were in wait and took them by surprise in the flank mauling them. The Prussian engaged and entered Wachau engaging in street to street fighting. French artillery blasted the Prussians out of Wachau and the French recovered the village.[5][6] Stift Melk, Wachau (Wachau is also the name of a municipality in the district of Kamenz in Saxony, Germany: see Wachau, Saxony). ...


Battle of Liebertwolkwitz

Battle of Leipzig, October 16 actions
Battle of Leipzig, October 16 actions

Liebertwolkwitz was a big village in a commanding position defended by Marshal MacDonald and General Lauriston with about 18,000 men. The Austrian IV Corps attacked with 24,500 backed up with Pirth's 10th Brigade (4,550) and Ziethen's 11th Brigade (5,365). The Austrians attacked first, driving the French out of Liebertwolkwitz after hard fighting only to be driven out in turn by a French counter-attack. At this point Napoleon directed General Drouot to form a grand battery on Gallows hill. This was done with 100 guns that blasted the exposed Russian II corps, forcing the Prussian battalions supporting it to take cover. Russian General Eugene Duke of Württemberg was notable in his extreme bravery directing his troops under fire. The hole had been now opened as Napoleon wished and at this point Marshal Murat was unleashed with 10,000 French, Italian, and Saxon cavalry. However, Murat's choice of massive columns for the attack formation was unfortunate for the French force, as smaller mobile formations of Russian, Prussian, and Austrian cavalry were able to successfully harass Murat's Division, driving them back to their own artillery, where they were saved by the French Guard Dragoons. The young Guard Division was sent in to drive out the allies and give Napoleon his breakthrough. They recaptured both Liebertwolkwitz and Wachau but the Allies countered with Russian Guard and Austrian Grenadiers backed by Russian Cuirassars. The units lived up to their elite reputation, forming squares that blasted French Cavalrymen from their horses and overran the French artillery batteries. On the southern front, although Napoleon gained ground, he could not break the Allied lines.[7] Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald Etienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald (November 17, 1765 - September 7, 1840), duke of Taranto and marshal of France, was born at Sedan, France. ... Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law, marquis de Lauriston (February 1, 1768 - June 12, 1828), French soldier and diplomatist, was the son of Jacques François Law de Lauriston (1724-1785), a general officer in the French army, and was born at Pondicherry. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Comte Antoine Drouot (January 11, 1774 - March 24, 1847) was one of Napoleons generals. ... Joachim Murat, King of Naples, Marshal of France. ...


Northern Attack

The northern front opened with the attack by General Langeron's Russian Corps on the villages of Groß-Wiederitzsch and Klein-Wiederitzsch in the center of the French northern lines. This position was defended by General Dabrowski's Polish division of four infantry battalions and two Cavalry battalions. At first sign of the attack the Polish division attacked. The battle wavered back and forth with attack and counter-attack. General Langeron rallied his forces and finally took both villages with heavy casualties. Count Alexander Fyodorovich Langeron, portrait from the War Gallery of Winter Palace. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Battle of Möckern

The Northern front was dominated by the battle of Möckern. This was a 4 phase battle and saw hard fighting from both sides. A Manor, Palace, walled gardens, and low walls, dominated the village. Each position was turned into a fortress with the walls being loopholed for covered fire by the French. The ground to the west of the position was too wooded and swampy for emplacement of artillery. A dike ran east along the river Elster being 4 meters high. Marshal Auguste Marmont brought up infantry columns behind the positions in reserve and for quick counter-attack against any fallen position. Blücher commanded Langeron's (Russian) and Yorck's (Prussian) corps against Marmont's VI Corps. When the battle hung in the balance, Marmont ordered a cavalry charge, but his commander refused to attack. Later, an attack by Prussian hussars caused serious loss to the French defenders. The battle lasted well into the night. Artillery caused the majority of the 9,000 Allies and 7,000 French casualties, and the French lost another 2,000 prisoners.[8] The Weiße Elster (in Czech: Bílý HalÅ¡trov) is a 257 km long river in central Europe. ... Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont, Marshal of France. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Johann David Ludwig Graf Yorck von Wartenburg (September 26, 1759 - October 4, 1830) was a Prussian Field Marshal of alleged English ancestry. ...


17th October

There were only two actions on the 17th: the attack by the Russian General Sacken on General Dabrowski's Polish Division at the village of Gohlis. The Polish Division continued to put up heroic resistance and was openly admired by General Sacken.[citation needed] In the end the numbers and determination of the Russians prevailed and the Poles retired to Pfaffendorf. Blücher, who was made a field marshal the day before, ordered General Lanskoi's 2nd Hussar Division (Russian) to attack General Arrighi's III Cavalry corps. As they had the day before the Sixth Coalition's Cavalry again proved to be superior driving the French away with great loss. Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Prince Fabian Gottlieb von der Osten-Sacken (Russian: ) (20 October 1752 – 7 September 1837) was a Field Marshal who led the Russian army to the conquest of the Duchy of Warsaw and governed Paris during the citys brief occupation by the... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ...


The French however received only 14,000 additional troops. Russian General von Bennigsen and Prince Carl Johan of Sweden had arrived with other troops also arriving for a total of 145,000 for the Allies, greatly increasing their strength. Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a Russian general. ... King Charles XIV of Sweden, Charles III of Norway, or domestically Carl XIV Johan and Carl III Johan respectively, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 - March 8, 1844) was born at Pau, France, the son of Henri Bernadotte (1711-1780), procurator at Pau, and Jeanne St. ...


18th October

Battle of Leipzig, October 18 actions
Battle of Leipzig, October 18 actions

On the 18th the Allies launched a huge assault from all sides. In over nine hours of fighting, in which both sides suffered heavy casualties, the French troops prevented a breakthrough but were slowly forced back towards Leipzig. The Sixth Coalition was arranged as with Field Marshal Blücher (Prussian) and Crown Prince Carl Johan of Sweden to the north, the Generals Barclay De Tolly, Bennigsen (both Russian) and Prince von Hessen-Homburg (Austrian) to the south, and General Gyulay (Austrian) to the west. Knyaz de Tolly Knyaz Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, called by the Russians as Mikhail Bogdanovich Barklay de Tolly (Михаи́л Богда́нович Баркла́й-де-То́лли) (born December 21, 1761 in Riga, [then] Imperial Russia; died May 26, 1818 in Insterburg, [then] Prussia), was a Russian field marshal and Minister of War. ...


The Prussian 9th brigade occupied the abandoned village of Wachau while the Austrians with General Bianchi's Hungarians threw the French out of Lößnig. The Austrians proceeded to give a demonstration of combined arms cooperation as Austrian Cavalry attacked French infantry to give Austrian infantry time to arrive and deploy in the attack on Dölitz. The Young Guard Division arrived and threw them out. At this point three Austrian Grenadier battalions arrived and began to contest for the village with artillery support.[9]


During the fighting, 5,400 Saxons of Jean Reynier's VII Corps defected to the Allies. Napoleon saw that the battle was a lost cause and on the night of the 18th–19th he began to withdraw the majority of his army across the river Elster. The allies didn't learn of the evacuation until 7 p.m, and were then held up by Oudinot's ferocious street-to-street rearguard action fought in Leipzig. The retreat went smoothly until early afternoon when the general tasked with destroying the only bridge over the river Elster handed the task of doing this to a Colonel Montfort. The colonel in turn passed this responsiblity on to corporal, who, unaware of the carefully planned time schedule, ignited the fuses at 1 p.m, when the bridge was still crowded with French troops, and Oudinot's rearguard was still in Leipzig. The explosion and subsequent panic and rout resulted in the deaths of thousands of French troops, and the capture of many thousands more. General Jean Louis Ebénézer Reynier (January 14, 1771-February 27, 1814) fought in the Franch army during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, eventually rising to the command of an army corps under Napoleon in the 1812 and 1813 campaigns. ...


Results

Völkerschlachtdenkmal: Memorial to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig
Völkerschlachtdenkmal: Memorial to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig

Total casualties are uncertain; estimates range from 80,000 to 110,000 killed or wounded from both sides. Download high resolution version (1457x1367, 359 KB) Picture of the Memorial to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig, Germany. ... Download high resolution version (1457x1367, 359 KB) Picture of the Memorial to the Battle of the Nations, Leipzig, Germany. ... Völkerschlachtdenkmal (with visitors on the top, at the bottom right etc. ...


French casualties were staggering. Napoleon lost about 38,000 killed and wounded. The Allies captured 15,000 able-bodied Frenchmen, 21,000 wounded or sick, 325 cannon and 28 eagles, standards or colors, and had received the men of the deserting Saxony divisions. Among the dead was Marshal Józef Antoni Poniatowski, a nephew to the last king of Poland, Stanislaw August Poniatowski. The Pole, who had only received his marshal's baton the previous day, drowned trying to escape. Corps commanders Lauriston and Reynier were captured. Fifteen French generals were killed and 51 wounded. Noble Family Poniatowski Coat of Arms CioÅ‚ek Parents Andrzej Poniatowski Teresa Kinsky Sibling Maria Teresa Tyszkiewiczowa Consorts none Children with Zelia SitaÅ„ska: Józef SzczÄ™sny Poniatowski; with Zofia Czosnowska: Karol Józef Poniatowski. ... For other persons named Stanisław Poniatowski, see Stanisław Poniatowski. ...


Out of a total force of 362,000, the Allies suffered approximately 54,000 casualties. Schwarzenberg's Bohemian Army lost 34,000, Blucher's Silesian Army lost 12,000, while Bennigsen's Army of North and Bennigsen's Army of Poland lost about 4,000 each.


The battle ended the First French Empire's presence east of the Rhine and brought the liberated German states over to the Coalition. Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the 91 m high Völkerschlachtdenkmal, the course of the battle in the city of Leipzig is marked by numerous monuments and the 45 Apel-stones that mark important lines of the French and allied troops. Völkerschlachtdenkmal (with visitors on the top, at the bottom right etc. ... Apel Stone in Leipzig Reudnitz commemorating General Bülow and Count Bennewitz of the second Corps of the Prussian Army The Apel-stones, named after the writer Theodor Apel from Leipzig who commissioned them, mark important events during the Battle of Leipzig. ...


Notes

is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... William Schaw Cathcart, 1st Earl Cathcart (September 17, 1755 - June 16, 1843), English soldier and diplomatist, was born at Petersham, and educated at Eton. ...

References

  • Chandler, David G., The Campaigns of Napoleon, The MacMillan Company (published 1966);
  • Smith, Digby, The Napoleonic Wars Data Book Greenhill, 1998.

External links

Coordinates: 51°15′00″N, 12°38′24″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Leipzig - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (859 words)
The Battle of Leipzig or the Battle of the Nations (16-19 October 1813) was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and the most decisive defeat suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte.
The battle began on 16 October with an attack by 78,000 Allied troops from the south and 54,000 from the north, with Napoleon using the bulk of his army in the south.
In addition to the 91 m high Völkerschlachtdenkmal, the course of the battle in the city of Leipzig is marked by numerous monuments and the 45 Apel-stones that mark important lines of the French and allied troops.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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