FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
Part of the Spanish Reconquista

Date July 16, 1212
Location Near Las Navas de Tolosa
Result Decisive Christian victory
Combatants
Castile,
Aragon,
Portugal,
Navarre
Almohads
Commanders
Alfonso VIII of Castile
Sancho VII of Navarre
Peter II of Aragon
Afonso II of Portugal
Muhammad al-Nasir
Strength
~50,000 reliable sources suggest it was between 125,000 - 150,000[citation needed] ~125,000 - 400,000[citation needed]
Casualties
~2,000 dead or wounded[citation needed] ~100,000 dead, wounded, or captured[citation needed]
Reconquista
CovadongaRoncevaux PassSimancasAtapuercaGraus – Az-Zallaqah – UclesOuriqueLisbonAlarcosLas Navas de TolosaJerezGranada

The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (Spanish:Batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa / Arabic:معركة العقاب) is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. The forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his Christian rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Afonso II of Portugal and Peter II of Aragon in battle against the Moroccan Muslim Almohad rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula. The sultan Caliph al-Nasir (Miramamolín in the Spanish chronicles) led the Almohad army, made up of people from the whole Almohad empire. Most of the men in the Almohad army came from the African side of the empire, which included Tunisia, Algeria, Senegal, Morocco, Mauritania and the southern part of the Iberian peninsula right below Las Navas de Tolosa line. Conquista redirects here. ... Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Alfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 – October 5, 1214); called the Noble or, in Spanish, el Noble; also known as He of Las Navas (El de las Navas); was the king of Castile and grandson of Alfonso VII.After having suffered a great defeat with his own army in 1195 at... Sancho in stained glass in the church at Roncesvalles. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... Afonso II of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), known as the Fat (Port. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr... Conquista redirects here. ... Combatants Kingdom of Asturias Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Pelayo of Asturias Munuza † Alqama † Strength 300[1] 800 Casualties 289 dead 600 dead The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors conquest of that region in 711. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in... Battle of Simancas was a military battle that took place in 939 AD in the Iberian Peninsula between the troops of the Christian king Ramiro II of Leon and Muslim caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III near the walls of the city of Simancas, in which was decided the control of... The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1054 in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García V, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Casile and León. ... The Battle of Graus (or Siege of Graus) was a battle of the early Spanish Reconquista in spring 1063 (some sources say the battle was in early May, possibly around May 8). ... Combatants Castile Almoravides Commanders Alfonso VI Yusuf ibn Tashfin Strength About 60,000 About 30,000 Casualties 59,500 dead Unknown The battle of az-Zallaqah الزلاقة (October 23, 1086) was a battle between the Almoravid Yusuf ibn Tashfin and Castilian King Alfonso VI. Yusuf ibn Tashfin replied to the call... Combatants Almoravids Castile Commanders Yusuf ibn Tashfin Sancho, son of Alfonso VI Casualties Sancho The Battle of Ucles was fought on 29 May 1108 between the Kingdom of Castile and the Almoravids. ... The Battle of Ourique took place in July 26, 1139, in the countryside outside the town of Ourique, present-day Alentejo (southern Portugal). ... Combatants Portugal Crusaders Moors Commanders Afonso I of Portugal Arnold III of Aerschot Christian of Ghistelles Henry Glanville Simon of Dover Andrew of London Saher of Archelle Unknown Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Lisbon, from July 1 to October 25 of 1147, was the military action... Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Combatants Castile Moors The Battle of Jerez was fought in 1231 between Castile and the Moors. ... Combatants Christian Spain (Aragon and Castile) Granada Commanders Ferdinand IV Sultan Boabdil Strength 100 000 300 000 Casualties 3000 150 000 The Battle of Granada was fought on January 2, 1492 between the forces of Aragon and Castile and the armies of Muslim controlled Granada. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Alfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 – October 5, 1214); called the Noble or, in Spanish, el Noble; also known as He of Las Navas (El de las Navas); was the king of Castile and grandson of Alfonso VII.After having suffered a great defeat with his own army in 1195 at... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sancho in stained glass in the church at Roncesvalles. ... Afonso II of Portugal (English Alphonzo), or Affonso (Archaic Portuguese), Alfonso or Alphonso (Portuguese-Galician) or Alphonsus (Latin version), known as the Fat (Port. ... Peter II of Aragon (1174 – September 12, 1213), surnamed the Catholic, was the king of Aragon (as Pedro II) and count of Barcelona (as Pere I) from 1196 to 1213. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr... Amir al-Muminin (Arabic أمير المؤمنين) usually translated Commander of the Faithful or Prince of the Faithful (a better translation might be Leader of the Believers), is the Arabic style of Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


In 1195, Alfonso VIII of Castile had been defeated by the Almohads in the so-called Disaster of Alarcos. After this victory the Almohads had taken important cities as Trujillo, Plasencia, Talavera, Cuenca and Uclés. Then, in 1211, Muhammad al-Nasir had crossed the Strait of Gibraltar with a powerful war machine, and invaded the Christian territory and captured the stronghold of the Calatrava Knights in Salvatierra. After this, the threat was so great for the Iberian Christian kingdoms that the Pope Innocent III called European knights to a crusade. After some disagreements among the members of the Christian coalition, Alfonso managed to cross the mountain range that defended the Almohad camp, sneaking through the Despeñaperros Pass, so that the Christian coalition caught by surprise and smashed the Moorish army that left some 100,000 casualties at the battleground. The battle was a bloody and decisive encounter. It has been claimed the Negro Guard of the sultan had been chained ankle to ankle to each other to prevent them from fleeing; they were cut down to the last man. The Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir himself died shortly after the battle in Marrakesh, where he had fled after the defeat. The culmination of the battle took place when Sancho VII of Navarre himself broke into the Caliph's fortified camp, broke up the defensive ring and disbanded al-Nasir's personal bodyguard; nonetheless Muhammad al-Nasir managed to escape. After that, the Christian army engaged in the annihilation of the Muslim troops, so that very few of them could escape the killing. Despite legends that Christian casualties were very few, in fact they were some 2,000 men, and particularly heavy among the Orders. Those killed included Pedro Gomez de Acevedo (bannerman of the Orden de Calatrava), Alfonso Fernandez de Valladares (comendator of the Orden de Santiago), Pedro Arias (master of the Orden de Santiago, died of wounds on 3 August) and Gomez Ramirez (master of the Orden del Temple). Ruy Diaz (master of the Orden de Calatrava) was so grievously wounded that he had to resign his command. Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat. ... Trujillo is a town in Spain, in the Extremadura region. ... Plasencia is a walled market city in the province of Cáceres, in Western Spain. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Location of Cuenca in Spain Looking through an arch in old Cuenca Cuenca is a city (2004 pop. ... Muhammad an-Nâsir (الناصر لدين الله محمد بن المنصور an-nāṣir li-dīn allah muḥammad ben al-manṣūr... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The order emblem, a greek cross in gules with fleur-de-lis at its ends. ... Salvatierra (Basque: Agurain) is a town and municipality located in the province of Araba, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, in northern Spain. ... Innocent III, né Lotario de Conti ( 1161–June 16, 1216), was Pope from January 8, 1198 until his death. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ...

The new blazon of Navarre.
The new blazon of Navarre.

According to legend, the emir had his tent surrounded with chained slaves as a defence. The Navarrese however cut the chains and broke into the tent. As a memorial, the kingdom of Navarre changed its coat of arms with one depicting a golden chain on a gules field with an emerald. Image File history File links Blason_Navarre. ... Image File history File links Blason_Navarre. ... Arrano beltza Arrano beltza The arrano beltza (black eagle in Basque) is an ancient Basque and Navarre symbol which displays a black eagle upon a yellow background and is mostly, though not exclusively, used by Basque nationalists as a symbol of Euskal Herria, the Basque Country. ...


Aftermath

The crushing defeat of the Almohads significantly hastened their decline both in the Iberian Peninsula and in the Maghreb a decade later, this would give further momentum to the Christian Reconquest begun by the kingdoms of northern Iberia centuries before, resulting in a sharp reduction in the already declining power of the Moors in the Iberian Peninsula. Sultan Muhammed, who had escaped to Sevilla with 4,000 men, was murdered a year later. Shortly after the battle, the Castilians retook Baeza and, then, Úbeda, major fortified cities near the battlefield, and gateways to invade Andalucia. Thereafter, Ferdinand III of Castile retook Córdoba in 1236, Jaén in 1246, and Seville in 1248; then he took Arcos, Medina-Sidonia, Jerez and Cádiz. After this chain of victories, only Ferdinand's death prevented the Castilians from crossing the Gibraltar Strait to take the war to the heartland of the Almohad empire. Ferdinand III died in Seville on May 30, 1252, when a plague spread over the southern part of the Iberian peninsula while he was preparing his army and fleet to cross the Gibraltar Strait. On the Mediterranean coast, James I, Count of Barcelona and King of Aragon, proceeded to conquer the Balearic Islands (from 1228 over the following four years) and Valencia (the city capitulated September 28). This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (Disambiguation). ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign... Santa María fountain and cathedral of Baeza Baeza (anc. ... Úbeda (IPA: ) is a town in the province of Jaén in Spains autonomous community of Andalusia. ... Motto: Dominator Hercules Fundator Andaluc a por s , para Espa a y la humanidad (Andalusia for herself, for Spain, and for humanity) Capital Seville Area  - total  - % of Spain Ranked 2nd 87 268 km 17,2% Population  - Total (2003)  - % of Spain  - Density Ranked 1st 7 478 432 17,9% 85,70... Ferdinand III (1198/1199 – 30 May 1252), called the Saint, was the King of Castile from 1217 and King of León from 1230. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... Arcos was a small independent emirate created c. ... Medina-Sidonia is a city and municipality in the province of Cádiz in the autonomous community of Andalusia in southern Spain. ... see: Jerez de la Frontera Jerez was a small independent emirate created c. ... Nickname: Tacita de plata (little silver cup) Location within Spain Province Cádiz  - Mayor Teófila Martínez (PP) Area    - City 12. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... James I of Aragon (Catalan: Jaume I, Spanish: Jaime I, Occitan: Jacme I) (Montpellier, February 2, 1208 – July 27, 1276) surnamed the Conqueror, was the king of Aragon, count of Barcelona and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. ... Capital Palma de Mallorca Official language(s) Spanish and Catalan Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 17th  4,992 km²  1. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the year 1252, the Almohad empire was almost over, at the mercy of another emerging African power. In 1269, a new association of African tribes, the Marinid, had taken control of the Maghreb, and most of the former Almohad empire was under their rule. Later, the Marinid tried to recover the former Almohad territories in the Iberian peninsula, but they were definitively defeated by Sancho IV, Ferdinand's grandson, in the Battle of Salado, the last major military encounter between large Christian and Muslim armies in the Iberian peninsula. Marinid was the Dynasty that replaced the Almohad Dynasty in Morocco in 1196. ... Sancho IV can refer to: King Sancho IV of Navarre (d. ... The Battle of Salado was fought in 1340 by Castilian and Portuguese against the Muslim Marīnids of North Africa in a final attempt by the latter to invade the Iberian Peninsula. ...


In 1294 Sancho IV retook Tarifa, key to the control of the Gibraltar Strait; and Granada, Almería and Málaga were the only major cities of the time in the Iberian peninsula still in Muslim hands. These three cities were the core of the Nazhari Kingdom of Granada, which was a vassal state of Castile, until the kingdom was finally taken by the Catholic Kings in 1492. So, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa seems to have been a true turning point in the history of the region, including the western Mediterranean sea. Location of Tarifa Municipality Cádiz Mayor Miguel Manella Guerrero Area    - City 419 km²  - Land 419 km²  - Water 0. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... Almería is the capital of the province of Almería in Spain. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga  - Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ...


References

  • Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. Reader's Companion to Military History. Retrieved on 9 February 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Alarcos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (216 words)
Battle of Alarcos (July 18, 1195), was a great victory of Almohad ruler Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian King Alfonso VIII; also referred as the Disaster of Alarcos due to the magnitude of the Castilian defeat.
The outcome of the battle even threatened the stability of the kingdom of Castile, since, after it, the whole Muslim al-Andalus became part of the Almohad empire.
The subsequent counter-attack of the Castilians against the new African rulers culminates in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa seventeen years later.
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (609 words)
The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia.
The forces of King Alfonso VIII of Castile were joined by the armies of his Christian rivals, Sancho VII of Navarre, Afonso II of Portugal and Peter II of Aragon in battle against the African Muslim Almohad rulers of the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula.
The battle was a bloody and decisive encounter; the Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir, himself, died shortly after the battle in Marrakesh, where he had fled after the defeat.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m