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Encyclopedia > Battle of Krasny Bor
Battle of Krasny Bor
Part of the Second World War

The Soviet 55th Army tears into the eastern flank of Army Group North in 1943. The Battle of Krasny Bor begins.
Date: February 9 - February 13, 1943
Location: Krasny Bor, near present-day Saint Petersburg, Russia
Result: German victory
Combatants
Germany
(Spain)
Soviet Union
Commanders
Emilio Esteban Infantes Vladimir P. Sviridov
Strength
5,900 44,000
Casualties
3,945 dead, wounded, missing, or captured 11,000 dead, wounded, missing or captured

The Battle of Krasny Bor was fought between the German Wehrmacht's 250th Infantry Division, composed of Spanish volunteers, and the Soviet 55th Army. In Spain, it has become known as "Black Wednesday", due to the intensity of the battle, which took place on Wednesday, February 10, 1943 in northern Russia. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... Krasny Bor (Russian:Красный Бор) is a village in Shatkovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia, about 17 km south-east from Arzamas. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... General Esteban Infantes. ... Wehrmacht â–¶ (help· info) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul), also known as , was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served on the German side of the Second World War, mainly on the Eastern Front. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ...


The battle was an important post-Stalingrad event because it represented a revitalized Soviet Army's attempt at a strategic offensive in the northern sector of the front. Although the operation ended with a large portion of the LeningradMoscow Highway in Soviet hands for the first time since September 1941, the Spanish division was able to hold off the much larger Soviet attack without yielding substantial ground. Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Friedrich Paulus Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Strength 500,000 1,700,000 Casualties 850,000 military 750,000+ military 40,000+ civilian {{{notes}}} The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II and is considered the bloodiest battle... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) is a historical name of the Russian city of Saint Petersburg, used between 1924 and 1991. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ...

Contents


Background

Soviet-German War
Barbarossa – Bialystok-Minsk –SilberfuchsSmolenskUman1st KievLeningradTyphoon1st RostovMoscow – Odessa – Sevastopol1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd Kharkov1st VoronezhEdelweissStalingradVelikiye LukiUranus – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – SaturnKrasny Bor3rd KharkovKursk – Belgorod – 4th KharkovNarvaKorsun – 2nd Kiev – Hube's Pocket – Crimea – Târgul Frumos – Bagration – Lvov-Sandomierz – RomaniaDebrecenBaltic – Vistula-Oder – BalatonBerlinHalbePrague

Main articles: Blue Division, Operation Barbarossa, Siege of Leningrad. The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3,200,000 ~ 2,600,000 Casualties unknown unknown Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. ... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Field Marshal Fedor von Bock Army General D. Pavlov Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of Bialystok-Minsk was one of the Border Battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... Combatants Germany / Finland Soviet Union Commanders Generaloberst Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (Armee Norwegen) Komdiv R. I. Panin (Northern Front) Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Silver Fox (Unternehmen Silberfuchs) was a German operation during World War II. Its main goal was the capture of the Soviet port at Murmansk through... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... The Battle of Kiev was a huge encirclement battle in the Ukraine during World War II. It lasted from mid August - 19 September 1941 as part of Operation Barbarossa. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 16,470 from bombings and estimated 1 million from starvation {{{notes}}} The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда), during World War II, lasted from September 8, 1941, to January... The eastern front at the time of Operation Typhoon. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... The Battle of Moscow refers to the defense of the Soviet capital of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive against the German army, between October 1941 and January 1942 on the Eastern Front of World War II. // The German invasion On 22 June 1941 Germany and its Axis allies invaded... Alexander Deyneka. ... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Friedrich Paulus, Fedor von Bock Semyon Timoshenko Strength 1000 Tanks,1500 Aircraft, 300,000 Men 1300 Tanks,620 Aircraft, 450,000 Men Casualties 20,000 207,057 Personnel, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars and 57,626 horse. ... Combatants Germany, Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Gusztav Jany Yevgeny Golikov Strength Casualties The Battle of Voronezh was a battle of the Eastern Front of World War II, fought in and around the city of Voronezh on the Don river in June and July 1942. ... The Battle of Caucasus is a generic name for a series of operations during the Great Patriotic War. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Hermann Hoth Friedrich Paulus Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Strength 500,000 1,700,000 Casualties 850,000 military 750,000+ military 40,000+ civilian {{{notes}}} The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II and is considered the bloodiest battle... Battle of Velikiye Luki Conflict World War II Date November 1942 – February 1943 Place Velikiye Luki, Pskov Oblast, Russia Result Qualified Soviet victory The Battle of Velikiye Luki between Germany and the Soviet Union occurred in and around the Russian city Velikiye Luki during the winter of 1942-1943. ... The eastern front at the time of Operation Uranus. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Soviet advances during Operations Uranus, Mars and Saturn Operation Saturn was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front of World War II that led to battles in the northern Caucasus and Donets Basin regions of the Soviet Union from December 1942 to February 1943. ... The Third Battle of Kharkov was the last major German victory of World War II. Led by Field Marshal Erich von Manstein, the Germans retook the city of Kharkov from the Soviet armies in bitter street fighting. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Walther Model Nikolai Vatutin Konstantin Rokossovsky Strength 800,000 infantry 2,700 tanks 2,000 aircraft 1,300,000 infantry 3,600 tanks 2,400 aircraft Casualties 200,000 dead, wounded, and captured 500 tanks 200 aircraft 607,737 dead, wounded, and... The Fourth Battle of Kharkov was fought on August 23, 1943 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Battle of Narva Conflict {{{conflict}}} Date {{{date}}} Place {{{place}}} Result {{{result}}} The Battle of Narva took place in the first half of 1944. ... Korsun Pocket, also known as the Cherkassy Pocket, was the name of the large pocket of German troops between the towns of Korsun and Cherkassy on the lower Dnepr River in the Southern Ukraine, during World War II. In January of 1944, the encroaching Soviet Red Army executed a pincer... Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket Conflict World War II Date March 25, 1944 – April 15, 1944 Place Kamenets-Podolsky / Tarnopol, USSR Result Soviet Defeat; German Evacuation The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket, was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht 17. ... The Battle of Târgul Frumos (May 2-4, 1944) was fought at IaÅŸi, Romania between Nazi Germany and its Romanian allies on one side and the Soviet Red Army. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 368,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 37,400 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Operation was... The Battle of Debrecen, was a battle on the Eastern Front of World War II. In October 1944 General der Artillerie Maximilian Fretter-Picos 6. ... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Commanders Soviet STAVKA German OKW Strength Unkown Unknown Casualties 260,000 all causes Unknown // Overview The Battle of the Baltic, called the Baltic Operation by the Red Army who undertook it, denotes combat operations between the German Wehrmacht and the Red Army in the Baltic region... The eastern front at the time of the Vistula-Oder Offensive. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Dietrich (6. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union, Poland Commanders Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Weidling Helmuth Reymann Wilhelm Mohnke Georgy Zhukov Ivan Konev Vassili Chuikov Strength 1 million men, 1,500 AFVs, 3,300 aircraft 2. ... The Battle of Halbe occurred during the last days of April 1945 in the Spree Forest near the village of Halbe, south-east of Berlin. ... The Eastern Front at the time of the Prague Offensive. ... The Blue Division (Spanish División Azul), also known as , was a unit of Spanish volunteers that served on the German side of the Second World War, mainly on the Eastern Front. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3,200,000 ~ 2,600,000 Casualties unknown unknown Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Georg von Kuechler Kliment Voroshilov Georgy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 16,470 from bombings and estimated 1 million from starvation {{{notes}}} The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда), during World War II, lasted from September 8, 1941, to January...


After the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Third Reich on June 22, 1941 (see Operation Barbarossa), an all-out drive for the central Russian city of Moscow was made by the Wehrmacht's (consisting of Germans, Austrians, Romanians, Hungarians, Italians and various volunteers from France, the Netherlands and Norway) Army Group Center battle group. In early November, 1941, it was obvious that the drive had failed due, in part, to: immense cold, generally bad weather, poorly planned supply routes, strong resistance by the Red Army on the Moscow approaches, and Soviet partisans behind Axis lines. Soviet General Georgy Zhukov launched a counter-attack against the German lines in December, 1941, driving back Army Group Center, and effectively putting Moscow out of its' reach. Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Josef Stalin Strength ~ 3,200,000 ~ 2,600,000 Casualties unknown unknown Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Георгий Константинович Жуков) (December 1 [O.S. November 19] 1896 – June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and politician, considered by many as one of the most successful field commanders of World War II. // Prewar career Born into a peasant family in Strelkovka...


Adolf Hitler ordered a "standfast" order to all forces, which included the recently arrived 250th Spanish Foreign Legion Division, the Blue Division in the Leningrad sector. After fighting in the Volkhov-Lake Ilmen-Novgorod area from October 1941-August 1942, the Blue Division was transfered to the southern boundary of the Leningrad pocket, where a siege was underway since that city had been surrounded by the Wehrmacht Army Group North in September of 1941. Enduring immense cold and almost constant shelling after November, 1942, the Blue Division dug in around Krasny Bor, Pushkin and Kolpino, towns which are located in the area south-east of Leningrad. (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ...

A modern-day Russian map of the Leningrad area. The green lines illustrate the location of the battle.
Enlarge
A modern-day Russian map of the Leningrad area. The green lines illustrate the location of the battle.

After the reverses of mid-late 1941, the Soviet 55th Army was formed based on reserves from east of Moscow. This new unit consisted of four infantry divisions, two armoured regiments and several other support groups. In January, 1943, it was moved to the Northern Front which was attempting to push into the Southern flank of the Axis Army Group North, which was besieging Leningrad. In Operation Spark, the Red Army managed to create a land-connection to Leningrad along the shore of Lake Ladoga for the first time since September 1941. This narrow stretch could still be brought under fire from German positions, and it was therefore important to extend it further south and west. Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) is a historical name of the Russian city of Saint Petersburg, used between 1924 and 1991. ... Operation Spark was the name given to a plan generated in the early 1940s by German anti-Nazis to assassinate Adolf Hitler. ... Map of lake Ladoga Towpath Bridge between Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega (from a photograph taken ca. ...


At the end of January, 1943, Emilio Esteban Infantes, the general in command of the 250th Infantry Division (Blue Division) was aware of a build-up of Soviet forces (55th Army), which indicated that an attack was immiment, most likely in concert with the counter-attacks to the far south in the aftermath of the Stalingrad battle. The 55th Army was actually on the offensive to cut off Army Group North from the vital Leningrad-Moscow Highway, an important road/railway linking the two central cities. The pivot-point for this highway is Krasny Bor.


The Battle

On Wednesday, February 10, 1943, a massive artillery bombardment of 800 Soviet guns opened on the Spanish lines at precisely 6.45 hours. Shells, mortars and Katyusha rockets pounded the trenches, bunkers and dugouts which had been constructed to strengthen the eastern flank of Army Group North. At 8.45 hours, the bombardment shifted from the front lines onto Krasny Bor itself, also striking the villages of Podolvo and Raikelevo, the latter being the location of Infantes' forward command post. For the thrash metal band, see Artillery (band) Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Katyusha rockets on ZiS-6 For the song, see Katyusha (song). ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of fortifications dug into the ground, facing each other. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord in German) was a high level command grouping of military units operating for Germany during World War II. The army group coordinated the operations of attached army corps, reserve formations, and direct-reporting units. ... Krasny Bor (Russian:Красный Бор) is a village in Shatkovsky District of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in Russia, about 17 km south-east from Arzamas. ... General Esteban Infantes. ...


At approximately 8.40 hours, the 100 tanks of 55th Army advanced towards Raikelevo and Podolvo (both located east and south-east of Krasny Bor, respectively) followed by 44,000 infantry; they were met by 5,900 troops of the 250th Infantry Division, holding the eastern flank of the line. Pinned by Soviet shelling, Spanish formations were unable to retreat towards the town and in many cases fought to the death.


A Company of 250th Infantry Division held the October Railway Station, repulsing infantry charges and three tanks charges by advancing Soviet forces. By 11.00 hours the company was reduced to 40 combatants yet these managed to hold the factory until 12.00, when they fell back into the town. Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ...


From 9.00 to 10.40 hours, isolated Spanish units fought off Soviet attacks but were cut off when the Soviets seized the October Railway. Now encircled, the units still holding the Leningrad-Moscow Highway decided to hold as long as possible, which they did, down to the last man standing.


55th Army, in the mean-time, had advanced despite incredibly heavy casualties inflicted by dug-in Spanish troops. The Soviets took Raikelevo, which cut off Podolvo from Krasny Bor. In Krasny Bor itself the Spanish artillery, engineer and other assorted stragglers came under attack from Soviet infantry and armour. Soviet tanks opened fire on a hospital and retreating ambulances but were eventually beaten off by Spanish troops armed with Molotov Cocktails and hand grenades. The afternoon brought belated support in the form of a Luftwaffe fighter-bomber attack on the Soviet positions around the town of Kolpino, to the east of Krasny Bor. A military engineer is primarily responsible for the design and construction of offensive and defensive structures for warfare. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... An ambulance is a vehicle designated for the transport of sick or injured people. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... A WWII-era MkIIA1 pineapple fragmentation hand grenade A hand grenade is a small hand-held bomb designed to be thrown by hand. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (help· info) (German: Air Arm, IPA: [luftvafə]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


The 55th Army advanced as far as the central-western part of the town, but at 16.30 hours the German German 212th Infantry Division and 112th Flemish Volunteer Formation were able to reach the town and shore up the rapidly deteriorating Spanish position. The two fresh units then fanned out to the east in brutal inner-town fighting which lasted until after dusk. Meanwhile the remaining Spanish troops were ordered to new positions on the Ishora river on the west of the town. Here they held out against 55th Army's last attacks. 212th Infantry Division 212th Volksgrenadier Division 578th Volksgrenadier Division The German 212th Infantry Division was raised in August 1939 and remainded on garrison duty in Germany until March 1941, when it spent three months as a coastal defense unit along the English Channel. ... SS-Freiwilligen Standarte Nordwest SS-Freiwilligen Verband Flandern (Landesverband Flandern) SS-Bataillon Flandern SS-Freiwilligen Legion Flandern SS-Freiwilligen Sturmbrigade Langemarck 6. ...


The next day, February 11, 1943, left 55th Army surrounded in several places. After the Spanish 262nd infantry Regiment and 1st Artillery Battalion evacuated, they bombarded the Soviet positions, and, eventually, the town was secured on Febuary 13. The main road to Moscow was still in Soviet hands, and the Soviets launched their last major attack in this sector on March 19, 1943; this was repulsed. February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ... Moscow (Russian: Москва́, Moskva, IPA: (help· info)) is the capital of Russia and the countrys principal political, economic, financial, educational and transportation center, located on the river Moskva. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Order of Battle

Soviet Union

Soviet 55th Army, 44,000 soldiers - General V.P. Sviridov

  • 43rd Guards Infantry Division
  • 45th Infantry Division
  • 63rd Guards Infantry Division
  • 72nd Infantry Division
    • 14th Infantry Regiment
    • 133rd Infantry Regiment
    • 141st Infantry Regiment
    • 9th Artillery Regiment
  • 31st Armoured Regiment
  • 46th Armoured Regiment
  • 187 Artillery batteries of 122mm and 203mm guns
    • 2 Battalions of 80mm mortars
    • 2 Battalions of 76.2mm anti-tank guns
  • 35th Motorized Regiment
  • 34th Ski Brigade
  • 250 Ski Brigade

Germany

250. Infanterie-Division, 5,900 soldiers - Emilio Esteban Infantes General Esteban Infantes. ...

  • 250 Reserve Battalion
  • 262 Regiment (3 battalions)
  • 250 Reconnaissance Group
  • Ski Company
  • 1st Artillery Battalion (3 Batteries) with 10.5 cm guns
    • One battery of 3rd Artillery Battalion with 10.5 cm guns
    • One battery of 4th Artillery Battalion with 15.0 cm guns
  • Anti-tank Battalion with 3.7 cm guns
  • Assault sappers group

212. Infanterie Division


SS-Volunteer Formation 'Flanders' (regiment sized)


Aftermath and consequences

A soldier of the 250th Infantry "Blue" Division, securing the burial marker of a fallen comrade.
A soldier of the 250th Infantry "Blue" Division, securing the burial marker of a fallen comrade.

On February 15 the 250th Infantry Division reported casualties of 3,645 wounded or killed and 300 missing or taken prisoner (A 75% casualty rate). It claimed 11,000 Soviet troops of 55th Army had been killed from February 9-13. Because of these heavy losses and Allied pressure on the Spanish government, the Blue Division was withdrawn to Germany and later disbanded; a new, smaller volunteer formation called the Blue Legion (Legión Azul) remained in combat on the Eastern Front attached to 121st Infantry Division until March, 1944, when it also was disbanded and the majority of the volunteers sent back to Spain. The 55th Army eventually took part in the re-capture of Leningrad, securing the Leningrad-Moscow line in 1944. Afterwards, it advanced into Estonia and fought against the Courland pocket until 1945. February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The group of countries known as the Allies of World War II came together, to fight the Axis Powers, as World War II unfolded and progressed. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino de España; Asturian: Reinu dEspaña) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... The Eastern Front of World War II was the theatre of war covering the conflict in eastern Europe, notorious for its unprecedented ferocity, destruction, and immense loss of life. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград) is a historical name of the Russian city of Saint Petersburg, used between 1924 and 1991. ... Army Group Courland (German: Heeresgruppe Kurland) On the 25 January 1945 Hitler renamed three army groups. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Those captured in the battle, on the Spanish side, were sent to gulag camps, primarily in Siberia, and were not repatriated to Spain until 1954. Krasny Bor remains, for the most part, an obscure battle in modern historical knowledge relating to this devastating war. The Blue Division was awarded a Combat Service Medal, personally designed by Adolf Hitler, for its defense of Army Group North's precarious eastern flank. Gulag (Russian: ГУЛАГ (help· info)) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ...


References

  • Halisbury, Harrison E. 900 Days, The: The Siege of Leningrad Da Capo Press, 2003.
  • Kleinfeld, Gerald L., Tambs, Lewis A. Hitler's Spanish Legion: The Blue Division in Russia. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.
  • Wylie, Nevile. European Neutrals and Non-Belligerents during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
250 (2830 words)
The battle would prove to be a tremendously furious and bloody affair, for when the unit was finally relieved nine days later on January 28th, 1943, there were only 28 men left standing out of nearly 800.
This massive battle was to be known as the Battle of Krasny Bor - amazingly, it proved to be a bloody and costly victory for the division.
Krasny Bor was largely to be the divisions last major action.
Blue Division - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1322 words)
They were awarded both Spanish and German military awards, and were the only division to be awarded a medal of their own, commissioned by Hitler.
After the collapse of German front following the Battle of Stalingrad, the situation changed and more German troops were deployed southwards.
Battles in which the Blue Division (or its successors) was a primary participant
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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