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Encyclopedia > Battle of Kosovo
This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation).
Battle of Kosovo
Part of the Ottoman wars in Europe

Battle on Kosovo, by Adam Stefanovic, oil, 1870
Date June 15, 1389 (Julian calendar)
Location Kosovo Field, Kosovo
Result Alternately considered a military draw or a Pyrrhic Ottoman victory. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]
Belligerents
Ottoman Empire
Macedonian Serbs
Serbia,
Bosnia,
Wallachia,
Albanians[9]
Commanders
Murad I †,
Bayezid I,
Yakub †
Lazar Hrebeljanovic †,
Vuk Brankovic,
Vlatko Vukovic
Strength
~ 27,000-40,000[10][11][12]
with 8000 Serbs in Macedonia
~ 12,000-30,000[10][11][12][13]
Serbian, Bosnian, Wallachian and Albanian forces[14]
Croat, Hungarian and Polish knights
Casualties and losses
Reasonably high; Sultan Murad I was assassinated by Milos Obilic (a Serbian nobleman taken to his tent as a prisoner) after the battle. Reasonably high; most of the Serbian nobility including Tzar Lazar Hrebeljanovic were killed during the battle.

The Battle of Kosovo ; Serbian: Kosovski boj, or Boj na Kosovu; Turkish: Kosova Meydan Muharebesi) was fought on St Vitus' Day (June 15, now celebrated on 28) 1389 between Medieval Serbia and the Ottoman Empire. The Battle of Kosovo is particularly notable to Serbian concepts of history, heritage and national identity.[1] Image File history File links Acap. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... The Battle of Kosovo could refer to several conflicts: Battle of Kosovo of 1389 Battle of Kosovo of 1448 Kosovo War of 1999 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Image File history File links Battle_on_Kosovo1389. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Kosovo Field, with disposition of Serbian and Ottoman troops before the Battle of Kosovo. ... To tie or draw is to finish a competition with identical or inconclusive results. ... A Pyrrhic victory is a victory with devastating cost to the victor. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day western Serbia and northern Montenegro), Bosnia/Bosna (present-day south-central and southeastern Bosnia), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Byzantines restored control over Bosnia at the end of 10th century, but not for long as it was soon taken by the Czar of Bulgarians Samuil. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of [http://www. ... Vuk Branković (Вук Бранковић) lived in Serbia during the 14th century. ... Vlatko Vuković (died 1392) was a Vojvode of Hum (Herzegovina). ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being... This is a list of prominent ethnic Serbs and people from Serbia. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of [http://www. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Vidovdan (Видовдан) is a religious holiday, St. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day western Serbia and northern Montenegro), Bosnia/Bosna (present-day south-central and southeastern Bosnia), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


Reliable historical accounts of the battle are scarce. However a critical comparison with historically contemporaneous battles (such as the Battle of Angora or Nikopolis) enable reliable reconstruction.[15] The Battle of Ankara or Battle of Angora, fought on July 20, 1402, took place on the field of Çubukovasi between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Beyazid I and the Mongol horde of Timur, ruler of Georgia and Armenia in 1390, the Ottoman Empire became his neighbor, and the... // Combatants Ottoman Empire France Kingdom of Hungary Wallachia Commanders Bayezid I Sigismund of Hungary John of Nevers #, Mircea the Elder Strength About 100,000 About 100,000 Casualties About 20,000 About 35,000 The Battle of Nicopolis (Bulgarian: , Bitka pri Nikopol; Turkish: , Hungarian: nikápolyi csata) took place on...

Contents

Preparations

Army movement

After the Serbs defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Bileca and the Battle of Plocnik, Murad I, the reigning Ottoman sultan, gathered his troops in Philippoupolis (Plovdiv) in the spring of 1389, and arrived in Ihtiman after a three-day march. From there, the party travelled across Velbužd (Kyustendil) and Kratovo. Though longer than the alternate route through Sofia and the Nišava valley, which would have given them direct access to Prince Lazar's lands, the route taken led the Ottoman party to Kosovo, an area that was strategically important, one of the most important trade crossroads in the Balkans. From Kosovo, Murad's party could attack either Lazar's or Vuk's lands, or move into Italy. Having stayed in Kosovo for a time, Murad and his troops passed across Kumanovo, Preševo and Gnjilane to Priština, where he arrived on June 14.[15] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The Battle of Plocnik was fought on the Bosnian-Serb border in 1388. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... Ihtiman (Bulgarian: ) is a town in western Bulgaria, part of Sofia Province. ... Marching Naval Construction Battalion NMCB-1 (Seabees) 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - April 1945 (Gothic Line) Marching refers to the organized, uniformed, steady and rhythmic walking forward, usually associated with military troops. ... Kyustendil Coat of arms Kyustendil (Bulgarian: , historically , Velbazhd, Turkish: ) is a town in the very west of Bulgaria, and the capital of Kyustendil Province, with a population of 47,196 (2005 calculation). ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Kratovo municipality Elevation m Population Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 031 Postal code 1360 Car plates KU* -S Official Website www. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... The gorge of NiÅ¡ava in the east of Serbia NiÅ¡ava (Нишава in Cyrillic) is a river in Serbia and Bulgaria and a right tributary of South Morava. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... A crossroads (the word rarely appears in singular) is a road junction, where two or more roads meet (there are three or more arms). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Vuk Branković (Вук Бранковић) lived in Serbia during the 14th century. ... Location of the city of Kumanovo (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Zoran Damjanovski Elevation +340 m (1,115 ft) Population (2002)  - Total 105 484 Time zone CET (UTC+1) Postal codes Area code(s) 389 031 Patron saints St. ... PreÅ¡evo (Serbian: Прешево or PreÅ¡evo; Albanian: Preshevë or Presheva) is a town and municipality in Pčinja District of Serbia, bordering the Republic of Macedonia, with Kosovos mountainous frontier in the visible western distance. ... Gnjilane (Serbian: Гњилане, or Gnjilane; Albanian: Gjilani or Gjilan) is a city and municipality in eastern Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... The Palace of Youth building The building of the former Rilindja newspaper, also the tallest in Prishtina. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


While there is less information about Lazar's preparations, it can be assumed that he gathered his troops near Niš, possibly on the right (north/east/south/west?) bank of Južna Morava. His party likely remained there until he learned that Murad had moved to Velbužd, whereby he also moved probably across Prokuplje to Kosovo. Lazar, with a Serbian Christian army met Murad’s troops at Kosovo. This was Lazar's optimal choice for the battlefield as it meant having control of all the possible routes that Murad could take.[15] Nis redirects here. ... Južna Morava or South Morava (Serbian: Јужна Морава) is a river in Serbia which represents the shorter headwater of Velika Morava. ... Prokuplje (Прокупље) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ...


Army composition

It is not certain how large the armies were, especially as later sources tended to exaggerate their size, even into the hundreds of thousands.[16]


Murad's army may have numbered 27,000-40,000.[10][11][12][15] If we take the estimate of 40,000, it probably included 2,000-5,000 Janissaries,[17] 2,500 of Murad's cavalry guard, 6,000 sipahis, 20,000 azaps and akincis and 8,000 of his vassals.[15] Lazar's army might have been 12,000-30,000.[10][11][12][13] If we take the estimate of 25,000, some 15,000 were under Lazar's command, with 5,000 under Serbian nobleman from Kosovo Vuk Brankovic, and as many under Serbian vojvoda from Bosnia Vlatko Vukovic.[13] Of these, several thousand were cavalry, but perhaps only a few hundred were clad in full plate armour.[16] The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Woodcut by Melchior Lorch (1646), originally engraved in 1576. ... Azaps were irregular light infantry of the Ottoman Army. ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Vuk Branković (Вук Бранковић) lived in Serbia during the 14th century. ... For the heavy metal music band see Voivod (band). ... Vlatko Vuković (died 1392) was a Vojvode of Hum (Herzegovina). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ...


Both armies included some foreign troops: for example, the Serbian force included a small number of troops from the Croatian ban Ivan Paližna, probably as part of the Bosnian contingent, while the Turkish army was helped by the Serbian noble Konstantin Dejanovic. This has led some analysts to describe the armies as coalitions.[16] Ban is a title of either Avar or Illyrian origin, the title was used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century. ... A coalition is an alliance among entities, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest. ...

...if all of us would now turn to salt, we couldn't even salt the Turk's lunch...[18]

This article is part of the series on the
History of Serbia Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Serbia_small. ... One of the first Serbian states, Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been...

Medieval Serbia
Rascia
Zeta, Zachlumia
Serbian Empire
Moravian Serbia
Battle of Kosovo
Serbian Despotate
Ottoman/Habsburg Serbia
First Habsburg Serbia
Second Habsburg Serbia
Revolutionary Serbia
Modern Serbia
Principality of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
Serbian Campaign (World War I)
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
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Тhe Serbian medieval history begins in the 5th century AD with the coming of the slavs on the Balkans, and ends with the occupation of Serbia by the Ottoman Empire in 1459 with the fall of the Serbian capital Smederevo. ... RaÅ¡ka (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ... Zeta was one of the first Montenegrin states in the Middle Ages. ... Zahumlje in the 9th century, according to De administrando imperio Zahumlje, also known as the Land of Hum and Chelm, was a medieval principality located in todays Herzegovina (modern day Bosnia and Herzegovina), and southern Dalmatia (modern day Republic of Croatia). ... The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско Царство, Srpsko Carstvo) was a medieval empire in the Balkans that emerged from the medieval Serbian kingdom in the 14th century. ... Lazar Hrebeljanović, prince of Moravian Serbia (1371-1389) Moravian Serbia (Serbian: Moravska Srbija, Моравска Србија) was the most important of the Serbian states that emerged from the collapse of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century. ... The Serbian Despotate (Serbian: Српска деспотовина or Srpska despotovina) was among the last Serbian states to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Serbia (1718-1739) Serbia was a province of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1718 to 1739. ... KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... Principality of Serbia and Vojvodina of Serbia and TamiÅ¡ Banat in 1849 Serbian Principality was a state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of First Serbian Uprising and Second Serbian Uprising between 1804 and 1816. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Combatants  Austria-Hungary Bulgaria  German Empire Serbia Montenegro Commanders Oskar Potiorek Nikola Zhekov Kliment Boyadzhiev Georgi Todorov Ivan Valkov August von Mackensen Radomir Putnik Živojin MiÅ¡ić Stepa Stepanović Petar Bojović Nicholas I The Serbian Campaign was fought from August 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia at the outset of... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian, German (in Banat) Political structure Military administration Military Commander  - 1941 Franz Böhme  - 1941-1944 (?) (Unknown) Serbian government leader  - 1941 Milan Aćimović  - 1941-1944 Milan Nedić Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April 1, 1941  - Military defeat May, 1944 Currency Serbian Dinar... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...

The battle

Kosovo Field with probable disposition of troops before the battle
Kosovo Field with probable disposition of troops before the battle

Image File history File links Kosovo_Field. ... Image File history File links Kosovo_Field. ...

Troop disposition

The armies met at Kosovo Field. The Ottoman army was headed by Murad, with his son Bayezid on his right, and his son Yakub on his left. Around 1,000 archers were in the front line in the wings, backed up by azap and akinci; in the front centre were janissary, behind whom was Murad, surrounded by his cavalry guard; finally, the supply train at the rear was guarded by a small number of troops.[16] Kosovo Polje (Косово поље, Albanian: Fushë Kosovë) is a town located in Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, at 42. ... Archers in Competition Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Azaps were irregular light infantry of the Ottoman Army. ... Akıncı was the light cavalry division of the Ottoman Army. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ...


The Serbian army had prince Lazar at its center, Vuk on the right and Vlatko on the left. At the front of the Serbian army was placed the heavy cavalry and archer cavalry on the flanks, with the infantry to the rear. While parallel, the dispositions of the armies were not symmetric, as the Serbian center overlapped the Ottoman center.[16]

When torrent of arrows landed on Serbian armsmen
who until then stood motionless like mountains of iron,
they rode forward, rolling and thundering like the sea
[19]

Start

The battle commenced with Ottoman archers firing at Serbian cavalry, who then made for the attack. After positioning in a "V" shaped formation, the Serbian cavalry managed to break through the Ottoman left wing, but were not as successful against the center and the right wing. [16]


Turkish counterattack

Kosovo battle by Petar Radičević (1987)
Kosovo battle by Petar Radičević (1987)

The Serbs had the initial advantage after their first charge, which significantly damaged the Turkish wing commanded by Yakub Celebi.[2] When the knights' charge was finished, light Ottoman cavalry and light infantry counter-attacked and the Serbian heavy armour became a disadvantage. In the center, Serbian fighters managed to push back Ottoman forces with only Bayezid's wing holding off the forces commanded by Vlatko Vukovic. The Ottomans, in a counter-attack, pushed the Serbian forces back and then prevailed later in the day. Bayezid I, who would become the Ottoman sultan after the battle, gained his nickname "the thunderbolt" here, after leading the decisive counter-attack. // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Vlatko Vuković (died 1392) was a Vojvode of Hum (Herzegovina). ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ...

Bayezid I, oil on canvas by Haydar Hatemi (1999)
Bayezid I, oil on canvas by Haydar Hatemi (1999)

Image File history File linksMetadata Hatemibeyazit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hatemibeyazit. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... Haydar Hatemi was born in Alamdar, Iran on March 3, 1945. ... Milos Obilic (Painting) File links The following pages link to this file: Milosh Obilich Order of the Dragon ... Milos Obilic (Painting) File links The following pages link to this file: Milosh Obilich Order of the Dragon ... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being...

Murad's death

Based on Turkish historical records, it is believed that Sultan Murad I was killed by Milos Obilic who, pretending to be dead, killed Murad while he walked on the battlefield after the fighting had finished. In contrast, Serbian sources allege that he was assassinated by Obilic, who went into the Turkish camp on the pretext of being a deserter and, just prior to kneeling before the Sultan, stabbed him in the stomach and killed him. Obilic was immediately killed by the Sultan's bodyguards. Murad was the only Ottoman sultan who died in battle. Murad's son, Bayezid, was immediately informed of the Sultan's death and, while the battle was still raging, called his brother Yakub and informed him that their father had some new orders for them. When Yakub arrived he was strangled to death, his demise leaving Bayezid as the sole heir to the throne. According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being...


However, according to the earliest preserved record, a letter from the Florentine senate to the King Tvrtko I of Bosnia, dated 20 October 1389, Murad was killed during the battle. The killer is not named but it was one of 12 Serbian noblemen who managed to break through the Ottoman ranks, probably during the initial charge of Serbian knights: This article is about the city in Italy. ... The Coat-of-Arms of Tvrtko became the standard insignia for the House of Kotromanić; Stephen Tvrtko I (Stefan, sometimes translated as Stjepan, Stevan,...) (1338 – 1391) was a ruler of medieval Bosnia. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ...

Fortunate, most fortunate are those hands of the twelve loyal lords who, having opened their way with the sword and having penetrated the enemy lines and the circle of chained camels, heroically reached the tent of Amurat himself. Fortunate above all is that one who so forcefully killed such a strong vojvoda by stabbing him with a sword in the throat and belly. And blessed are all those who gave their lives and blood through the glorious manner of martyrdom as victims of the dead leader over his ugly corpse. [20]

The Sultan's tomb remains to this day, in a corner of the battlefield. While it is not in good condition, it has not been vandalized or destroyed - this despite centuries of hostilities between Turks and Serbs.


Aftermath

The Kosovo Maiden by Uros Predic

The battle of Kosovo was a military draw with heavy casualties on both sides and with both army leaders dead. While losses were substantial on both sides, heavy losses suffered by Serbia resulted in its reduction to a virtual vassal state with Serbian nobles paying tribute and supplying soldiers to the Ottomans.[3] Image File history File links TheKosovoMaiden. ... Image File history File links TheKosovoMaiden. ... Uroš Predić (Урош Предић) is one of the gratest Serbian realism painters, along with Paja Jovanović. He was born in Orlovat, and finished primary school in Crepaja. ... To tie or draw is to finish a competition with identical or inconclusive results. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the wake of the battle and the death of Serbian King Lazar, Bayezid I formed a crucial alliance with Lazar's son Stefan. Bayezid took Stefan's sister as his wife, and with the marriage Stefan became a loyal ally of Bayezid, going on to contribute significant forces to many of Bayezid's future military engagements.


The Battle of Kosovo came to be seen as a symbol of Serbian patriotism and desire for independence in the 19th century rise of nationalism under Ottoman rule.[citation needed] The Battle of Kosovo, and its meaning in the Serbian national perspective, continues to be relevant, as evidenced during the Kosovo War. With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


References

  1. ^ Battle of Kosovo, Encyclopedia Britannica
  2. ^ Kosovo Field, Columbia Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Kosovo, Battle of, Encarta Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Historical Dictionary Of Kosova By Robert Elsie, pg.95
  5. ^ The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern, Chronologically Arranged By Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer, pg. 125
  6. ^ Global Terrorism By James M Lutz, Brenda J Lutz, pg. 103
  7. ^ Parliaments and Politics During the Cromwellian Protectorate By David L. Smith, Patrick Little, pg. 124
  8. ^ Genocide: a critical bibliographic review By Israel W. Charny, Alan L. Berger, pg. 56
  9. ^ Balázs and Attila Weiszhár: Small lexicon of the Battles (Háborúk lexikona), 2000.
  10. ^ a b c d Sedlar, Jean W.. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press, 244. “Nearly the entire Christian fighting force (between 12,000 and 20,000 men) had been present at Kosovo, while the Ottomans (with 27,000 to 30,000 on the battlefield) retained numerous reserves in Anatolia.” 
  11. ^ a b c d Cox, John K.. The History of Serbia. Greenwood Press, 30. “The Ottoman army probably numbered between 30,000 and 40,000. They faced something like 15,000 to 25,000 Eastern Orthodox soldiers.” 
  12. ^ a b c d Cowley, Robert. The Reader's Companion to Military History. Houghton Mifflin Books, 249. “On June 28, 1389, an Ottoman army of between thirty thousand and forty thousand under the command of Sultan Murad I defeated an army of Balkan allies numbering twenty-five thousand to thirty thousand under the command of Prince Lazar of Serbia at Kosovo Polje (Blackbird's Field) in the central Balkans.” 
  13. ^ a b c (1972) "Kosovska bitka", Vojna Enciklopedija (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Vojnoizdavacki zavod, 659-660. 
  14. ^ Balázs and Attila Weiszhár: Small lexicon of Battles (Háborúk lexikona), 2000.
  15. ^ a b c d e (1972) "Kosovska bitka", Vojna Enciklopedija (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Vojnoizdavacki zavod, 659. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f (1972) "Kosovska bitka", Vojna Enciklopedija (in Serbo-Croatian). Belgrade: Vojnoizdavacki zavod, 660. 
  17. ^ Hans-Henning Kortüm, Transcultural Wars from the Middle Ages to the 21st Century, Akademie Verlag, 231. "But having been established under Murad I (1362-1389), essentially as a bodyguard, the Janissaries cannot have been present in large numbers at Nicopolis (there were no more than 2,000 at Kosovo in 1389)."
  18. ^ Kosancic Ivan, Serbian epic poetry
  19. ^ Mehmet Nesri
  20. ^ Wayne S. Vuchinich & Thomas A. Emmert, Kosovo: Legacy of a Medieval Battle, University of Minnesota. 1991.

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Songs of Serbian epic poetry rarely, if ever, rhyme, but they are easy to remember as each line has exactly ten syllables and caesura after fourth syllable. ...

External links

Military history of the Ottoman Empire Portal
Charles Simic (born Dušan Simić, May 9, 1938 in Belgrade, Serbia) is a Serbian-American poet and the 15th Poet Laureate of the United States. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 502 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (858 × 1024 pixel, file size: 503 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Artillery troop image on the Ottoman coat of arms From: http://www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Kosovo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (593 words)
Reliable historical accounts of this battle are scarce, and they've been largely displaced in the Serbian tradition by the epic poetry, which tell a distorted picture of the events.
The battle started with Serbian noblemen and Lazar's son-in-law, General Vuk Branković, on one wing, Lazar in the centre, and Bosnian Duke Vlatko Vuković commanding the third wing of the Balkan army.
The Battle of Kosovo is often glorified in the annals of Serbian history and it is the subject of Serbian medieval epic poetry, some of that poetry being composed soon after the battle, in the court of Lazar's widow, Milica, and clearly hastening Lazar's pathway to canonization.
Kosovo Battle (6170 words)
It is this memory of the battle of Kosovo that kept the Serbian culture alive.
On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the Kosovo Battle in 1889 a solemn session of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was held in Zagreb, with speeches by the 2 most prominent Croatian scholars:Franjo Racki and Toma Maretic.
On Vidovdan, June 15th (by the old calendar) a solemn requiem to the Kosovo warriors was held in Krusevac, the ancient capital of Prince Lazar, and the foundation of the monument dedicated to the Kosovo martyrs was laid.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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