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Encyclopedia > Battle of Kiev (1941)
Battle of Kiev
Part of World War II

The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Kiev. (click to enlarge)
Date August, 1941September 26, 1941
Location East and South of Kiev, Soviet Union
Result Strategic German victory
Combatants

Germany

Soviet Union
Commanders
Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budyonny (Removed from duty on Sept. 13. No commander after this.)
Strength
500,000 850,000 (55 Divisions)
Casualties
150,000 dead or wounded 163,600 dead or wounded
452,700 captured
Eastern Front
Barbarossa – Baltic Sea – FinlandLeningrad and BalticsCrimea and CaucasusMoscow1st Rzhev-Vyazma2nd KharkovBlueStalingradVelikiye Luki – 2nd Rzhev-Sychevka – Kursk2nd SmolenskDnieper – 2nd Kiev – Korsun – Hube's Pocket – Belorussia – Lvov-Sandomierz – BalkansHungary – Vistula-Oder – Königsberg – BerlinPrague
Operation Barbarossa
Bialystok-Minsk – RasienaiBrodySmolenskUman1st KievYelnyaOdessaLeningrad1st Kharkov1st Crimea1st Rostov

The Battle of Kiev was a huge encirclement battle in Ukraine during World War II; today it is mentioned as the biggest encirclement battle in history. It lasted from mid-August to September 26, 1941 as part of Operation Barbarossa. In Soviet military history it is referred to as Kiev Defense Operation (Киевская оборонительная операция), with dates July 7September 26, 1941. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Download high resolution version (1201x920, 228 KB)German advances on the Eastern Front of World War II during Operation Barbarossa, 1941-06-22 to 1941-09-09. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a field marshal of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... Battle of the Baltic concerns the German and Soviet battle for the control of the Baltic sea during World War II. Categories: | | | | | ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... Combatants Germany Romania Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Ivan Petrov Filipp Oktyabrskiy Strength 350,000+ 106,000 Casualties at least 100,000 killed, wounded or captured (Including Romanians) 95,000 captured, 11,000 killed The Battle of Sevastopol was fought from October 30, 1941 to July 4, 1942 between... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000+ men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... The formation of the Rzhev salient during the winter of 1941-1942. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Friedrich Paulus Semyon Timoshenko Strength 300,000 men, 1000 tanks, 1500 aircraft 640,000 men, 1200 tanks, 1000 aircraft Casualties 20,000 killed, wounded or captured 207,057 killed, wounded or captured, 652 tanks, 1,646 guns, 3,278 mortars, 57,626... Operation Blue(German: Fall Blau) was the German Wehrmachts codename for the 1942 summer offensive. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Kurt von der Chevallerie M. A. Purkayev Strength ~20,000 (on 19 Nov) 100,000 (on 19 Nov) Casualties 17,000 killed or wounded, 3,000 captured 30,000 killed or wounded Situation after the initial Soviet advance. ... The eastern front at the time of the Second Rzhev-Sychevka Offensive. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Günther von Kluge Andrei Yeremenko, Vasily Sokolovsky Strength 850,000 men, 8,800 guns, 500 tanks, 700 planes[1] 1,253,000 men, 20,640 guns, 1,430 tanks, 1,100 planes[1] Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Rokossovsky, Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... The 1943 Battle of Kiev resulted in a Soviet victory, forcing the German invaders of the Soviet Union to retreat further. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein, Wilhelm Stemmerman (Gruppe Stemmerman), Hermann Breith, III Panzerkorps Georgi Zhukov, Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front), Ivan Konev (2nd Ukrainian Front), Strength 56,000 70 tanks and assault guns In packet only but much large with relief troops 200,000 500 tanks Casualties... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein (Army Group South) Hans-Valentin Hube (First Panzer Army) Georgi Zhukov Nikolai Vatutin (1st Ukrainian Front) Ivan Koniev (2nd Ukrainian Front) Strength 200,000 500,000 Casualties  ?  ? 357 tanks The Battle of the Kamenets-Podolsky Pocket, also known as Hubes Pocket... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Josef Harpe (Heeresgruppe Nordukraine) Ivan Koniev (1st Ukrainian Front) Strength 370,000 men 340 AFVs 4,800 guns 1,200,000 men 1,979 AFVs 11,265 guns Casualties 350,000 men 520 AFVs 198,000 men 1,285 AFVs The Lvov-Sandomierz Offensive[1... Combatants Red Army Wehrmacht Heeresgruppe Südukraine, Romanian Army Commanders Marshal Semyon Timoshenko Generaloberst Friessner Strength 1,341,200, 1,874 tanks and assault guns ca. ... Combatants Wehrmacht i. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Germany Commanders Georgiy Zhukov Ivan Konev Konstantin Rokossovskiy Vasiliy Chuykov Adolf Hitler â€  Gotthard Heinrici Helmuth Reymann Ernst Kaether (one day) Helmuth Weidling # Karl Dönitz # Wilhelm Mohnke # Strength 2,500,000 soldiers, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces [1] 1,000,000... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Czech Insurgents Commanders Ferdinand Schörner Ivan Konev Strength 900,000 2,000,000 Casualties Unknown 11,997 killed or missing, 40,501 wounded or sick (52,498 casualties[1]) The Prague Offensive (Russian:Пражская наступательная операция, Prazhskaya nastupatelnaya operacia, Prague Offensive Operation) was the last major battle of... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... Combatants Wehrmacht Red Army Commanders Field Marshal Fedor von Bock Army General D. Pavlov Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown 425,000 The Battle of Bialystok-Minsk was one of the Border Battles during the opening stage of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist Colonel-General Mikhail Karpenos Strength 600 Tanks 1,000 Tanks Casualties Heavy All Soviet Tanks Destroyed The Battle of Brody was a major Tank battle fought between the 1st Panzer Army and 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps in Ukraine. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... The Soviet Armys Yelnya Offensive (August 30, 1941- September 8, 1941) was part of the Battle of Smolensk during the Great Patriotic War. ... The Battle of Odessa was part of the Soviet-German War in 1941. ... Combatants Germany Spanish Blue Division Soviet Union Commanders Wilhem von Leeb Georg von Küchler Kliment Voroshilov Georgiy Zhukov Strength 725,000 930,000 Casualties Unknown 300,000 military, 16,470 civilians from bombings and an estimated 1 million civilians from starvation The Siege of Leningrad (Russian: блокада Ленинграда (transliteration: blokada Leningrada... ddsss ... Crimea was the scene of some of the most bloody battles in World War II. The Germans suffered heavy casualties as they tried to advance through the isthmus linking Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland at Perekop in the summer of 1941. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Rostov. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... July 7 is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 177 days remaining. ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


Nearly the entire Soviet Southwestern Front of the Red Army was encircled with the Germans claiming 665,000 captured. The German Kiev encirclement was not airtight and small groups of Red Army troops managed to escape the cauldron days after the German trap snapped shut, including Marshall Budyonny, Marshall Timoshenko and Commissar Khrushchev. Nevertheless, the Kiev disaster was an unprecedented defeat for the Red Army, exceeding even the Minsk tragedy of June-July 1941. On 1st September the Southwestern Front numbered 752-760,000 men (850,000 including reserves and rear service organs), 3,923 guns & mortars, 114 tanks and 167 combat aircraft. The ensuing encirclement contained 452,700 men, 2,642 guns & mortars and 64 tanks, of which scarcely 15,000 escaped from the encirclement by 2nd October. Overall the Southwestern Front suffered 700,544 casualties, including 616,304 killed, captured, or missing during the month-long Battle for Kiev. As a result, four Soviet field armies (5th, 37th, 26th, & 21st) consisting of 43 divisions virtually ceased to exist. Like the Western Front before it, the Southwestern Front had to be recreated from scratch. The Southernwestern Front was one of the Soviet Army fronts during the World War II. In 1941 it took part in the tank battles in western Ukraine and the defensive operation around Kiev, in which the Front Chief of Staff General Mikhail Kirponos was killed and the entire Front captured... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) ( April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of... There are several people called Timoshenko: Semyon Timoshenko Stephen Timoshenko Yulia Timoshenko This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A political commissar is an officer appointed by a communist party to oversee a unit of the military. ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union...


After the quick initial success of the Wehrmacht, especially in the Northern and Central sector of the Eastern front, a huge bulge in the south remained, where a substantial Soviet force, consisting of nearly the entire Soviet Southwestern Front was located. In the Battle of Uman a significant victory over the Soviet forces was achieved, but the bulk of forces under Semyon Budyonny's command were still concentrated in and around Kiev. While lacking mobility and armour, due to the majority of his armoured forces lost at the Battle of Uman, they nonetheless posed a significant threat to the German advance and were the largest single concentration of Soviet troops on the Eastern Front at that time. Combatants Soviet Union,1 Poland (from January 1945) Germany,1 Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia Commanders Aleksei Antonov, Azi Aslanov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Pavel Rotmistrov, Semyon Timoshenko, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Nikolai Vatutin... The Southernwestern Front was one of the Soviet Army fronts during the World War II. In 1941 it took part in the tank battles in western Ukraine and the defensive operation around Kiev, in which the Front Chief of Staff General Mikhail Kirponos was killed and the entire Front captured... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Uman. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Uman. ...


At the end of August, the German High Command OKH had the option of either continuing the advance on Moscow, or destroying the Soviet forces in the south. Because the German Army Group South lacked sufficient strength to encircle and destroy the forces, a significant contribution from Army Group Center was needed to accomplish the task. After a dispute within the German High Command (see Lötzen decision) the bulk of Panzergruppe 2 and the 2nd Army were detached from Army Group Center and sent due south to encircle the Soviet army and meet the advancing Army Group South east of Kiev. The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ... Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd in German) was a German Army Group during World War II. Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South. ... Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte in German) was one of three German army formations assigned to the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, code-named Operation Barbarossa. ... Panzergruppe 2 (2nd Panzer Group) was formed in November 1940 from the Panzergruppe Guderian and it was called by its commander general Heinz Guderian until October 1941, when it was upgraded to the Second Panzer Army. ...


The Panzer armies progressed rapidly to conclude the encirclement, a move that caught Budyonny by surprise. He was therefore relieved by Stalin's order of September 13. No successor was named, leaving the troops to their individual corps and division commanders. The Panzer armies from South and Center met at Lokhvitsa on September 16. After that, the fate of the encircled armies was sealed. With no mobile forces or supreme commander left, there was no possibility to break out from the encirclement. The German 17th army and 6th army of Army Group South, as well as the 2nd Army of Army Group Center subsequently reduced the pocket, aided by the Panzer armies. On September 19, Kiev fell. The encirclement battle continued until September 26, when the last remnants of troops east of Kiev surrendered. (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... The German Seventeenth Army (German: 17. ... The 6. ... The German Second Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... September 26 is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Consequences

With the large victory at Kiev, the last significant resistance in the Southern theatre removed, Army Group South could continue its march on the Donetsk basin. A complete breakthrough was achieved in the southern sector. However, the advance on Moscow was delayed for 4 weeks, a fact that eventually proved detrimental in the subsequent Battle of Moscow. While tactically very successful, the Battle of Kiev did little to enhance the Germans' strategic position, because the main objective, a decisive victory that would conclude the war, was not achieved. Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000+ men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2...


While the Soviet forces suffered terrible losses, they bought time for the defense of Moscow, thereby contributing to the prolonging and eventual Allied victory in the war.


Furthermore, the Soviets learned from this and other encirclement battles. In the later Battle of Moscow, they avoided being encircled by the German forces, and by the time of the Battle of Stalingrad, it was they who were encircling the invaders. Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000+ men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army...


References

John Erickson may refer to: John Erickson (historian) John H. Erickson, dean of Saint Vladimirs Orthodox Theological Seminary in the United States This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

See also


 
 

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