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Encyclopedia > Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Battle of Nomonhan)
Part of the Soviet-Japanese Border Wars

A destroyed Soviet armoured car of the type BA-10 during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Date May 11 - September 16, 1939
Location Khalkhin Gol, Mongolia
Result Decisive Soviet and Mongolian victory
Territorial
changes
status quo ante bellum
Combatants
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union
Flag of Mongolia Mongolian People's Republic
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Flag of Manchukuo Manchukuo
Commanders
Flag of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Flag of Japan Michitaro Komatsubara
Strength
57,000 30,000 (initially), 60,000 (as positions reinforced)
Casualties
Archival research
7,974 killed,
15,251 wounded[1]
Japanese government claim
8,440 killed,
8,766 wounded
Soviet claim
60,000 killed and wounded,
3,000 captured[2]

The Battle of Khalkhyn Gol (Mongolian: Халхын голын байлдаан; Japanese: ノモンハン事件 Nomonhan jiken), named after the river Khalkhyn Gol passing through the battlefield and known in Japan as the Nomonhan Incident (after a nearby village on the border between Mongolia and Manchuria), was the decisive engagement of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939), or Japanese-Soviet War. It should not be confused with the conflict in 1945 when the USSR declared war in support of the other Allies of World War II and launched Operation August Storm. The Soviet-Japanese Border Wars was a series of border conflicts between the Soviet Union and Japan between 1938 to 1945. ... Image File history File links SovietArmouredVehicle. ... Categories: | | ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_Mongolia_(1949-1992). ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Image File history File links Flag_of_Manchukuo. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Lt. ... The Soviet-Japanese Border Wars was a series of border conflicts between the Soviet Union and Japan between 1938 to 1945. ... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... The Khalkhyn gol (Mongolian: , Khalkha river; Chinese: 哈拉哈河) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ...

Contents

Background

After the occupation of Manchukuo and Korea, Japan turned its military interests to Soviet territories. The first major Soviet-Japanese border incident, the Battle of Lake Khasan, happened in 1938 in Primorye. Clashes between the Japanese and Soviets frequently occurred on the border of Manchuria. Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Combatants Soviet Union Empire of Japan Commanders Vasily Blyukher Nikolai Berzarin Kotoku Sato Strength 22,950 20,000+ Casualties 717 killed, 75 missing 525 killed, 913 wounded Soviet-Japanese Border Wars Lake Khasan – Khalkhin Gol The Battle of Lake Khasan ( July 29, 1938 – August 11, 1938) and also known as... The Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край), also known as Primorye (Примо́рье), is one of Russias 89 federal subjects (also referred to as members of the Federation). Krai is...


In 1939, Manchuria was a puppet state of Japan, known as Manchukuo. The Japanese maintained that the border between Manchukuo and Mongolia was the Khalkhyn Gol (English "Khalkha River") which flows into Lake Buir, while the Mongolians and their Soviet allies maintained that it ran some 16 kilometres (10 miles) east of the river, just east of Nomonhan village.[3] A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (1932–1945... The Khalkhyn gol (Mongolian: , Khalkha river; Chinese: 哈拉哈河) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Nomonhan is a small village near the border between Mongolia and Manchuria, China south of the Chinese city of Manzhouli. ...


The principal occupying army of Manchukuo was the Kwantung Army of Japan, consisting of some of the best Japanese units in 1939. However, the western region of Manchukuo was garrisoned by the newly formed IJA 23d Division at Hailar, under General Michitaro Komatsubara and several Manchukuoan army and border guard units. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Hailar may refer to: Hailar River Hailar, China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lt. ...


Red Army forces consisted of the 57th Special Corps, forward deployed from the Trans-Baikal Military District, responsible for the defense of the border between Siberia and Manchuria. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Military districts are territorial entities used for the purposes of military planning and strategizing. ...


May, June, and July actions

The incident began on 11 May 1939. A Mongolian cavalry unit of some 70-90 men had entered the disputed area in search of grazing for their horses. On that day, Manchukuoan cavalry attacked the Mongolians and drove them back across the Khalkhin Gol. On the 13th, the Mongolian force returned in greater numbers and the Manchukoans were unable to dislodge them. is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


This region was the responsibility of the 23rd Division of the Kwantung Army. On the 14th, Lt. Col. Yaozo Azuma led the 64th regiment of 23rd Division into the territory and the Mongolians withdrew. However, Soviet and Mongolian troops returned to the disputed region and Azuma's force again moved to evict them. This time things turned out differently, as the Communist forces surrounded Azuma's force on 28 May and destroyed it.[4] The Azuma force suffered eight officers and 97 men killed and one officer and 33 men wounded, for 63% total casualties. The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ...


On 27 June, the Japanese launched an air attack. The Japanese 2nd Air Brigade struck the Soviet air base at Tamsak-Bulak in Mongolia. The Japanese won this engagement, destroying half again as many Soviet planes as they lost, but the strike had been ordered by the Kwangtung Army without getting permission from Imperial Japanese Army headquarters in Tokyo. Tokyo promptly ordered the Japanese Army Air Force not to conduct any more strikes.[5] The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ...


In June, a new Soviet commander arrived: Lt. Gen. Georgi Zhukov.[5] Throughout June, there were continuing reports of Soviet and Mongolian activity on both sides of the river near Nomonhan, and small-scale attacks on isolated Manchukoan units. At the end of the month, the local Kwantung commander, Lt. Gen. Michitaro Komatsubara, was given permission to "expel the invaders". The Japanese plan was for a two-pronged assault. Four regiments of the 23rd Division would advance across the Khalkin Gol, destroy Communist forces on Baintsagan Hill on the west bank, then make a left turn and advance south to the Kawatama Bridge. The second prong of the attack would be the task of the Yasuoka Detachment, commanded by Major General Yasuoka Masaomi. This force, consisting of four infantry and artillery regiments and two armored (tank) regiments, would attack Soviet troops on the east bank of the Khalkhyn Gol and north of the Holsten River. The two Japanese thrusts would meet in the Soviet rear and encircle them. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Lt. ... Yasuoka Detachment or Yasuoka Task Force, was an armoured Japanese Imperial Army unit in 1939. ... Yasuoka Masaomi, Lieutenant General of the Imperial Japanese Army, commander of the Yasuoka Detachment or Yasuoka Task Force an armoured Detachment of the Kwangtung Army organized for the Japanese July 1939 offensive of the Battle of Khalkhin Gol. ...


The northern task force succeeded in crossing the Khalkhyn Gol, driving the Soviets from Baintsagan Hill, and advancing south along the west bank. However, Zhukov, perceiving the threat, launched a counterattack with 450 tanks and armored cars. The Russian armored force, despite being unsupported by infantry, attacked the Japanese on three sides and nearly encircled them. The Japanese force, further handicapped by having only one pontoon bridge across the river for supplies (most of its bridging personnel had been sent south to assist in the war in China), was forced to withdraw, recrossing the river on 5 July. Meanwhile, the Yasuoka Detachment (the southern task force) attacked on the night of 2 July, moving at night to avoid the Soviet artillery on the high ground of the river's west bank. A pitched battle ensued in which the Yasuoka Detachment lost over half its armor, but still could not break through the Soviet forces on the east bank and reach the Kawatama Bridge. [6][7] After a Soviet counterattack on 9 July threw the battered, depleted Yasuoka Detachment back, it was dissolved and Yasuoka was relieved.[8]


The two armies continued to spar with each other over the next two weeks along a four-kilometer front running along the east bank of the Khalkhyn Gol to its junction with the Holsten River.[9] Zhukov, whose army was 465 miles away from its base of supply, assembled a fleet of 2600 trucks to supply his troops, while the Japanese suffered severe supply problems due to a lack of similar motor transport.[5] On 23 July, the Japanese launched another large-scale assault, sending the 64th and 72nd divisions against the Soviet forces defending the Kawatama Bridge. Japanese artillery units supported the attack with a massive barrage that consumed more than half of their ammuntion stores over a period of two days.[10] The attack made some progress but failed to break through Soviet lines and reach the bridge. The Japanese disengaged from the attack on 25 July due to mounting casualties and depleted artillery stores. They had suffered over five thousand casualties to this point but still had 75,000 men and several hundred planes facing the Communist forces.[5] The battle drifted into stalemate.


August: Zhukov's strike

The Japanese regrouped, and planned a third major offensive against the Soviets for August 24.[5] They never got the chance. Zhukov had been massing a major armored force in the form of three tank brigades (the 4th, 6th and 11th), and two mechanized brigades (7th and 8th, which were armoured car units with attached infantry support). This force was allocated to the Soviet left and right wings. In total, Zhukov had three rifle divisions, two tank divisions, two more tank brigades--in all, some 498 tanks--two motorized infantry divisions and an air wing of some 250 fighters and bombers to deploy against the Japanese. The Mongolians committed two cavalry divisions.[11][12][13] The Kwantung Army, by contrast, mustered only two lightly armored divisions at the point of attack, built around Lieutenant General Michitaro Komatsubara's 23d Division whose headquarters had been at Hailar, capital of Hsingan, Manchu province, over 100 miles from the site of the fighting. Their intelligence had also failed to detect the scale of the Soviet buildup or the scope of the attack Zhukov was planning.[14] Lt. ... Hailar may refer to: Hailar River Hailar, China This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Hsingan: these term if reffering to Japanese creation in West Heilung kiang and part of Northwest Liaoning the Autonomous Mongol Anto (province) of Hsingan,others several names used for these land are Tsingan or Burga. ...


Zhukov decided it was time to break the stalemate. He deployed approximately 50,000 Soviet and Mongolian troops of the 57th Special Corps to defend the east bank of the Khalkhyn Gol, then crossed the river on 20 August to attack the elite Japanese forces with three infantry divisions, massed artillery, a tank brigade, and the best planes of the Soviet Air Force. Once the Japanese were pinned down by the advance of the Soviet center units, the armoured units swept around the flanks and attacked the Japanese in the rear, cutting lines of communication, overcoming desperate Japanese counterattacks (one Japanese officer drew his sword and led an attack on foot against Soviet tanks),[15] and achieving a classic double envelopment. When the two wings of Zhukov's attack linked up at Nomonhan village on the 25th, the Japanese 23rd division was trapped.[16][5][17] On 26 August, an attack to relieve the 23rd division failed. On 27 August the 23rd attempted to break out of the encirclement, but failed. When the surrounded forces refused to surrender, Zhukov wiped them out with artillery and air attacks. The battle ended 31 August with the complete destruction of the Japanese forces. Remaining Japanese units retreated to east of Nomonhan. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... The Khalkhyn gol (Mongolian: , Khalkha river; Chinese: 哈拉哈河) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... A pincer movement whereby the blue force doubly envelops the red force. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


As Zhukov completed the annihilation of the 23rd division, great events were taking place thousands of miles to the west. The very next day, on September 1, 1939, Adolf Hitler launched his invasion of Poland and World War II broke out in Europe. The Soviets had already agreed to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which called for the Red Army to enter Poland, Latvia and Estonia. Perhaps as a result of Stalin's new commitments in Eastern Europe, the Soviets advanced no further than the border line they had claimed at the start of battle. The Soviets and Japanese signed a cease-fire agreement on 15 September, and it took effect the following day.[5] Stalin, free of any worry from his eastern border, was free to give a green light to the Soviet invasion of Poland (1939) that began on 17 September.[18] Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-Śmigły Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand Čatloš (Field Army Bernolák) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Red Army invades Poland: 17th September 1939. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Aftermath

Estimates of casualties are uncertain. Some sources hold that the Japanese suffered 45,000 or more soldiers killed with Russian casualties extending upwards of 17,000 men,[5], while the Japanese officially reported 8,440 killed and 8,766 wounded, and the Russians initially claimed 9,284 total casualties. These figures were obviously subject to propaganda purposes and were entirely too low. In recent years, with the opening of the Soviet archives, a more accurate assessment of Soviet casualties has emerged from the work of Grigoriy Krivosheev, citing 7,974 killed and 15,251 wounded.[1] Similar research into Japanese casualties has yet to take place. Grigoriy Fedotovich Krivosheyev (Russian: ) (b. ...


Although this engagement is little-known in the West, it had profound implications on the conduct of World War II. It may be said to be the first decisive battle of World War II, because it determined that the two principal Axis Powers, Germany and Japan, would never geographically link up their areas of control through Russia. The defeat convinced the Imperial General Staff in Tokyo that the policy of the North Strike Group, favoured by the army, which wanted to seize Siberia as far as Lake Baikal for its resources, was untenable. Instead the South Strike Group, favored by the navy, which wanted to seize the resources of Southeast Asia, especially the petroleum and mineral-rich Dutch East Indies, gained the ascendancy, leading directly to the attack on Pearl Harbor two and a half years later in December 1941. The Japanese would never make an offensive movement towards Russia again. In 1941, the two countries signed agreements respecting the borders of Mongolia and Manchukuo[19] and pledging neutrality towards each other.[20] They remained at peace until Operation August Storm and the Soviet conquest of Manchuria in August 1945, in the final week of the war. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... As a result of her victories in the wars against China (1894-95) and Czarist Russia (1904-05), Japan secured the basic elements of her national desires - for the time being. ... Lake Baikal (Russian: , pronounced ; Buryat and Mongol: Dalai-Nor) lies in Southern Siberia in Russia between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and Buryatia to the southeast near the city of Irkutsk. ... In the years after the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, strategic thinking in the Japanese military was largely divided between the priority of mainland Asia (see North Strike group), and the southern, Pacific Ocean direction. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ...


It was the first victory for the soon-to-be-famous Soviet general Georgy Zhukov, earning him the first of his four Hero of the Soviet Union awards. Zhukov himself was promoted and transferred west to the Kiev district. The battle experience gained by Zhukov was put to good use in December 1941 at the Battle of Moscow. Zhukov was able to use this experience to launch the first successful Soviet counteroffensive against the German invasion of 1941. Many units of the Siberian and other trans-Ural armies were part of this attack, and the decision to move the divisions from Siberia was aided by the Soviet masterspy Richard Sorge in Tokyo, who was able to alert the Soviet government that the Japanese were looking south and were unlikely to launch another attack against Siberia in the immediate future. A year after flinging the Germans back from the capital, Zhukov planned and executed the Russian attack at the Battle of Stalingrad, using a technique very similar to Khalkin Gol, in which the Soviet forces held the enemy fixed in the center, built up a mass of force in the area undetected, and launched a pincer attack on the wings to trap the enemy army. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Fedor von Bock, Heinz Guderian Georgy Zhukov, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength As of October 1: 1,000,000 men, 1,700 tanks, 14,000 guns, 950 planes[1] As of October 1: 1,250,000 men, 1,000 tanks, 7,600 guns, 677 planes[2... Richard Sorge Dr Sorge aka Ramsay Richard Sorge (Russian: Рихард Зорге) (October 4, 1895 - November 7, 1944) was a revolutionary, a journalist, working in Germany and Japan, and a spy for the Soviet Union in Japan before and during World War II. His NKVD codename was Ramsay. ... Combatants Germany Romania Italy Hungary Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B: German Sixth Army # German Fourth Panzer...


The Japanese, however, while learning never to attack the USSR again, made no major changes to their tactical doctrines. They continued to emphasize the bravery and courage of the individual soldier over massing force and armor. The problems that faced them at Khalkin Gol, most importantly their lack of armor, would plague them again when the Americans and British recovered from their defeats of late 1941 and early 1942 and turned to the conquest of the Japanese Empire.[21][5]


The Mongolian town of Choybalsan, in Dornod aimag (province) where the battle was fought, is the location of the "G.K. Zhukov Museum", dedicated to Zhukov and the 1939 battle.[22] Choybalsan (Чойбалсан) may refer to: Horloogiyn Choybalsan, Communist leader of Mongolia Choybalsan, a city in eastern Mongolia. ... Dornod aymag (Дорнод аймаг) is one of the 21 provinces of Mongolia. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b "Grif sekretnosti sniat': poteri Vooruzhennykh Sil SSSR v voynakh, boevykh deystviyakh i voennykh konfliktakh", pod oshchey redaktsiey G. F. Krivosheeva. (Moskva: Voennoe izd-vo, 1993, ISBN 5203014000). pp. 77-85.
  2. ^ Glantz, David M., and Jonathan House. When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler. (Lawrence, Kansas: UP of Kansas, 1995. ISBN-0700608990 p. 14)
  3. ^ Drea, Edward J. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/Maps.html "Leavenworth Papers No. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939 - MAPS" - Retrieved: May 13, 2007.
  4. ^ Drea, Edward J. http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/BigMaps.html#map3 "Leavenworth Papers No. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939 - BIG MAPS - Map 3" - Retrieved: May 13, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Timothy Neeno, M.A. http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/20thcentury/articles/nomonhan.aspx Nomonhan: The Second Russo-Japanese War, 2005. - Retrieved: May 12, 2007.
  6. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#32
  7. ^ Drea, Edward J. http://www-http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/BigMaps.html#map4 "Leavenworth Papers No. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939 - BIG MAPS - Map 4" - Retrieved: May 13, 2007.
  8. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#47
  9. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#1
  10. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#53
  11. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#9
  12. ^ Drea, Edward J. http://www-http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/BigMaps.html#map6 "Leavenworth Papers No. 2 Nomonhan: Japanese Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939 - BIG MAPS - Map 6" - Retrieved: May 13, 2007.
  13. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/Maps.html#map17
  14. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#71
  15. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#86b
  16. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#86a
  17. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#77
  18. ^ Steven J. Zaloga, Howard Gerrard, The Poland 1939: the birth of Blitzkrieg, Osprey Publishing, 2002, ISBN 1841764086, Google Print, p.80
  19. ^ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/s2.htm "Declaration Regarding Mongolia", April 14, 1941. - Retrieved: May 13, 2007.
  20. ^ http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/wwii/s1.htm "Pact of Neutrality between Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Japan," April 13, 1941. - Retrieved: May 13, 2007
  21. ^ http://www-cgsc.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/drea2/drea2.asp#86a
  22. ^ http://regions.guide-mongolia.com/dornod/introduction/introduction.html

Steven Zaloga (b. ...

References

  • Coox, Alvin D.: Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939. ISBN 0-8047-1835-0
  • Drea, Edward: Nomonhan: Japanese-Soviet Tactical Combat, 1939. Leavenworth Papers study for the Combat Studies Institute of the U.S. Army.
  • Erickson, John: The Soviet High Command: A Military-Political History, 1918-1941. Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-7146-5178-8.
  • Onda Juho: Nomonhan sen: ningen no kroku. Tokio: Gandaishi shuppan kai, Tokuma shoten, 1977.
  • Neeno, Timothy: Nomonhan: The Second Russo-Japanese War. MilitaryHistoryOnline.com essay. Uses the Coox book and Drea paper as sources.
  • Chiyoko Sasaki: Der Nomonhan Konflikt: Das fernöstl. Vorspiel zum 2. Weltkrieg. Bonn University, 1968. Phil. F., Diss. 6. Nov. 1968.

John Erickson (1929 - 2002) was a British historian who wrote extensively on the Second World War, with key books on Operation Barbarossa and the Battle of Stalingrad. ...

External links

  • A Russian website, translated into English, about Khalkin Gol. Also contains a large section of maps, mostly in Russian with some English captions, showing the entire course of the battle.
  • Nomonhan Incident between Japan and the USSR(Japanese) Battle on the border between Manchuria and Mongolia
  • Topographic Map of the Khalkhin Gol battle area

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Battle of Khalkhin Gol (5634 words)
Soviets reinforced their air forces, and in the climax of the battle on 28-31 of August, the Soviet Air Force reported four engagements with JAAF, downing 4 bombers and 45 fighters.
The battle experience gained by the Siberian army was put to good use in December 1941 outside Moscow, under the command of Zhukov, when Siberian divisions spearheaded the first successful Soviet counteroffensive against the German invasion of 1941.
The Khalkhin-Gol Battle, 1939 Russian maps and statistics for the battle and an article on the battle with an Orbat for the Soviet and Mongolian forces.
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