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Encyclopedia > Battle of Karbala
Battle of Karbala
Date October 10, 680
Location Karbala
Result Yazid ibn Mu'awiah victorious
Belligerents
Umayyads Supporters of Ali
Commanders
Yazid ibn Mu'awiah
Umar ibn Sa'ad
Husayn ibn Ali
Abbas ibn Ali
Strength
4000+ 72
Casualties and losses
Unknown 123 (72 Men and 51 children)

Part of a series on
Shi'a Islam
For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants Iraqi Security Forces Mahdi Army Casualties 52 killed[1] The Battle of Karbala began on the night of August 27, 2007 and involved fighting between the Mahdi Army, who provided security for the pilgrims[1], and police (who were largely members of the Badr Organization) in Karbala, Iraq. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Download high resolution version (450x674, 169 KB)Photo of painting of Ali ebne Abitalib. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

Ahl al-Kisa

Ahl al-Kisa
Muhammad
Ali · Fatimah
Hasan · Husayn
Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This is a parallel sub-article to Shia and Ali This article is about the Shia view of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam. ... This is a sub-article of Fatima Zahra and Shia Islam. ... Main article: Hasan ibn Ali Hassan ibn Ali is Shi’ahs’ second Imam, and is also known as Al-Mujtaba and Sibtil Akbar (the elder and the first grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

The Four Companions

The Four Companions
Salman al-Farsi
Miqdad ibn Aswad
Abu Dharr al-Ghifari
Ammar ibn Yasir
The Four Companions, also called the Four Pillars of the Sahaba is a Shia term that refers to the four Sahaba Shia belive stayed most loyal to Ali after the death of Muhammad: Miqdad Abu Dharr Salman al-Farsi Ammar ibn Yasir. ... According to Sunnis sources he did not give alligance to Abu Bakr, until Ali suposedly did so. ... venerated by Shia Muslims as one of the Four Companions, who were followers of Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... Jundub ibn Junadah ibn Sakan (Arabic جُندب بن جَنادة), better known as Abu Dharr, Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, or Abu Tharr Al-Ghefari (Arabic أبو ذر الغفاري) was an early convert to Islam. ... “Ammar” redirects here. ...

Beliefs & Practices

Succession of Ali
Imamate of the Family
Mourning of Muharram
Light of Aql · Ismah
Tawassul The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Shias believe that the souls of the Prophets and the Imams are derived from the first light in the universe which was created by Allah, the light of Aql, which in Arabic roughly translates as knowledge. ... Ismah is the concept of infallibility in Islam. ... Intercession in Islam (Arabic: Tawassul) is a hotly debated topic between Shia and Salafis. ...

Views

The Qur'an · Sahaba
Mu'awiya I
Abu Bakr · Umar
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view but it must be noted that the text of the Quran is exactly identical in both Shia and Sunni. ... For other views of Sahaba and a short description, see sahaba. ... The Shia have lost no opportunity to vilify Muˤāwiyya. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

History

History of Shia Islam
Ghadir Khumm
First Fitna · Second Fitna
The Battle of Karbala
Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam or Shi‘ism is the largest minority denomination based on the Islamic faith . ... This is a sub-article to the Succession to Muhammad The word Hadith refers to a saying of the Prophet of Islam. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years...

Holy Days

Eid ul-Fitr · Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Ghadeer
Ashura · Arba'een
Mawlid · Al-Mubahila Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) is second in the series of Eid festivals that Muslims celebrate. ... Eid al-Ghadeer is the anniversary of the Event of Ghadeer, an Islamic event on the 18th of the Islamic month of Dhul-Hijjah in which the Prophet Muhammad delivered his last sermon. ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ...

Branches

Twelver · Ismaili · Zaidi Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaidiyya, Zaidism or Zaydism (Arabic: الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is a ShÄ«a madhhab (sect, school) named after the Imām Zayd ibn ˤAlÄ«. Followers of the Zaidi fiqh are called Zaidis (or occasionally, Fivers by Sunnis). ...

v  d  e

The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2] in Karbala, in present day Iraq. On one side were supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali; on the other side was a military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph. Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...


Husayn ibn Ali's group consisted of notable members of Muhammad's close relatives, around 72 men and women, of which some were either very old or very young. Husayn and some members of his group were accompanied by some of the women and children from their families. On the opposite side, the armed forces of Yazid I were led by Umar ibn Sa'ad and contained at least 4000 men[citation needed]. Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The battle field was a desert region located beside one of the branches of the Euphrates River. The battle resulted in the military defeat of Husayn ibn Ali's group, the death of almost all of his men, and the captivity of all women and children. For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


The Battle of Karbala is one of the most significant battles in the history of Muslims.


This battle also had significant effects on formation of subsequent revolts against the Umayyad dynasty.[3] The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


The battle of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated during an annual 10-day period held every Muharram, culminating on its tenth day, Ashura.[4][5] Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ...

Contents

Battle based on Islamic traditions

Political background

See also: Succession to Muhammad

The rule of the third Caliph Uthman concluded with a violent uprising especially of radical elements in disapproval of the enrichment of the Muslim society, thanks to spoils of war and tax levied on local non Muslim populations, in addition to personal hates . Uthman was killed and for many days rebels seized and occupied the city of Medina. Under the overwhelming pressure of the rebels and Medinah population willing to get rid of them, the fastest possible, Ali ibn Abi Talib seized the caliphate.[6] His immediate steps was to insure complete control of the Ummah by the removal of regional governors, of whom were close relatives or friends of Uthman and their replacement by his relatives Abdalalh ibn Abbas in Yemen or people close to him like Muhammed Ibn Bakr In Egypt. Muawiya upon receiving the bloody shirt of Uthman, sent by his wife Naela Ibn Alfarafesa asking for revenge (whom three fingers of her cut by rebels accompanied the shirt of Uthman), refused the allegiance to Ali before the rebels were chastised. 70 000 Syrian Muslim Men gathered in Damascus Mosque and mourned to tears the assassination of Uthman and swore vengeance. Muawiya's rebellion marked the first major strife in the Muslim community. This split resulted in three battles: the Camel, the Seffin, and the Nahrawan. The Kharijites agreed among themselves that the whole issue can be solved if they managed to eliminate the three big movers among the fighting parties, namely : Muawiya , Amr Ibn Al-As (Egypt's ruler at that time), and Ali ibn Abi Talib. As it happened, Muawiya and Amr escaped their assassination attempts, while Ali did not. The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Combatants Rashidun Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 20,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna... A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ... Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out[1]) is a general term embracing various Muslims who, while initially supporting the caliphate of the fourth and final Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, later rejected him. ... Amr ibn al-Ās (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (d. ...


Umayyad dynasty appears[7]

Hasan ibn Ali succeeded his father and started a military campaign against Muawiya I. It must be said that both Hasan and Muawiya hated war, the first having tried at many times to convince his father to negotiate but the stubbornness of Ali couldn't be temprered by Hasan's wisdom. While Muawiya never refused Ali caliphate but rather delayed his allegiance to Ali after he will chastise Usman murderers. Muawiya sent two messengers to Hasan carrying to him this message: "If we fight, who will be in charge of the women, the children and the weak of the nation, who will protect us against the Romans preparing to wage war against the Muslims"(in Syria) and called him to peace. Weakened and divided, Hasan's army wasn't up to fight against Muawiya's army boosted by the murder of Ali and the miraculously failed murders attempts on both Muawiya and Amru Ibn Al-As. Hasan ibn Ali eventually signed a conditional peace treaty with Muawiya I after receiving a promise that when Muawiya died, a Shura (a council of nobles to appoint the next caliph) would be held to find his successor. Based on the peace treaty, Hasan ibn Ali ceded power to Muawiya. This promise of succession is unconfirmed by certain sources. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ...


After the death of Hasan Ibn Ali in 50AH/699 AD so before Muawiya death, this promise if it ever existed, was null and void for Ummayads. But Hussein who was pressured by radical Shiaa considered that he was the heir of such promise. Anyway, Muawiya considered himself free of any promise and managed to prepare the Bayaah(allegiance oath) for his son Yazid. And therefore he consulted the four most influential political opponents, AbdelAllah ibn Uamr, AbdelArrahmane ibn Bakr, AbdelAllah ibn Al Zubayr and Hussein ibn Ali. The first two disapproved by saying:"Don't make it Byzantine, Heracles dies another Heracles comes after him." Ibn Zubayr who was politically shrewd made a disagreeing speech but kept it within the limits.Al-Hussein always hot blooded, made a censorious speech from whom Muawiya saw a disguised threat against his family. Muawiya was aware or afraid of that any successor after him except Yazid, will kill Banu Umayyah. Which nearly happened in Medina revolt and utterly occurred after Banu Umayyah fall where all this tribe was massacred safe AbdelRaahman Al Dakhel and their tombs profaned. Then Muawiya quits saying: "My son and not their sons." Thereafter, the caliphate of Yazid is definitively closed and done, for Muawiya.


Caliphate turns into monarchy?

Muawiya tried to ensure that his son, Yazid I, would be appointed as the next Capliphate. This was technically a deviation from the general Islamic norms. Muawiya required all of his supporters to swear allegiance to Yazid before his death. By doing so, he is said to that he disregarded the principle of Shura. However, he did nothing more that what Abu Bakr did when he appointed Umar Ibn Al Khattab despite the protest of Sahabas. Sure, Umar was not the son of Abi Bakr, but then how to view the appointment of Al Hassan by his father Ali? Moreover, this was a matter of state and not of religion, piety had nothing to do with it. However the mainstream of islam disagrees with this and holds that there is no separation of religion and state. Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... Shura is an Arabic word for consultation. It is believed to be the method by which pre-Islamic Arabian tribes selected leaders and made major decisions. ...


Kufa's opposition to Damascus

Kufa, a garrison town in what is now Iraq, had been Ali's capital, and there were still many people in Kufa claiming they are still supporters of Ali. Husayn ibn Ali received many letters from the Kufans expressing their offer of support if he claimed the caliphate. They were also trying to restore Kufa's power against Damascus, the Umayyad capital. Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


Particulars of the event

Part of a series on Ahl al-Kisa


Husayn
Grandson of Muhammad Third Twelver Imam
Second or third Ismaili Imam This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine) and is specifically about the Shia twelver conception of the term. ... Main article: Ismaili The Nizārīyya (Arabic النزاريون Al-Nizarin) are the largest branch of the Ismāīlī (in Persian: اسماعیلیه) and make up over two thirds of Ismāīlī Muslims. ... This group is named Mustaali because they follow Imam Mustalli, after Imam Mustansir Billah, and not Nazaar whom the Aga Khan group consider as their Imam. ... This is a sub-article to Imamah (Shia doctrine). ...

Muhammad · Fatimah
According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... Maqtal Al-Husayn () is a book which narrates the story of battle of Karbala and death of Hussain ibn Ali. ... The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... Imam Husayn Shrine 3D Model of Imam Husayn Shrine The Imam Husayn Shrine is a holy place in Shia Islam in the city of Karbala, Iraq. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ...

Ali · Hasan · Husayn
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The route of Husayn ibn Ali from Medina to Karbala is mentioned in various history books.[8][9] For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Medina

Yazid, the new ruler, feared that Husayn would revolt. Therefore he sent a letter to Walid ibn Utbah, governor of Medina, and ordered him to take allegiance from Husayn or to kill him if he refrains. Walid consulted Marwan ibn al-Hakam and he advised Walid to kill Husayn since he will never accept Bay'ah with Yazid, but Walid did not accept this advice since he did not want to kill Husayn. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was the eight Sunni Caliph, an Umayyad, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... Bayah, in Islamic terminology is an oath of allegiance to a leader. ...


Walid held a meeting with Husayn to convince him of Bay'ah with Yazid I but was refused. The day after, Marwan asked Husayn for Bay'ah. Husayn replied: Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ...

"... Say farewell to Islam while the Ummah is afflicted by a ruler such as Yazid. Since I have heard of my grandfather, prophet of God, who was saying: The Caliphate is forbidden from Abu Sufyan's descendants".[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ...

Husayn departed Medina on Sha'ban 3, 60 AH (May 9, 680 CE) to perform the Hajj ritual.[11] More authentic reports tell us that Husayn bin Ali actually left Medina on the 28th day of Rajab in the 60th year of Hijra. Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ...


Mecca

Husayn ibn Ali stayed in Mecca from the beginnings of the Sha'ban and all of the Ramadan, Shawwal, as well as Dhu al-Qi'dah. This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Shaaban (Arabic: شعبان ) is the eighth month of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Shawwal is the tenth month on the Islamic calendar. ... Dhu al-Qidah ( ذو القعدة ) is the eleventh month in the Islamic calendar. ...


When many letters came from Kufa assuring Husayn ibn Ali of Kufan support, he answered their calls and sent Muslim ibn Aqeel, his cousin, to Kufa as his representative in an attempt to consider their last situation and opinions. Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Abd-Allah ibn Abbas and Abdullah ibn Zubayr held a meeting with Husayn ibn Ali in Mecca to advise him to refuse to travel to Iraq. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Abd Allah az-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr (624 - 692) was the son of Zubayr, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


In another meeting, Abdullah ibn Umar asked him to reconcile with the strayed people and to prevent war. But he warned Abdullah ibn Umar not to stop supporting him. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Meanwhile Husayn ibn Ali corresponded with nobles of Basrah and asked them to support him. Major tribes of Basrah gathered and got ready for fight against Yazid I and informed Husayn ibn Ali. At the same time Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad, governor of Basrah, executed one of the messengers of Husayn ibn Ali and then addressed people and warned them to avoid insurgency. Ibn Ziyad, governor of Basra and Kufa, left Basra toward Kufa next day, leaving his brother as deputy governor of Basra. Basrah rebels’ army never reached Husayn ibn Ali and they became aware of his martyrdom midway of Kufa. This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Considerable military units under Umar ibn Sa'ad entered Mecca to confront or attack Husayn ibn Ali on Tarwiyah day.[12] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...


Husayn ibn Ali gave a speech to people the day before his departure and said: This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

"... The death is a certainty for mankind, just like the trace of necklace on the neck of young girls. And I am enamoured of my ancestors like eagerness of Jacob to Joseph ... Everyone, who is going to devote his blood for ours sake and is prepared to meet Allah, must depart with us..."[13] This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ...

He also willed before his journey his half-brother Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah. Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah was preventing him from going to Kufa knowing hypocrisy and insincerity of its people even with Ali. But Husayn departed toward Kufa to avoid the battle inside the holy city of Mecca. Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the son of the first Shi’a Imam (Ali ibn Abu Talib) but he was called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


Husayn ibn Ali left Mecca toward Kufa with his family members plus some supporters on Dhu al-Hijjah 3 or 8, 60AH (September 4 or 9 September 680 CE). This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ...


Husayn's representative to Kufa, Muslim ibn Aqeel were welcomed by the people of Kufa, and most of them swore allegiance to him. But he and his host, Hani ibn Urwa were executed by the new governor of the Kufa, Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad on Dhu al-Hijjah 9, 60AH (September 10, 680 CE) without any considerable resistance of the people. And almost all the Kufan supporters of Husayn turned into his enemies. Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Ibn Ziyad summoned a retainer, Maqil, who he tasked to act a spy and pretend he was a Shia in order to locate the whereabouts of Muslim ibn Aqeel. ... Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ...


Toward Kufa

Husayn ibn Ali came across with a convoy in the Tan'im station carrying some gifts from the governor of Yemen for Yazid I. He confiscated all of their consignments and made the cameleers free to select between making a new contract with him and being paid for the amount of the way they had traveled so far. Some cameleers accompanied him.[14] This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ...


He met with Boshr ibn Ghalib in the Zat-Erq station who was coming from Iraq and asked about his opinions about Iraq political situation. Boshr replied: "I left the hearts which are adherents of yours and the swords which are adherents of the Umayyad!” And Husayn confirmed his analysis and news.


Zuhair ibn Qayn left Mecca toward his town at the same time but was trying to be away from convoy of Husayn ibn Ali due to the political disputes he had with Ali ibn Abi Talib before. After a while and passing away some stations, Zuhayr forced to camp near Husayn's camp caused by some limitations. At this time Husayn sent a messenger toward Zuhayr and called him for a meeting. Zuhayr's wife encouraged him to visit offspring of the Prophet. Zuhayr visited Husayn. After the meeting Zuhayr ordered to move his tent to Husayn's camp and asked his wife to leave him and told her: "I have decided to accompany Husayn in order to sacrifice myself for him and to shield him by my soul." The Battle of Karbala took place in the year 680, between the 72 men of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of the Prophet of Islam). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...


The word came about the death of Muslim ibn Aqeel in Zobalah station. This news caused a great sorrow in the convoy. A group of fellow travelers left Husayn alone after that and only his family members and loyal followers remained with him. Husayn continued to advance toward Kufa even after receiving news of the loss of Kufan support. Now, nowhere is safe for him and for his family. This article needs to be wikified. ...


Husayn sent Qais ibn Musahhar al-Saydavi as messenger toward nobles of Kufa, such as Solayman ibn Sorad al-khozaei. He was captured in the vicinity of Kufa but managed to tear the letter to pieces to hide names of its recipients. Ibn Ziyad forced him to reveal the names or publicly curse Husayn and his father and brother upon pain of death. He accepted the latter but cursed ibn Ziyad instead and encouraged people to join Husayn ibn Ali. Ibn Ziyad ordered his execution by dropping him from the top of the palace afterward. Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ...


Clash with vanguards

Husayn was two days' journey away from Kufa when he was intercepted by the vanguard of Yazid's army; about 1000 men led by Hurr ibn Yazid Al-Riyahi. Husayn asked: "With us or against us?" Hurr replied: "Of course against you, oh Aba Abd Allah!" Husayn said: "... So if you are different from what I received from your letters and from your messengers then I will return to where I came from." Hurr refused Husayn's request of his return to Medina and told him: "No, but select a way neither toward Kufa nor Madina enabling me to find a pretense before ibn Ziyad that you would have disagreed with me on the way." The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


After receiving a threatening letter from ibn Ziyad to halt them, Hurr prevented Husayn from moving to any direction and let them know the new order from ibn Ziyad. Then Husayn ibn Ali gave a speech to his companions and said: This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...

"... It has happened from the events what you have seen. And the world has been changed and become abominable and its goodness turns ... Don't you see that the truth is not put into action and the false is not prohibited? The believer has got to be fond of meeting his God justly. So I do not consider the death but blessedness and living with the oppressors other than abjectness."[15]

Some of his followers asserted their loyalty and he started moving. Hurr was continuously preventing them to move further or was making them deviate from their way.


Husayn ibn Ali, his family and his supporters arrived at Karbala on Muharram 2, 61AH (October 2, 680 CE). He was forced to pitch a camp on dry, bare land and Hurr stationed his army nearby. // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ...


Ibn Ziyad appointed Umar ibn Sa'ad to command the battle against Husayn ibn Ali. Umar ibn Sa'ad was not a military man but he was famous for being a clergyman. At first he rejected the leadership of the army but he accepted after Ibn Ziyad threatened to depose him from the governorship of Ray city. Umar ibn Sa'ad moved towards the battlefield with a 4000 men army and arrived at Karbala on Muharram 3, 61AH (October 3, 680 CE). Ibn Ziyad was continuously sending reinforcements to his army such that they became a 20,000 army on Muharram 6, 61AH[16]. It finally reached around 30,000 horsemen and infantrymen.[17] Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ray, is one of the oldest cities of Iran. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Ibn Ziyad asked Shabath ibn Reb'ei, also another clergyman of Kufa, to join Umar ibn Sa'ad. At first he feigned illness but finally accepted. He together with 1000 horseman was dispatched toward Karbala.


Water blockade

Ibn Ziyad sent a brief letter to Umar ibn Sa'd that commanded: "Prevent Husayn and his disciples from accessing water and do not allow them to drink a drop of water; the same as Uthman was treated." In this letter he falsely accused Husayn and his father of being responsible for what rebels did with Uthman before. On Muharram 7 (October 7, 680 CE), ibn Sa'ad ordered 500 horsemen to cut Husayn's camp off from the Euphrates to stop them from accessing water. The camp now had no supply of water and the enemy hoped to force Husayn to surrender on account of thirst. Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


One of the disciples of Husayn ibn Ali asked Husayn's permission to negotiate with Umar ibn Sa'ad about obtaining access to water and Husayn accepted. He met Umar ibn Sa'ad but ibn Sa'ad refused to allow Husayn access to any water.


Husayn ibn Ali ordered his half brother Abbas ibn Ali to conduct a night mission to the Euphrates to get water. Abbas ibn Ali with 30 horsemen and 20 infantrymen carrying 20 water skins advanced toward the front lines of the enemy Euphrates by night. The infantrymen quickly destroyed the formation of 500 enemy horsemen and succeeded in filling their water skins but they were counter attacked by a massive brigade on their way back. Abbas ibn Ali and his horsemen managed to stop their enemies and his infantrymen rejoined Husayn's army. Miraculously there were no casualties in Husayn's army even though the entire battlion of 500 horsemen had been decimated. This prompted Ibn-e-Saad to increase the guard on Euphrates from 500 to 3000.[18] Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


The water blockade continued up to the end of the battle on Muharram 10 night (October 10, 680 CE).


Reconciliation negotiations

Overnight negotiations between Husayn ibn Ali and Umar ibn Sa'ad has been reported. Husayn was trying to cause ibn Sa'ad to change his mind. Finally Umar ibn Sa'ad agreed to Husayn's proposal that the siege be lifted so that Husayn, his family, and his companions could leave Iraq. He sent word to ibn Ziyad, asking him to ratify the offer. This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Ibn Ziyad liked the proposal, but another Umayyad grandee, Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan, vetoed it and advised ibn Sa'ad to offer surrender to Husayn. Ibn Ziyad sent letter to Umar ibn Sa'ad and ordered him to destroy Husayn if he do not surrender or be dismissed from all services and Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan will lead the army. Shimr delivered the letter to ibn Sa'ad in Karbala. Ibn Sa'ad showed his protest against Shimr's idea since he was sure that Husayn will never surrender. But accepted orders of ibn Ziyad and appointed Shimr as commander of infantrymen.


Choice between life and death

On the 9th of Muharram (October 9, 680 CE) which is called Tasua'a, the Husayn camp was completely besieged and had exhausted its water. Their only choice was between surrender or death.


Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan approached the camp of Husayn ibn Ali and yelled: "Where are my nephews Abd-Allah, Ja'far, Abbas and Uthman?" He described the sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib from Fatima binte Hizam, nicknamed Umm-al-Banin, as his nephews since Umm-al-Banin was from his tribe. They replied and Shimr said: "You nephews of mine; you are in protection and do not be murdered for the sake of Husayn and obey the chief of the believers, Yazid." But all of them refused to leave Husayn ibn Ali and Shimr went away angrily. Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Umar ibn Sa'ad received an order from ibn Ziyad to start the battle immediately and not to postpone it further. The army started stealthily advancing toward Husayn's camp on the afternoon of Tasua'a. At this time Husayn sent Abbas ibn Ali to ask ibn Sa'ad for another delay, until the next morning, so that he and his men could spend the night praying. Ibn Sa'ad agreed the respite.


Husayn then told his men that he did not intend to surrender, but to fight. Since they were so heavily outnumbered by the enemy, all of them were sure to die. On the night before the battle, Husayn gathered his men and told them that they were all free to leave the camp in the middle of the night, under cover of darkness, rather than face certain death if they stayed with him. None of Husayn's men wished to defect. Instead they stated their wish to be killed repeatedly in the name of Husayn if they were brought back to life by Allah.


Husayn and his followers held a vigil to pray all night. Some guards from ibn Sa'ad's army who were patrolling that night joined Husayn's army. They were said to be as many as 32 men.


Husayn ibn Ali ordered his fighters to dig a trench around their tents by night and to fill it with firewood and dried shrubs to prevent the enemy from flanking them or infiltrating the camp. Only one passage was left open. Ibn Sa'ad's army did not notice this activity till next morning.


Day of battle

On Muharram 10 called Ashura, Husayn ibn Ali prayed Morning Prayer with his companions. He appointed Zuhayr ibn Qayn to command the right flank, Habib ibn Muzahir to command the left flank and his half-brother Abbas ibn Ali as standard bearer of his army. Also he ordered to set the trench around their tents on fire. Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ...


The companions of Husayn ibn Ali were 32 horsemen and 40 infantrymen. According to another tradition from Muhammad ibn Ali, they were 45 horsemen and 100 infantrymen.[19] Husayn rode on his horse Zuljenah. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ...


On the other side, Umar ibn Sa'ad reorganized his army and nominated various commanders among them were Hurr ibn Yazid as commander of men from Tamim and Hamdan tribes, Shimr ibn Dhil-Jawshan as commander of left flank and Shabath ibn Reb'ei as commander of infantrymen. The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Lectures prior to engagement

Burayr ibn Khudhayr, Zuhayr ibn Qayn and Husayn ibn Ali made speeches to the Kufan army immediately before the military engagement. They were trying to exhort the Kufans not to fight Husayn and remind them of their invitations letters as well as Husayn's family tie with Muhammad. This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Husayn ibn Ali addressed:

"... Lo and behold; an ignoble (i.e ibn Ziyad), son of other ignoble (i.e. Ziyad ibn Abihi), has entangled me in a bifurcation, between either unsheathing the swords or accepting abjectness. And far be it that we accept abjectness. Allah abominates that for us, plus his proph­et, believers, the chaste pure gentlewomen, those who do not accept oppression as well as the souls who do not submit to meanness abominate it. They disapprove that we prefer obedience of scrooges to the best sites of murder. Beware; I assault you together with this family while they are few and when the helpers deserted. ... "[20] Ubayd Allah was a son of Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. ... Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan was born in Taif to a member of the Banu Fuqaim, of unknown parentage. ...

The battle starts

Ibn Sa'ad advanced and fired an arrow at Husayn's army, saying: "Give evidence before emir that I was the first thrower." Then his army started showering Husayn's army with weapons.


Both sides began fighting. Successive assaults resulted in the death of a group of Husayn's companions.


Then Husayn ibn Ali called the people around him to join him for the sake of Allah and to defend Muhammed’s family. His speech affected Hurr ibn Yazid Al-Riyahi, the commander of the Tamim and Hamdan tribes who had stopped Husayn from his journey. He abandoned ibn Sa'ad and galloped his horse to Husayn's small force and told him: "May I be sacrificed in your place! I am the one who prevented you from returning and severely treated you. I swear by Allah, I did not know they were going to do in this way. And now I am returning to Allah. So, do you think if any return can be imagined for me?" Husayn replied: "Yes. Allah will return to you. So, dismount." Then Hurr asked Husayn to let him to fight to the death. Afterwards Husayn cleaned dust from his face when he found his corpse and said: "You are noble in this world and the next, as your mother named you." The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The first skirmish was between the right flank of Husayn ibn Ali's army with the left of the Syrian army. Astonishingly 32 men under the command of Zuhayr ibn Qain inflicted a major defeat on at least 4000 men.[citation needed] They quickly retreated and broke the pre-war pact of not using arrows & lances. This pact was made in view of the small number (72) of Husayn's companions. Thereafter almost all of Husayn ibn Ali's companions were killed (including Husayn's infant boy Ali Asghar) by the onslaught of arrows or lances.


In order to prevent random and indiscriminate showering of arrows on Husayn's camp which had women and children in it, Husayn's followers went out to single combats. Men like Burayr ibn Khudhayr, Muslim ibn Ausaja and Habib ibn Muzahir were slain in the fighting. They were attempting to save Husayn's life by shielding him. Every casualty had a considerable effect on their military strength since they were vastly outnumbered to begin with.


Husayn ibn Ali ordered Zuhayr ibn Qayn and Said ibn Abd-Allah to stand in front of him enabling him to say a Zohr prayer on the battlefield. They shielded him with their bodies until Said ibn Abd-Allah was killed by multiple arrows. The Dhuhr prayer (dh pronounced as th in Thou, or simplified to zo) is the mid-day or noon prayer. ...


Historians say that Husayn's companions were coming, one by one, to say goodbye to him, even in the midst of battle. They reassured him that: "... We are following you" and adding: "And among them (believers) is one who fulfilled his vow, and among them is one who waits (to fulfill their vows). And they did not change (their vows), any change"[21]


Death of the men from Banu Hashim

After almost all of Husayn's companions were killed, his relatives asked his permission to fight. The men of Banu Hashim, the clan of Muhammad and Ali, went out one by one. Ali Akbar ibn Husayn, the youngest son of Husayn, was the first one who received permission from his father.[22] Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Casualties from Banu Hashim were sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib, sons of Hasan ibn Ali, Son of Husayn ibn Ali, Son of Abd-Allah ibn Ja'far ibn Abi-Talib and Zainab bint Ali, sons of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, as well as a son of Muslim ibn Aqeel. Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...


Death of Abbas ibn Ali

Husayn ibn Ali advanced toward Euphrates branch along a dyke and his brother Abbas ibn Ali was moving ahead of him. They had planned to bring some water to tents. But ibn Sa'ad army prevents them and one of them hit Husayn on his chin with an arrow. Husayn pulled out the arrow and stopped further advance enabling him to cover Abbas and protect the tents at the same time. Abbas ibn Ali continued his advance into the heart of ibn Sa'ad's army.[23] He was under heavy shower of arrows but was able to penetrate them and get to the branch leaving heavy casualties from the enemy. He immediately started filling the water skin. In a remarkable and immortal gesture of loyalty to his brother and Muhammad's grandson he didn't drink any water despite being severely thirsty. He put the water skin on his right shoulder and started riding back toward their tents. Amr Saad ordered an outright assault on Abbas ibn Ali saying that if Abbas succeeds in taking water back to his camp, we won't be able to defeat them till the end of time. A massive enemy army blocked his way and surrounded him. He was ambushed from behind a bush and his right hand was cut off. Abbas put the water skin on his left shoulder and continued his way but his left hand also cut off from wrist. Abbas now held the water skin with his teeth. The army of ibn Sa'ad started shooting arrows at him. One arrow hit the water skin and water poured out of it. Abbas ibn Ali turned his horse back in to ibn Sa'ads forces because he does not want to go back without water and arrow's started hitting his chest and Abbas fell off his horse and called his brother just before his death.[24] Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ...


Death of the infant son of Hussain

When nobody was left in Imam Hussain's camp, Imam Hussain cried for help by saying, "Is there anyone who can help me?" Hearing this call, Imam Hussain's six-month-old baby dropped himself from the cot, saying "LABAIK", meaning I am at your service. Imam Hussain only realized and came to know about this when he heard the women crying and wailing. He went to the tent and asked his sister Zainab what was the reason for them to cry and she said that after hearing his call for help Ali Asghar had dropped himself from his cot. He then asked Abdullah Alradea's mother to dress Ali Asghar up in new clothes because he wanted to take him to the battlefield so that he could ask some water for his child, and he was about to meet with Allah so he needed to look his best. Abdullah Alradea's mother handed him over to Imam Hussain. Imam Hussain then took Ali Asghar towards the enemy camp. After getting near the enemy camp he cried out, "Is there anyone who can give some water to my thirsty child?" When no one came forward he again pleaded and said, "OK, if you think that I will drink the water then fine, I will put my son down on the burning sand anyone who wants to give him water can come forward and do so." Imam Hussain put his son down on the burning sand and waited ... but no one came forward. He then picked him up and Imam Hussain told him to open his mouth and show his tongue; even if you just had some nice cold water and if you stuck out your tongue then you would need water right away. Ali Asghar started to roll over his tongue over his lips to convey to Yazeed's army that he really was thirsty. Seeing this, many in Yazeed's army started crying, but the commander of the army, Omar Ibn Saad, was unfazed by it. He sent for his best archer, Hurmula, and ordered him to take aim and shoot an arrow in Ali Asghar's direction. He took aim and launched an arrow, but it missed; he shot again, and it also missed; and then he shot a third time, and that missed as well. Then Omar said, "You are my best archer; why can't you kill the child who is lying still?" Hurmala answered, "His mother is watching from the tent and I can see that if I kill this child then I will go to hell." But with the money in mind, Hurmala shot his 3-pronged arrow, the kind used to kill horses. When Hurmala shot the arrow then Ali Asghar saw that it would hit Imam Hussain, so Ali Asghar jumped and the arrow pierced his throat, killing him instantly. The arrow end came out and attached itself, along with Ali Asghar, to Imam Hussain's arm.


After the death of Ali Asghar

When Ali Asghar was killed then the Imam had to face the dilemma of getting Ali Asghar to the tent, Imam Hussain throw the blood in the sky and not even a drop of blood came back to the ground.Imam Hussain A.S. thought when the sky consumed the blood than the child shouldn't be laid down on the dry and hot land.Imam Hussain A.S. took out his ZULFIQUAR and digged up a small KABR and buried ALI ASGAR. and proceeded to the tents, when imam Hussain was going to the tents, he remembered that Ali Asghar's mother was present in the tent, so imam took a few steps back, then he moved a few steps up and then a few steps back, and he continued this for a while, this is why on ziarrat-e-ashura on 10th muharram shias move a few steps forward and than a few steps back, and a few steps forward and a few back, then when Imam hussain had reached the tents then Rubab (Ali Asghar's mother) sees Imam Hussain's face and she knows that Ali Asghar has been killed.


After he returned to the tents, Imam Hussain had made a small grave for Ali Asghar behind the tents with his sword, Imam hussain had no water to make the grave wet, but there was enough tears shed by Imam Hussain that the grave became very wet.


After the battle, when Yazeed's army was looting the tents, they where placing the heads on spears, but then they couldn't find the body of Ali Asghar so he thought that he would probably be buried then so they started jabbing their spears into the ground and eventually the spear went into the stomach of Ali Asghar and then the body came out of the ground, then they severed Ali Asghar's head and placed it onto a spear, then they threw the body.


Death of Husayn ibn Ali

Husayn ibn Ali offered single battle to the enemy. He killed everybody that fought him in single battles.[25] He demonstrated extreme courage and bravery, forced the enemy into retreat frequently and killed a great number of opponents. Husayn and earlier his son Ali Akbar were the two warriors who penetrated and dispersed the core of Ibn-Saad's army (Qalb-e-Lashkar), a sign of extreme chaos in traditional warfare. This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


Husayn advanced very deep in the back ranks of the Syrian army. When the enemies stood between him and the tents he shouted:

"Woe betide you oh followers of Abu Sufyan's dynasty! If no religion has ever been accepted by you and you have not been fearing the resurrection day then be noble in your world ..."[26] Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ...

Then his enemies invaded back toward him.


He was continuously invading them and they were continuously invading him and .[27] Until his numerous injuries caused him to stay a moment. At this time he was hit on his forehead with a stone. He was cleaning blood from his face while he was hit on the heart with arrow and he said: "In the name of Allah, and by Allah, and on the religion of the messenger of Allah." Then he raised his head up and said: "Oh my God! You know that they are killing a man that there is no son of daughter of a prophet (Husayn is son of Fatimah bint Muhammad) on the earth except him" Then he grasped the arrow and pulled it out of his chest from behind which caused heavy bleeding.[28] ...


He became very weak to fight and halted and the soldiers approaching him were giving up confronting him, until a soldier approached him while cursing and hit him on his head with his sword.


The enemies halted for a while and then returned and surrounded him. At this time Abd-Allah ibn Hasan, who was an underage boy, escaped from the tents and ran until arrived beside Husayn. When a soldier intended to hit Husayn with his sword, Abd-Allah ibn Hasan defended his uncle with his arm which caused it to be cut and hanged. Husayn hugged him but the boy was hit on his neck with an arrow.[29]


Husayn became very weak due to his heavy injuries and hits by arrows. Then the voice of god comes from skies "we are satisfied with your deeds and sacrifies"after words imam husayn saved his sword in to its holder and then,Imam Hussain A.S. wanted to get down from the horse but was tremendously injured and so he don't fall off the ground his horse DUL DUL bend on his front knees so that his AQUA don't fall off the ground and hurt himself.Imam Hussain A.S. than went and sat under a tree.[30]


Umar ibn Sa'ad ordered a man to dismount and to finish the job. But Khowali ibn Yazid al-Asbahiy preceded the man but feared and did not do it. Then Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan dismounted his horse and cut Husayn's throat with sword. Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan was saying: "I swear by God that I am raising your head while I know that you are grandson of the messenger of Allah and the best of the people by father and mother" when he raised head of Husayn ibn Ali on a spear.[31] The inb Sa'ad's men looted all the valuables from Husayn's body, leaving it semi-naked.


The army of Ibn Sa'ad rushed to loot the tents. The daughters of Mohammad's family were expelled from the tents unveiled and barefooted, while weeping and crying for their slain relatives. The army set all the tents on fire. The women were asking: "By God if you pass us from beside the site of the murder of Husayn." And when they saw the martyrs and wailed and hit their face.[32] Then Sakina bint Husayn (Death, 117 AH) embraced her father's body until some people dragged her off his body.[33] Sakina bint Husayn is the daughter of Imam Husayn ibn Ali (3rd Shiite Imam). ...


Umar ibn Sa'ad called volunteer horsemen to trample Husayn's body. Ten horsemen trampled his body such that his chest and back were ground.


As a matter of fact, the essence in all this story is that, Imam Hussain body was martyred but his NOOR and Imamat was passed on to his son Ali who became Imam Ali Zainul Abideen.


Aftermath

Umar ibn Sa'ad sent Husayn's head to ibn Ziyad on Ashura afternoon and ordered to sever heads of his comrades to send them to Kufa. The heads were distributed to various tribes enabling them to gain favor of ibn Ziyad. Ibn Sa'ad remained in Karbala until the next noon.[34]


After ibn Sa'ad's army went out of Karbala, some people from Banu Asad tribe came there and buried the dead bodies in the place where they are now located.[35] // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...


On Muharram 11 (October 11, 680 CE), all captives including all women and children were then loaded onto camels without neither saddle nor sunshade and were moved toward Kufa. And when they approached Kufa, its people gathered to see them. Some women of Kufa gathered veils for them upon knowing that they are relatives of Muhammad. Among the captives were Ali ibn Husayn, who was gravely ill, as well as Hasan ibn Hasan al-Muthanna, who was seriously injured in the battle of Karbala.[36] Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ...


Zainab bint Ali pointed at the people to be quiet. Everybody halted and kept silent. Then she addressed the people of Kufa: Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي) was the daughter of the first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra (the Islamic Prophet Mohammed’s daughter). ...

"The praise is exclusively attributed to Allah. And greetings to my father (grand father), Muhammad, and to his pure and benevolent family. And then, Oh people of Kufa! Oh deceitful and reneger people! Do you weep? So let tears not be dried and let groans not be finished. ... Beware, such a bad preparation you have made for yourself that Allah became furious of you and you will be at punishment forever. Do you weep and cry? Yeah, by Allah, do weep numerously and do laugh less! Since you brought its shame and fault on yourself and you will not be able to cleanse it forever. ..."[37]

And also Fatima al-Kubra, Sakina, Umm-Kulthoum bint Ali and Ali ibn Husayn delivered speeches to Kufans.[38] All lectures caused a deep sorrow of the people. Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ...


During the journey from Karbala to Kufa, and from Kufa to Damascus, Husayn's sister Zaynab bint Ali and Umm-Kulthoom bint Ali, and son Ali Abid ibn Husayn gave various speeches that exposed the truth about Yazid and told the Muslim world of the various atrocities committed in Karbala. After being brought to Yazid's court, Zaynab courageously gave a famous speech in which she denounced Yazid's claim to the caliphate and eulogized Husayn's uprising.


The prisoners were held in Damascus for a year. The people of Damascus began to frequent the prison, and Zaynab and Ali ibn Husayn used that as an opportunity to further propagate the message of Husayn and explain to the people the reason for Husayn's uprising. As public opinion against Yazid began to foment in Syria and parts of Iraq, Yazid ordered their release and return to Medina, where they continued to tell the world of Husayn's cause and Yazid's atrocities.


Account of the battle accepted by western academics

Encyclopædia Britannica narrates the story in the following way: A police force, consisting of a several thousand men, plus 500 archers, surrounded the family and supporters of Husayn ibn Ali. The battle ended with the deaths of Husayn and his entire military force.[39] The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ...


John Esposito states that the "brave and charismatic" grandson of Muhammad was trying to regain power and reinstate the true values of Islam.[40] For the pianist named John Esposito, see John Esposito (pianist). ...


Many of the details attributed to the event are disputed. For example, the Encyclopædia Britannica states that "the facts gradually acquired a romantic and spiritual coloring." The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


Casualties of Husayn ibn Ali army

See also List of casualties at the Battle of Karbala Main article: Battle of Karbala The Battle of Karbala took place in the year 680,[1] between 108 and 136 men of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of Muhammad). ...


There were seventy-two dead in all (including Imam Hussain) (see [2], [3]). Here are the names of casualties from Banu Hashim tribe.[41] Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ...

Name Age Descriptions
Husayn ibn Ali 54 years Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima Zahra
Ali Akbar ibn Husayn 19 to 25 years[42] Son of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali Asghar ibn Husayn 6 Months Son of Husayn ibn Ali
Qasim ibn Hassan 13 years Son of Hassan ibn Ali
Abd-Allah ibn Hassan 11 years Son of Hassan ibn Ali
Abu-Bakr ibn Hassan Son of Hassan ibn Ali
Abbas ibn Ali 34 years Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima binte Hizam
Abd-Allah bin Ali 25 years Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima binte Hizam
Uthman ibn Ali 21 years Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima binte Hizam
Ja'far ibn Ali 19 years Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima binte Hizam
Muhammad al-Asghar ibn Ali Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Abu-Bakr ibn Ali Son of Ali ibn Abi Talib
Aun bin Abd-Allah Son of Abd-Allah ibn Ja'far ibn Abi-Talib and Zainab bint Ali
Mohammed ibn Abd-Allah Son of Abdullah ibn Ja'far ibn Abi-Talib and Zainab bint Ali
Ja'far ibn Aqeel Brother of Muslim ibn Aqeel
Abd-al-Rahman ibn Aqeel Brother of Muslim ibn Aqeel
Muhammad bin Aqeel Brother of Muslim ibn Aqeel
Abd-Aallah ibn Aqeel Brother of Muslim ibn Aqeel
Moosa ibn Aqeel Brother of Muslim ibn Aqeel
Abd-Allah ibn Muslim Son of Muslim ibn Aqeel

This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Ali Akbar ibn Hussain ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي اكبر ابن حسين) (Martyrdom) Sketch Showing Ali Akbar lying on Imam Husayn laps Ali Akbar ibn Hussain was born on 11th of Shabaan 44 AH and he was the son of Imam Hussain and Bibi Umm-e-Laila. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali Asgar was the youngest son of Imam Husayn and Rubaab and the grandson of Muhammeds daughter Fatima and Ali ibn Abi Talib. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... see Qasim ibn Muhammad for the son of Prophet Muhammad Qasim was the youngest son of the 2nd Shiite Imam, Hassan, through his wife Umm Farwa. Hassan had died when Qasim was only a few years old. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima binte Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Baneen. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Fatima bintr Hizam al-Kilabiyya, commonly known as Ummul Baneen, married Ali ibn Abi Talib (the first Shia Imam and fourth Sunni Caliph) after he became a widower after the death of his first wife Fatima bint Muhammad (S). ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘Alī ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Hazrat Aun and Mohammad are buried here Aun and Muhammad were the sons of Abdullah ibn Jafar and Zaynab binte Ali. ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي) was the daughter of the first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra (the Islamic Prophet Mohammed’s daughter). ... Hazrat Aun and Mohammad are buried here Aun and Muhammad were the sons of Abdullah ibn Jafar and Zaynab binte Ali. ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي) was the daughter of the first Shia Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib and Fatima Zahra (the Islamic Prophet Mohammed’s daughter). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Historiography of the battle of Karbala

See also: Maqtal Al-Husayn

Maqtal Al-Husayn () is a book which narrates the story of battle of Karbala and death of Hussain ibn Ali. ...

Primary sources

The first historian to systematically collect the reports of eyewithnesses of this event was Abi Mikhnaf(died in 157 AH, 774 CE) in a work titled "Ketab Maqtal Al-Husayn".[43] Abi Mikhnaf's original seems to have been lost and that which has reached today has been transmitted through his student Hisham Al-Kalbi (died in 204 AH.) There are four manuscripts of the Maqtal, located at Gotha (No. 1836), Berlin (Sprenger, Nos. 159-160), Leiden (No. 792), and St. Petersburg (Am No. 78) libraries.[44] Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ...


Rasul Jafarian has counted 5 Primary sources which are now availlable. Among the original works on maqàtil (pl. of maqtal or place of death / martyrdom and hence used for books narrating the incident of Karbalà) the ones that could be relied upon for reviewing the Karbala happenings are five in number. All these five maqtals belong to the period between the 2nd century AH (8th CE) and the early 4th century AH (10th CE). These five sources are the "Maqtal al-Husayn" of Abu Mikhnaf, the "Maqtal al-Husayn" of Ibn Sa'd-Sunni Historian-, the "Maqtal al-Husayn" of Baladhuri -Sunni Historian-, the "Maqtal al-Husayn" of Dinawari, and the "Maqtal al-Husayn" of Ibn A'tham.[45] How ever some other historians have recognized some of these as secondary sources. For example Veccia Vaglieri has found that Baladhuri (died 279AH/892-893CE) like Tabari has used Abi Mikhnaf but hasn't mentioned his name.[46] On the basis of the article of "Abi Mikhnaf" in "Great Islamic Encyclopedia" Ibn A'tham has mentioned Abi Mikhnaf in "Al-Futuh" thus he should be recognized as secondary source.[47] Ibn Sad (Arabic: ) (d 230 AH) [1] OR (168/784-230/845)[2] OR (died 852 CE [3]) was a Sunni Muslim scholar of Islam. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ... Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Atham al-Kufi (d. ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri was an Arabian historian, a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have been strongly with the Arabs, for Masudi refers to one of his works in. ... Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Atham al-Kufi (d. ...


Secondary sources

Then latter Muslim historians have written their histories on the basis of the former ones especially Maqtal Al-Husayn of Abi Mikhnaf. However they have added some narrations through their own sources which weren't reported by former historians. Maqtal Al-Husayn () is a book which narrates the story of battle of Karbala and death of Hussain ibn Ali. ... Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ...


Tabari narrated this story on the basis of Abi Mikhnaf's report through Hisham Al-Kalbi in his history, History of the Prophets and Kings.[48] Also there is fabricated version of Abi Mekhnaf's book in Iran and Iraq.[49] Then other Sunni Muslim historians including Balazari and Ibn Kathir narrated the events of Karbala from Abi Mikhnaf. Also among Shi'a Shaykh al-Mufid used it in Irshad.[50] However, followers of Ali -- later to be known as Shia Muslims -- attached a much greater importance to the battle and have compiled many accounts known as Maqtal Al-Husayn. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ... Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan al-Ukbari al-Baghdadi known as al-Shaykh al-Mufid and Ibn al-Muallim for his expertise in philosophical theology (~948-1022 CE) was an eminent Twelver Shiite theologian. ... Maqtal Al-Husayn () is a book which narrates the story of battle of Karbala and death of Hussain ibn Ali. ...


Shia writings

Salwa Al-Amd has classified Shia writings in three groups:[51]

  • Religious texts: The legendary character of this category associates the chronological history of Al-Husayn with notions relating to the origin of life and the Universe, that have preoccupied the human mind since the beginning of creation, and in which Al-Husayn is eternally present. This category of writing holds that a person’s stance toward Al-Husayn and Ahl al- Bayt is a criterion for reward and punishment in the afterlife. It also transforms the historical boundaries of Al-Husayn’s birth in 4 Hr. and his death in 61 Hr. to an eternal presence embracing the boundaries of history and legend.
  • Historic texts:This category is the nearest to Sunni writings because it fully cherishes the historical personality of Al-Husayn and regards the Karbala ’ incident as a revolt against oppression; dismissing the legendary treatment, while using the language of revolt against tyranny and despotic sovereignty. These oral traditions were later collected and recorded by Shia historians such as Abi Mekhnaf and Ibn A'tham.
  • Tragedic poems, plays, and other narratives intended for popular consumption, which may contain material not strictly supported by the Hadiths or the histories. This category comprises the literary works common in rituals and lamentations (poetic and prose) and is characterized by its melodramatic style, which aims to arouse pity and passion for Ahl al-Bayt’s misfortunes, and charge feelings during tempestuous political circumstances on the memory of Ashura.

Abi Mekhnaf (Yahya ibn Said ibn Mikhnaf Al-Kufi) () was a Muslim historian from the 8th century. ... Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Atham al-Kufi (d. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ...

Distortion of the history

As Jafarian says "The holding of mourning ceremonies for Imam Husayn was very much in vogue in the eastern parts of Iran before the Safawids came to power. Kashefi wrote the "Rawzah al-Shuhada" for the predominantly Sunnis region of Herat and Khurasan at a time when the Safawid state was being established in western Iran and had no sway in the east."[52] After the adoption of the Shi'a faith in Iran, many Iranian authors composed poems and plays commemorating the battle.[53] Most of these compositions are only loosely based upon the known history of the event. They are dramatizations designed in order to make the people cry more.[54] Herāt (Persian: ‎ ) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ...


Some 20th century Shia scholars have protested the conversion of history into mythology. Prominent critics include:

Also several books have been written in Persian language about political backgrounds and aspects of the battle of Karbala.[60] ... Farsi redirects here. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ...


Impact on the Literature

Mourning of Muharram
Events
  • Battle of Karbala
Figures
Places
Times
Customs

The theme of suffering and martyrdom occupies a central role in the history of religion from the earliest time. Sacrifices are a means for reaching higher and loftier stages of life; to give away parts of one's fortune or to sacrifice members of one's family enhances one's religious standing. The Biblical and Quranic story of Abraham who so deeply trusted in God that he, without questioning, was willing to sacrifice his only son, points to the importance of such sacrifice. The Mourning of Muharram is an important period of mourning in the Shia branch of Islam, taking place in Muharram which is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib (c. ... Ali Akbar ibn Hussain ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (Arabic: علي اكبر ابن حسين) (Martyrdom) Sketch Showing Ali Akbar lying on Imam Husayn laps Ali Akbar ibn Hussain was born on 11th of Shabaan 44 AH and he was the son of Imam Hussain and Bibi Umm-e-Laila. ... Ali Asghar ibn Husayn (Tenth of Rajab, 60 AH - Tenth of Muharram, 60 AH) was the youngest child of Husayn ibn Ali (the grandson of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and the third Shia Imam) and Rubab (the daughter of the chief of the Kinda Imra al-Qays tribe). ... Al-Abbas ibn Ali (Arabic: العباس بن علي) (fourth of Shabaan 26th A.H., at Medina - tenth of Muharrum 61 A.H., at Karbala) was the son of the fourth sunni Caliph and the first Shiah Imam, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima bint Hizam, commonly known as Ummul Banin. ... Zaynabs name in Arabic Calligraphy Zaynab bint Ali (Arabic: زينب بنت علي ) (Urdu: زينب بنت على ) was the daughter of the 4th Caliph, the first Shia imam, Ali, and granddaughter of Muhammad. ... Zari of Syeda Sakina Sukayna or Sakina bint Husayn (Arabic: سكينة) (Twentieth of Rajab, 56 AH – 117 AH) was the youngest daughter of Husayn ibn Ali and Umm Rubab (Rubab bint Imra al-Qays). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Imam Husayn Shrine 3D Model of Imam Husayn Shrine The Imam Husayn Shrine is a holy place in Shia Islam in the city of Karbala, Iraq. ... A Hussainia is a congregation hall for Shia ritual ceremonies, especially those associated with the Festival of Muharram. ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... Majlis-e-Aza is same as Majalis-e-Aza and Aza-e-Husayn(p). ... Marsiya (Marsia, Marsiya-Khwani, or Soazkhwani) (Persian: مرثیہ) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ) is a genre of Punjabi, Farsi, or Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Soaz or soz (Persian / Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ... Tazieh (Persian: تعزیه) and Naqqali are traditional Persian theatrical genres in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s Hosay or Tadjah is a West Indian street festival, in which multi-colored model mausoleums are paraded, then ritually offered up to the sea, or any body of water. ...


Taking into account the importance of sacrifice and suffering for the development of man, Islamic literature has given a central place to the death on the battlefield of Muhammed's grandson Husayn. The development of the whole genre of marsiya and taziya poetry in the Persian and Indo-Persian world, or in the popular Turkish tradition is in this way. Marsiya is a form of Urdu poetry consisting of six lines per passagem organized according to the rhyming scheme Veronica Travers. ...


Persian Literature

The name of Husayn appears several times in the work of the first great Sufi poet of Iran, Sanai. Here, the name of the martyred hero can be found now and then in connection with bravery and selflessness, and Sanai sees him as the prototype of the Shahid (martyr), higher and more important than all the other martyrs who are and have been in the world.[61] Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Shahid (شهيد, plural: شهداء) is a religious-Muslim term, that its literal meaning is witness. It is a title that is given to the Muslim after his death, if he died during fulfillment of a religious commandment, or during a war for the religion. ...


The tendency to see Husayn as the model of martyrdom and bravery continues in the poetry written in the Divan of Attar. Farid al-Din Attar (b. ...


When Shiism became the official religion of Iran in the fifteenth century, Safavid rulers such as Shah Tahmasp, patronized poets who wrote about the tragedy of Karbala, and the genre of marsiya, according to Persian scholar Wheeler Thackston, "was particularly cultivated by the Safavids."[62] The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


The most well-known fifteenth-century Persian marsiya writer was Muhtasham Kashani,[63] whose works consequently became a source of elegy emulation for Iranians.


Azari and Turkish Literature

Turkish tradition, especially in the later Bektashi order, is deeply indebted to Shi'i Islam. But it seems that already in some of the earliest popular Sufi songs in Turkey, those composed by Yunus Emre in the late 13th or early 14th century, Muhammed's grandsons played a special role.[64] The Bektashism (Turkish: Bektaşilik) is an Islamic Sufi order (tariqat). ... Yunus Emre (1238?–1320?) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic. ...


Indo-Muslim Literature

As in many other fields of Sindhi poetry, Shah 'Abdu'l-Latif of Bhit (1689-1752) is the first to express ideas which were later taken up by other poets. He devoted “Sur Kedaro” in his Hindi Risalo to the martyrdom of the grandson of Muhammed, and saw the event of Karbala as embedded in the whole mystical tradition of Islam. SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ... -1...


A number of poets among the Shia of Sindh composed elegies on Karbala. The most famous of them is Thabit 'Ali Shah (1740-1810), whose specialty was the genre of “suwari”. This genre, as well as the more common forms, persists in Sindhi throughout the whole of the 18th and 19th centuries, and even into our own times (Sachal Sarmast, Bedil Rohriwaro, Mir Hasan, Shah Naser, Mirza Baddhal Beg, Mirza Qalich Beg, to mention only a few, some of whom were Sunni Sufis).[65] Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and historically is home to the Sindhis. ... SindhÄ« (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is the language of the Sindh region of South Asia, which is now a province of Pakistan. ...


The most famous corpus of Urdu poetry on Karbalas was produced by two poets of Lucknow named Mir Babar Ali Anees a and Mirza Salamat Ali Dabeer. Both these poets lived in the 19th century and they were the contemporaries of the Delhi based poet Mirza Ghalib. The genre of poetry that thos etwo poets produced is known as MARSIYA. Recently, professor David Matthews of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Londn, has translated a full length (197 stanzas of six lines each) MArsiya of Anis into English verse. This was published in book form by Rupa and Co.m, New Delhi, India.


The legacy of Urdu Marsiya has lasted to this day and many poets are still writing that kind of poetry. Both Josh MAlihabadi and Iqbal followed the genere of six-line stanza and have produced great poetry.


But there was also another way to understand the role of Husayn in the history of the Islamic people, and importantly, the way was shown by Muhammad Iqbal, who was certainly a Sunni poet and philosopher. Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ...


The Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi dynasties of South India (Deccan), predominantly Twelver Shi'is in religious persuasion, patronized Dakhni (an early South Indian dialect of Urdu) marasi. Although Persian marasi of Muhtasham Kashani were still recited, the Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi rulers felt the need to render the Karbala tragedy in the language of common Muslims. In the Adil Shahi and Qutb Shahi kingdom of Deccan, marasi flourished, especially under the patronage of Ali Adil Shah and Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, marsiya writers themselves, and poets such as Ashraf Biyabani. Urdu marasi written during this period are still popular in South Indian villages.[66] The Adil Shahi were a dynasty of Indian sultans, who ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur from the 1490 to 1686. ... The Qutb Shahi dynasty was the ruling family of the kingdom of Golconda in southern India. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ... Marsiya is a form of Urdu poetry consisting of six lines per passagem organized according to the rhyming scheme Veronica Travers. ...


Mirza Ghalib described the "King of Martyrs", Imam Husayn, by using metaphors, similar to the ones he used in his odes. Ghalib used regal imagery to underscore the virtues of Imam Husayn. The marasi of Mir Taqi Mir and Mirza Rafi Sauda are similar to those of Ghalib in that they perform their panegyric function for the martyrs of Karbala; but these poets also wrote marasi in which the narration of the Karbala tragedy was saturated with cultural and ceremonial imagery of North India.[67] Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan (Urdu/Persian: مرزا اسد اللہ خان ), pen-name Ghalib (Urdu/Persian: غالب, ġhālib) and Asad (former pen-name)(27 December 1796 — 15 February 1869), was an all time great classical Urdu and Persian poet of the subcontinent. ... Mohammed Taqi (Urdu: محمد تقی) (b. ... Mirza Muhammad Rafi Sauda (1714-1781; Indian subcontinent) was one of the greatest poets of Urdu language. ...


Josh Malihabadi renowned as "Shair-i inqilab", or the Poet of revolution, used the medium of marsiya as a means to propagate the view that Karbala is not a pathos-laden event of a bygone era, but a prototype for contemporary revolutionary struggles. Josh's writings during the late 1930s and the early 1940s, when nationalist feelings were running high in South Asia, had a momentous impact upon his generation. Josh attempted to galvanize the youth of his day by intertwining their contemporary struggle of liberation from colonization with Husayn's battle: “O Josh, call out to the Prince of Karbala [Hussain], cast a glance at this twentieth century, look at this tumult, chaos, and the earthquake. At this moment there are numerous Yazids, and yesterday there was only one. From village to village might has assumed the role of truth, Once again, Human feet are in chains”[68] Shabbir Hasan Khan (December 5, 1898 - February 22, 1982) was a noted poet of India and Pakistan who wrote Urdu ghazals and nazms under takhallus (Urdu for nom de plume) Josh Malihabadi (Josh, an Urdu word which means Passion/Intensity). He was born at Malihabad, Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Vahid Akhtar, formerly Professor and Chairman, Dept. of Philosophy at Aligarh Muslim University,[69] has been crucial in keeping the tradition of marsiya dynamic in present-day South Asia. His marasi rely on the images, metaphors, and nuances inherited from nineteenth century masters, and on the values invested in this genre by socio-religious reformers like Josh. On the back cover of his recently-published marsiya anthology, for example, is the famous Arabic saying: "Every place is Karbala; every day is Ashura." By positing a similarity between Husayn's historic battle and the present day struggle of human kind against renewed forms of Yazidian oppression, Akhtar deflects the interpretation of the martyrs of Karbala as mere insignia of Islamic history; they are instead posed as the sinews for the revival of an ideal Islamic state of being.[70]


Nauhas are very popular poems in the shia community and some are starting in the sunni community, which have matham (beating their own chests, Zainab ibn Ali did this after the battle), In meny muslim countries Nadeem Sarwar, Shabab-ul-Momineen (Nasir Asghar Party, Nazim Party, Rizwan Zaidi Party, Lahore Party), Irfan Haider, Dar-e-Batool, Ali Safdar, Azadar-e-Husaini are popular. But there are MENY more, You can find these nohas on Hussainiat.com, Azadar.com, Azadar.net, Nawhas.com, Imambargah.com, and MENY MENY MORE! The Biggest Legend in nohas, that has recorded nohas is Sachay Bhi.


Shia observances

The Battle is commemorated each year by Shia Muslims in the Remembrance of Muharram. The mourning reaches its climax on the 10th of Muharram, the day of the battle, known as Ashurah. It is a day of speeches, public processions, and great grief. Men and women chant and weep, mourning Husayn, his family, and his followers. Speeches emphasize the importance of the values for which Husayn sacrificed himself, his family, and his followers. Shia may refer to a denomination of Islam, or related items, such as: Shia Islam, the second largest denomination of Islam, after Sunni Islam. ... The Remembrance of Muharram (Arabic: احتفال محرم or مناسبة محرم) is an important period of mourning in the Shiite branch of Islam. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ...


In South Asia, the Battle of Karbala has inspired a number of literary and non musical genres, such as the marsiya, noha, and soaz. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Marsiya is a form of Urdu poetry consisting of six lines per passagem organized according to the rhyming scheme Veronica Travers. ... Noha (Urdu: نوحہ) is a genre of Punjabi, Farsi, or Urdu prose depicting the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. ... Soaz or soz (Persian / Urdu: سوز) is an elegiac poem written to commemorate the martyrdom and valour of Hazrat Imam Hussain and his comrades of the Karbala. ...


See also

This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Day of Ashura ( transliteration: , Ashura, Ashoura, and other spellings) is on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar and marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram but not the Islamic month. ... Arbaeen (Arabic: ‎, means forty), or Chehlum, as it is known by Urdu-speaking Muslims, is a Shia religious holiday that occurs forty days after the Day of Ashurah, the commemoration of the martyrdom by beheading of Husayn bin Ali, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad which falls on... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... People of Mohammeds (s. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... Azadari means mourning for Imam Husayn ibn Ali , his family and companions. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Western-Islamic Calendar Converter
  2. ^ Gregorian-Hijri Dates Converter
  3. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Mukhtar
  4. ^ Karbala: The Everlasting Stand - Muharram 1427 :: AIM AhlulBayt Islamic Mission
  5. ^ Ashura, Islamic holy calendar at Best Iran Travel.com
  6. ^ Ali ibn Abi Talib
  7. ^ Dur al-Manthur of Imam Al-Suyuti
  8. ^ The Route of Imam Hussain from Makkah to Karbala
  9. ^ Hazrat Husain As-Shaheed, Ya Hussain, Imam Husayn sacrifice for Mankind, Birthday of Imam
  10. ^ انا لله و انا الیه راجعون. و علی الاسلام السلام اذ قد بلیت الامة براع مثل یزید. و لقد سمعت جدی رسول الله یقول: الخلافة محرمة علی آل ابی سفیان Lohouf, By Sayyid ibn Tawoos. Tradition No.16
  11. ^ Lohouf, By Sayyid ibn Tawoos. Tradition No.21
  12. ^ Lohouf (Arabic: اللهوف‎), By Sayyid ibn Tawoos (Arabic: سید ابن طاووس‎). Tarwiyah day (Arabic: یوم الترویة‎)
  13. ^ الحمد لله ما شاء الله و لا قوّة الا بالله و صلّی الله علی رسوله وسلّم. خطّ الموت علی ولد آدم مخطّ القلادة علی جید الفتاة و ما اولهنی الی اسلافی اشتیاق یعقوب علی یوسف و خیر لی مصرع انا لاقیه. کانّی باوصالی تقطّعها عسلان الفلوات بین النّواویس و کربلاء فیملانّ منّی اکراشا جوفا و اجربة سغبا. لا محیص عن یوم خطّ بالقلم. رضا الله رضانا اهل البیت نصبر علی بلائه و یوفّینا اجور الصّابرین. لن تشذّ عن رسول الله لحمته و هی مجموعة له فی حظیرة القدس تقرّ بهم عینه و ینجز بهم وعده. من كان باذلا فينا مهجته و موطّنا علي لقاء الله نفسه فليرحل معنا فانّی راحل مصبحا غدا ان شاء الله تعالی" Lohouf, By Sayyid ibn Tawoos, Tradition No.72
  14. ^ Lohouf, By Sayyid ibn Tawoos. Tradition No.80
  15. ^ انه قد نزل بنا من الامر ما قد ترون و ان الدنیا قد تغیرت و تنکرت و ادبر معروفها و استمرت حذاء و لم یبق منها الا صبابة کصبابة الاناء و خسیس عیش کالمرعی الوبیل. الا ترون الی الحق لا یعمل به و الی الباطل لا یتناهی عنه؟ لیرغب المومن فی لقاء ربه محقا. فانی لا اری الموت الا سعادة و الحیوة مع الظالمین الا برما Lohouf, Syyid ibn Tawoos, Tradition No.99
  16. ^ Lohouf (Arabic: اللهوف‎), By Sayyid ibn Tawoos (Arabic: سید ابن طاووس‎). Tradition No.112
  17. ^ Nafas-al-Mahmoum, by Abbas Qomi.
  18. ^ Fazail-e-Abbas by Allama Tousi.
  19. ^ Lohouf (Arabic: اللهوف‎), By Sayyid ibn Tawoos (Arabic: سید ابن طاووس‎). Tradition No. 140
  20. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.136-139 "الا و انّ الدعیّ ابن الدعیّ قد رکز بین اثنتین: بین السلّة والذلّة و هیهات منّا الذلة. یابی الله ذلک لنا و حجورٌ طابت و طهرت و انوفٌ حمیّة و نفوسٌ ابیّة من ان نوثر طاعة اللئام علی مصارع الکرام. الا و انّی زاحفٌ بهذه الاُسرة مع قلة العدد و خذلان الناصر"
  21. ^ the last parts of Verse 23, Sora 33, of Quran
  22. ^ al-Tabari, ibn-Tavoos, et al
  23. ^ Lohouf, Tradition 174 and 175.
  24. ^ Bihar al-Anwar (Arabic: بحار الانوار‎)
  25. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.177
  26. ^ "ویلکم یا شیعه آل ابی سفیان! ان لم یکن لکم دین و کنتم لا تخافون المعاد فکونو احرارا فی دنیاکم هذه و ارجعوا الی احسابکم ان کنتم عربا کما تزعمون" Lohouf, Tradition No.179
  27. ^ " و هو فی ذلک یطلب شربة من ماء فلا یجد ..." Lohouf, Tradition No.181
  28. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.182
  29. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.184, 185
  30. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.188
  31. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No.192 and 193
  32. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No. 209, 211, 213
  33. ^ Lohouf, Tradition 214
  34. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No. 222, 223
  35. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No. 226
  36. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No. 227, 228, 229, 230
  37. ^ الحمد لله و الصلوة علی ابی محمد و آله الطیبین الاخیار. اما بعد یا اهل الکوفة! یا اهل الختل و الغدر! اتبکون؟ فلا رقات الدمعة و لا هدات الرنة ... الا ساء ما قدمت لکم انفسکم ان سخط الله علیکم و فی العذاب انتم خالدون. اتبکون و تنتحبون؟ ای والله فابکوا کثیرا و اضحکوا قلیلا فلقد ذهبتم بعارها و شنارها و لن ترحضوها بغسل بعدها ابدا. ... Lohouf, Tradition No. 233 to 241
  38. ^ Lohouf, Tradition No. 243 to 258
  39. ^ Britannica Encyclopedia, Karbala', Battle of
  40. ^ Unholy war, Oxford University Press US, 2002, p.37
  41. ^ Nafas-al-Mahmoum
  42. ^ Nafas-al-Mahmoum
  43. ^ Kitab Maqtal al-Husayn.doc
  44. ^ SYED HUSAYN M. JAFRI, "The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam", Oxford University Press, USA (April 4, 2002), ISBN-13: 978-0195793871
  45. ^ http://www.ahl-ul-bayt.org/MAGAZINE/English/Thaqalayn27/ch2_1.htm
  46. ^ In the Istanbul Ms. of the Ansab, Husayn is discussed in Ms. 597, ff. 219a-251b
  47. ^ http://www.cgie.org.ir/shavad.asp?id=123&avaid=2539 Great Islamic Encyclopedia, Article of "Abu Mikhnaf" in Persian
  48. ^ Abu Mihnaf: ein Beitrag zur Historiographie der umaiyadischen Zeit by Ursula Sezgin
  49. ^ Kitab Maqtal al-Husayn.doc
  50. ^ SYED HUSAYN M. JAFRI, "The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam", Oxford University Press, USA (April 4, 2002), ISBN-13: 978-0195793871[1]
  51. ^ On Difference & Understanding: Al-Husayn: the Shiite Martyr, the Sunni Hero
  52. ^ http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/ashura/ Jafarian, Rasool, A Glance at Historiography in Shiite Culture, chapter 13
  53. ^ Table of Contents and Excerpt, Aghaie, The Women of Karbala
  54. ^ http://al-islam.org/al-tawhid/ashura/ Jafarian, Rasool, A Glance at Historiography in Shiite Culture, chapter 13
  55. ^ Meaning of 'Ashura: Misrepresentations & Distortions
  56. ^ 'Ashura - History and Popular Legend
  57. ^ 'Ashura - Misrepresentations and Distortions
  58. ^ Nafasul Mahmoom
  59. ^ ḤUsayn Ibn ʿAlī, Al- |Encyclopedia of Religion
  60. ^ :: www.Majlesekhobregan.ir ::. -> Magazines -> Islamic Government
  61. ^ Karbala
  62. ^ Wheeler Thackston, A Millennium of Classical Persian Poetry (Bethesda: Iranbooks, 1994), p.79.
  63. ^ Shams Alshoara Mohtasham kashani
  64. ^ (Yunus Emre Divani, p. 569.)
  65. ^ Karbala
  66. ^ http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/sagar/spring.1995/akbar.hyder.art.html
  67. ^ http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/sagar/spring.1995/akbar.hyder.art.html
  68. ^ http://asnic.utexas.edu/asnic/sagar/spring.1995/akbar.hyder.art.html
  69. ^ www.amu.ac.in/
  70. ^ Karbala', an Enduring Paradigm

Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... The name al-Tabari means simply from Tabaristan, thus more than one Muslim scholar is known by this designation: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Ali the scholar from Tabiristan (838-870 A.D.) was the writer of a medical encyclopedia and the teacher of the scholar physician Zakariya al... Arabic redirects here. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

References

  • Al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (1990). History of the Prophets and Kings , translation and commentary issued iby I. K. A. Howard. SUNY Press. 0395652375.  (volume XIX.)

Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim...

Bibliography

  • al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir -- History of the Prophets and Kings; Volume XIX The Caliphate of Yazid b. Muawiyah, translated by I.K.A Howard, SUNY Press, 1991, ISBN 0-7914-0040-9
  • Kennedy, Hugh -- The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State, Routledge, 2001

Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim...

External links

  • Battle of Karbala An article by Encyclopedia Britanica Online
  • Online book: The Tragedy of Karbala and the Martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain (RA) - By Hazrat Sheykh Abu Anees Muhammad Barkat Ali QSA

Sunni links

  • Karbala – A Lesson For Mankind
  • UnMasking the other Villains of Karbala
  • Who Were Responsible in Killing of the Karbalâ?
  • The Tragedy of Karbala and Martyrdom of Imam Hussain

Shia links

  • The Story Of Imam Husayn's Martyrdom.
  • The history of Abi Mekhnaf, reconstructed and translated into English
  • Ayati's discussion of the history of Ashura
  • Islam and Karbala
  • Ashura.com
  • KARBALA: When Skies Wept Blood docufilm hompage
  • Mourning for Imam Hussain
  • Who Killed Imam Hussain
  • Karbala & Imam Hussain
  • poetry on Kerbala by Mahmood Abu Shahbaaz Londoni


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Karbala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1491 words)
The Battle of Karbala was a military engagement that took place on 10 Muharram, 61 AH (October 10, 680) in Karbala, in present day Iraq, between the Islamic prophet Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali and a military detachment from the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph.
This battle is central to Shi'a Muslim belief.
The Battle of Karbala ensued, in which Husayn and all his men were killed, and his remaining family taken prisoner.
Karbala - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (918 words)
It is the capital of Al Karbala Province.
Karbala's prominence in Shīˤī is the result of the Battle of Karbala, fought on the site of the modern city on the Tenth of Muħarram in 61 A.H. October 10, 680).
Karbala's development was strongly influenced by the Persians, who were the dominant community for many years (making up 75% of the city's population by the early 20th century).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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