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Encyclopedia > Battle of Kapyong
Battle of the Kapyong
Part of Korean War
Date April 22, 1951 to April 25, 1951
Location Gapyeong County, South Korea
Result Decisive United Nations victory
Combatants
United Nations
Australia
Canada
China
Casualties
43 killed
87 Wounded
3 Captured
1,000+ Killed
Korean War
OsanPusan PerimeterInchonPakchonChosin ReservoirFaithTwin TunnelsRipperCourageousTomahawkYultong BridgeImjin RiverKapyongBloody RidgeHeartbreak RidgeSunchonHill Eerie – Sui-ho Dam – Old BaldyThe HookPork Chop HillOutpost Harry

The Battle of Kapyong was waged during the Korean War. The battle began on April 22 and lasted until April 25, 1951. The Chinese People's Liberation Army assaulted positions held by United Nations (UN) forces from Australia and Canada. Although they were outumbered by a factor of at least five to one, the UN units prevailed. Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... Gapyeong County is a county in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... This battle was the first egagement between US and North Korean forces during the Korean War. ... The Battle of Pusan Perimeter was fought in August and September of 1950 between United Nations forces combined with South Korean forces and the forces of North Korea. ... Combatants UN forces: United States; United Kingdom; South Korea; Canada; Australia; Netherlands; France North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Jeong Il-Gwon Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun Strength 40,000[1]  ? Casualties 566 killed 2,713 wounded 14,000 casualties[2] 7,000 captured[2] The Battle... Combatants United Nations * Australia * United Kingdom * United States * Democratic People’s Republic of Korea * People’s Republic of China Strength 27th Commonwealth Brigade *1st Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders *3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment *Middlesex Regiment Casualties Australia KIA: 14 WIA: 32 The Battle of Pakchon was a battle in... Combatants Peoples Republic of China United Nations forces; including United States Commanders Song Shi-Lun Oliver Smith Strength 120,000 40,000 Casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frost-bite casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 cold related injuries The Battle... Task Force Faith (also referred to as Task Force MacLean/Faith, or its official designation, the 31st Regimental Combat Team) was a U.S. Army unit destroyed in fighting at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War between November 27 and December 2, 1950. ... The Battle of the Twin Tunnels took place during the Korean War. ... Operation Ripper was a military operation which was planned to repel the Chinese and North Korean troops from Seoul and to bring UN troops to the 38th Parallel. ... Combatants US Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea Operation Courageous was designed to trap large numbers of Chinese and North Korean troops between the Han River (Korea) and Imjin Rivers north of Seoul, opposite the South Korean I Corps. ... Operation Tomahawk was an airborne military operation by the 187th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) in March 1951 at Munsan-ni as part of Operation Courageous in the Korean War. ... The Battle of Yultong Bridge was a minor battle against the Great Spring Offensive fought in the Korean War, against the United Nations Command. ... The Battle of the Imjin took place between April 22 – April 25, 1951 during the Korean War. ... The Battle of Bloody Ridge took place during the Korean War from August 18th to September 5th, 1951. ... The Battle of Heartbreak Ridge was a month long battle in the Korean War. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Battle of Hill Eerie refers to several Korean War engagements between the United Nations forces and the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) in 1952 at the infamous of Hill Eerie. ... Combatants Korean Peoples Army Soviet Air Force United Nations Command Far East Air Forces Task Force 77 Commanders unknown Lt. ... Combatants U.S. 45th Infantry Division U.S. 2nd Infantry Division Chinese Peoples Volunteers The Battle of Old Baldy usually refers to a series of five engagements over a period of 10 months for Hill 266 in west-central Korea, though there was also vicous fighting both before and... The Hook During the 1951-1953 Korean War, elements of the United Nations Forces were engaged in fierce fighting to prevent Chinese forces from gaining ground, prior to a possible cease fire. ... The Battle of Pork Chop Hill refers to a pair of related Korean War engagements during the spring and summer of 1953. ... Combatants 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division Regimental Combat Team 5 Company P, Greek Expeditionary Forces Battalion Chinese Peoples Volunteers Outpost Harry was located in what was commonly referred to as the Iron Triangle in Korea. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Simplified Chinese: 中国人民解放军; Traditional Chinese: 中國人民解放軍; pinyin: // Organization Within the PRC government, the PLA maintains a semi-autonomous existence. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...

Contents

Background

In April 1951, the CPLA launched its Fifth Phase Offensive, also known as the Chinese Spring Offensive. This was a major effort, involving three field Armies (up to 700,000 men). The main blow fell on US I Corps, but fierce resistance in battles at the Imjin river and Kapyong, blunted its impetus, and the Chinese were halted at a defensive line north of Seoul known as the "No-Name Line". Unit crest of the United States Army I Corps, Americas Corps. ... The Battle of the Imjin took place between April 22 – April 25, 1951 during the Korean War. ...


The objective

The Chinese Spring Offensive began on the evening of April 22, 1951 with the objective of recapturing Seoul. The UN positions were initially overrun by the People's 118th Brigade of the People's Volunteer Army, which, with vast superiority in numbers, attacked on a broad front. The defense mounted by the 27th Commonwealth Brigade ultimately halted the advance on Seoul and thwarted the plan of the communist forces to recapture the city [1]. The Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA) (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a volunteer army deployed by the Chinese government during the Korean War. ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ...


Opening of the battle

Under heavy pressure all along the front, the Korean 6th Division broke. A large number of South Koreans and Americans were forced to retreat in disarray through a gap in the line held by the Australians. The mission of the men of the 27th Commonwealth Brigade was to block the two approaches to Kapyong. In only a few hours, they managed to prepare defensive positions. Gapyeong County is a county in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. ...


The main engagements

The attack, led by the Chinese 118th Division, engaged the two forward battalions on the evening of 23 April. In the early part of the battle the 1st Battalion of the British Middlesex Regiment and the 16th Field Regiment of the Royal New Zealand Artillery were all but cut off. The resistance of forward positions, held by the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI) and the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3RAR), permitted the 1st Battalion, Middlesex Regiment to withdraw. It moved into place to provide a reserve. Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) is an infantry regiment in the Canadian Forces (CF), belonging to 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group (1 CMBG). ... Soldiers from 3 RAR during an exercise in 2004. ... The Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambriges Own) was regiment of the British Army . ...


The initial Chinese attack at Kapyong engaged 3RAR on Hill 504. The Chinese then struck at the Canadian front. Wave after wave of massed Chinese troops kept up the attack throughout the night of 23 April. After a night of fierce fighting Major Bernard O'Dowd, Officer Commanding, Alpha Company, 3 RAR, managed to get through on a radio phone to a general of the 1st U.S. Marine Division. The general was incredulous, thinking it was an enemy agent speaking. He told Major O'Dowd that the unit no longer existed, that it had been wiped out the night before. Major O'Dowd replied “I've got news for you, we are still here and we are staying here.”[citation needed] A radiotelephone is a communications device that allows two or more people to talk using radio. ... The United States Football team sometimes know as Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military, within the United States Department of the Navy responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ...


The Chinese had managed to infiltrate the brigade position by the morning of April 23. This resulted in 2 PPCLI being completely surrounded. Captain Mills, in command of D Company, 2 PPCLI, was forced to call down artillery fire on his own positions on Hill 677 several times during that night to avoid being overrun. It had to be resupplied by air drops during this desperate time. The Australians and Canadians were facing the whole of the Chinese 118th Division. Throughout April 24 the battle was unrelenting. It devolved, on both fronts, into hand-to-hand combat with bayonet charges. This was some of the bloodiest and most ferocious hand-to-hand fighting of the Korean War.[citation needed] The Australians, also facing encirclement, were ordered to make an orderly fall back to new defensive positions late in the day of April 24. The Canadians defended their position until eventually the Chinese assault collapsed. By the afternoon of 25 April the road through to the Canadians had been cleared of Chinese at which time the 2nd Battalion was relieved. Artillery with Gabion fortification Cannons on display at Fort Point Continental Artillery crew from the American Revolution Firing of an 18-pound gun, Louis-Philippe Crepin, (1772 – 1851) A forge-welded Iron Cannon in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu. ...


The 16th Field Regiment, Royal New Zealand Artillery, also managed to withdraw and link up with the US Army's 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion. These units provided close heavy gun support. Cap badge of the RNZA The Royal New Zealand Artillery forms the artillery section of the New Zealand Army. ... The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Also, during the withdrawal of the Australians, 4 men from B Company, 3RAR, formed a rearguard to hold off any flanking attacks. The 4 Australians held off 3 waves of Chinese soldiers, killing at least 25 and wounding many more. For this, they were awarded American service medals.


Aftermath

U.S. General James Van Fleet inspects members of 3 RAR after awarding a Presidential Unit Citation to the Battalion in December 1952
U.S. General James Van Fleet inspects members of 3 RAR after awarding a Presidential Unit Citation to the Battalion in December 1952

Despite their enormous advantage in numbers the Chinese troops had been badly outgunned. Their courage and tenacity could not overcome the well-trained, well-disciplined and well-armed Australians and Canadians.[2] The battlefield was littered with the corpses of Chinese soldiers, a testament to the discipline and firepower of the defenders. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... James Alward Van Fleet (March 19, 1892 - September 23, 1992) was a U.S. Army general during World War II and the Korean War. ...


Australian losses were 31 killed, 59 wounded and 3 captured; Canadian losses were 10 killed and 23 wounded; New Zealanders had 2 killed and 5 wounded. The Chinese losses are estimated at over 1,000 killed and an unknown number of wounded.[citation needed]


For their brilliant conduct of this engagement, Lieutenant-Colonel Bruce Ferguson of Australia and Lieutenant-Colonel James R. Stone of Canada were each awarded the Distinguished Service Order. For Stone, it was the second bar to the DSO he had first won at the Battle of Ortona in Italy in 1943. DSO medal The Distinguished Service Order (DSO) is a military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries, awarded for meritorious or distinguished service by officers of the armed forces during wartime, typically in actual combat. ... Combatants 2nd Canadian Infantry Brigade 3rd battalion, 3rd Regt, German 1st Parachute Division Commanders Major General Chris Vokes Generalleutnant Richard Heidrich Strength  ?  ? Casualties Canadian 275+[1] German 450+ [2] The Battle of Ortona (December 20, 1943 to December 27, 1943) was a small yet extremely fierce battle fought between German...


Three units, 2 PPCLI, 3RAR and "A" Company of the 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion, United States Army were awarded the United States Distinguished Unit Citation for their actions during the Battle of Kapyong. The United States Army is one of the armed forces of the United States and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Please see Presidential Unit Citation for other versions of this award The Presidential Unit Citation is awarded to units of the Armed Forces of the United States and allies for extraordinary heroism in action against an armed enemy on or after 7 December 1941 (the date of the Attack on...


Related Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Kapyong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (919 words)
The Battle of Kapyong was waged during the Korean War.
In the early part of the battle the 1st Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment and the 16th Field Regiment of the Royal New Zealand Artillery were all but cut off.
The forward positions, held by the 2nd Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) and the 3rd Battalion the Royal Australian Regiment, by force of arms permitted the 1st Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment to withdraw.
Battle of Heartbreak Ridge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (514 words)
The Battle of Heartbreak Ridge was a month-long battle in the Korean War.
It was fought between September 13 and October 15, 1951, in the hills of North Korea a few miles north of the 38th parallel (the prewar boundary between North and South Korea), near Chorwon.
This battle marked a continuation of the Battle of Bloody Ridge, as U.N. and communist forces jockeyed for position along a line running roughly east-west across the middle of the Korean peninsula after the war became stalemated in the summer of 1951.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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