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Encyclopedia > Battle of Jerusalem (1917)
Battle of Jerusalem
Part of World War I

Date: December 826, 1917
Location: Jerusalem, Palestine
Result: Allied victory
Casus belli: {{{casus}}}
Territory changes: {{{territory}}}
Combatants
United Kingdom
Australia
New Zealand
Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Edmund Allenby Erich von Falkenhayn
Strength
Egyption Expeditionary Force Seventh Army
Casualties
18,000
(for entire campaign)
25,000
(for entire cmpaign)
{{{notes}}}
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
SuezRomaniMagdhabaRafa1st Gaza2nd Gaza3rd GazaBeershebaJerusalemMegiddo

The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917. On December 11, Edmund Allenby entered the city on foot out of respect for the Holy City, becaming the first Christian to rule the city in decades. Introduction World War I is infamous for the protracted stalemate of trench warfare along the Western Front, embodied within a system of opposing manned trenches and fortifications (separated by a No mans land) running from the North Sea to the border of Switzerland. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds; (alternative Arabic found in Bible translations: أُورْشَلِيم Urshalim)) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... A number of nations have a Seventh Army: French Seventh Army German Seventh Army Russian Seventh Army Turkish Seventh Army U.S. Seventh Army This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sinai and Palestine Campaign during World War I: Sinai campaign Battle of Romani Battle of Magdhaba Battle of Rafa Palestine campaign First Battle of Gaza Second Battle of Gaza Third Battle of Gaza Battle of Beersheba Battle of Megiddo Categories: Battles of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign ... The first Suez Offence was an offence in 1915 in World War One. ... Battle of Romani Conflict First World War Date 3– 5 August 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Egypt Result Allied victory The Battle of Romani took place near the Egyptian town of Romani which lies 23 miles east of the Suez Canal near the Mediterranean shore of the Sinai peninsula. ... Battle of Magdhaba Conflict First World War Date 23 December 1916 Place Sinai peninsula, Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Gen. ... Battle of Rafa Conflict First World War Date 9 January 1917 Place Rafa, Sinai-Australia, New Zealand Ottoman Empire Commanders Philip Chetwode Unknown Strength 5 mounted brigades 2,000 Casualties 71 killed 415 wounded 200 killed 168 wounded 1,434 prisoners The Battle of Rafa was a World War I... First Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 26 March 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. ... Second Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 19 April 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Turkish victory The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by the British to break the Turkish defences along the Gaza-Beersheba line. ... Third Battle of Gaza Conflict First World War Date 31 October–7 November 1917 Place Gaza, southern Palestine Result Allied victory The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. The British forces under the command of General Edmund Allenby successfully broke the... The Battle of Beersheba took place on October 31, 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Australian 4th Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, charged more than four miles at the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells at Beersheba. ... Battle of Megiddo Conflict First World War Date September 19-21, 1918 Place Megiddo, Palestine Result British victory The Battle of Megiddo of September 19-21, 1918, was an important milestone in British General Edmund Allenbys conquest of Palestine during World War I. His forces made a massive push... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds; (alternative Arabic found in Bible translations: أُورْشَلِيم Urshalim)) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Christianity is a monotheistic religion centered on the life, teachings, and actions of Jesus as recounted in the New Testament. ...

Contents


Background

The Egyptian Expeditionary Force had won the decisive Battle of Gaza in November under the newly appointed Commander-in-Chief of Palestine, Edmund Allenby. Allenby moved on and again defeated the Turks at the Battle of Mughar Ridge in the middle of November. Now the British were moving on Jerusalem. Allenby had his left flank secured at Jaffa and his right flank moving through the Hills of Judea. Erich von Falkenhayn, commander of the Turkish forces in Palestine had recently received reinforcements and was quickly planning to launch a counter offensive against Allenby. Both sides had been instructed to avoid fighting in or near the Holy City. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Several battles have been fought near Gaza in Palestine: The Battle of Gaza (312 BC) was fought between Ptolemy I of Egypt and Demetrius I of Macedon The Battle of Raphia in 217 BC, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was fought between Ptolemy IV of Egypt and Antiochus... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby ( April 23, 1861 - May 14, 1936) was a British soldier most famous for his role during World War I, in which he led the Egyptian Expeditionary Force in the conquest of Palestine and Syria in 1917 and 1918. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Desert hills in southern Judea, looking east from the town of Arad Judea or Judaea (יהודה Praise, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) (Greek: Ιουδαία) is a term used for the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael), an area now divided between Israel and the West Bank, and... Erich von Falkenhayn Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn (11 November 1861 - 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during World War I. Falkenhayn was a career soldier. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Jerusalem (31°46′N 35°14′E; Hebrew: (help· info) Yerushalayim; Arabic: (help· info) al-Quds; (alternative Arabic found in Bible translations: أُورْشَلِيم Urshalim)) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meter. ...


The Fall of Jerusalem

Falkenhayn immediately launched a series of attacks against Allenby's lines. On Allenby regrouped his forces and sent the XX Corps, under Philip Chetwode to capture the city. Chetwode's attack, on 8 December took the heights to the west of Jerusalem and a second attack south of Bethlehem. The Turkish counter attacks had failed and the city fell the British the following day. The British XX Corps was a World War I army corps that was formed in Palestine in 1917. ... Philip Walhouse Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode (21 September 1869–1950) was a British cavalry officer during World War I. He served on the Western Front in smaller cavalry commands receiving little distinction. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Church of the Nativity, a Bethlehem Landmark Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم (help· info) house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem) (Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank and a hub of Palestinian cultural and...


Allenby's Entry

Depiction of Richard I overlooking Jerusalem, in Punch Magazine, December 1917.
Enlarge
Depiction of Richard I overlooking Jerusalem, in Punch Magazine, December 1917.

Allenby was an accomplished horseman and it would have made sense for him to ride triumphantly into the city. However on 11 December Allenby entered on foot out of his great respect for the Holy City. Allenby placed the city under martial law, and posted guards at several points within the city and in Bethlehem to protect sites held sacred by the Christian, Muslim and Jewish religions. In Britain, the capture of the city was seen as a fulfillment of the medieval crusades. Punch Magazine published a cartoon of Richard Lionheart saying "at last my dream come true." Illustration from Punch magazine in December, 1917, showing Richard I of England overlooking Jerusalem. ... Illustration from Punch magazine in December, 1917, showing Richard I of England overlooking Jerusalem. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Martial law is the system of rules that takes effect (usually after a formal declaration) when a military authority takes control of the normal administration of justice. ... As a noun, Christian is an appellation and moniker deriving from the appellation Christ, which many people associate exclusively with Jesus of Nazareth. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... Richard I (September 8, 1157 – April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ...


Turkish Counter Attack

The fall of the city and the failure of Falkenhayn's initial attacks greatly lowered the Turkish morale. Sporadic fighting continued in the hills surrounding Jerusalem. The Turkish forces were being reinforced by Yilderim. These forces had arriving on the field piecemeal but by now they were fully on the field. On Christmas Day Falkenhayn launched another counter assault. The British forces repulsed the attack inflicting heavy losses. Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


Results

The Battle of Jerusalem was a greatly welcomed victory for the Allied forces. Allied forces were faced with stalemate on the Western Front at Cambrai, the Italians were defeated at the Battle of Caporetto and Russia was effectively out of the war with the Bolshevik Revolution. The fall of Jerusalem offered the Allied nations much relief from these setbacks. Campaigns in Mesopotamia were cancelled to send reinforcements to Allenby. The Turks lost control over central Palestine and the following year were completely driven from the region after the Battle of Megiddo. Western Front was a term used during the First and Second World Wars to describe the contested armed frontier between lands controlled by Germany to the East and the Allies to the West. ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Newfoundland German Empire Commanders Julian Byng Georg von der Marwitz Strength 2 Corps 1 Corps Casualties 45,000 killed 9,000 prisoners 100 tanks destroyed 45,000 killed 11,000 prisoners The Battle of Cambrai (November 20 - December 3, 1917) was a... The Battle of Caporetto (or Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 9 November 1917, near Kobarid (now Slovenia) on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. Austro-Hungarian forces, reinforced by German units, were able to break into... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... Battle of Megiddo Conflict First World War Date September 19-21, 1918 Place Megiddo, Palestine Result British victory The Battle of Megiddo of September 19-21, 1918, was an important milestone in British General Edmund Allenbys conquest of Palestine during World War I. His forces made a massive push...


Sources

  • First World War.com: The Fall of Jerusalem, 1917
  • Tucker, Spencer The Great War: 1914-18 (1998)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Jerusalem (1917) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (585 words)
The Battle of Jerusalem resulted in the city of Jerusalem falling to British forces in December 1917.
Allenby moved on and again defeated the Turks at the Battle of Mughar Ridge in the middle of November.
Chetwode's attack, on 8 December took the heights to the west of Jerusalem and a second attack south of Bethlehem.
Jerusalem (5187 words)
Jerusalem is more than just a physical grouping of stone buildings and ancient walls spreading out over the Judean hills: it is the Holy City, symbol of universal peace and redemption for over 3,000 years.
Jerusalem is really a city made up of individual communities, each built on a hill or cluster of hills and separated from neighboring areas by valleys or rocky slopes.
Jerusalem's rich history and religious significance have attracted many archaeologists seeking relics of the past and a clearer picture of the life and times of the early inhabitants.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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