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Encyclopedia > Battle of Jenin 2002

The Battle of Jenin took place in April 2002 in Jenin's Palestinian refugee camp as part of Operation Defensive Shield, a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), the largest conducted in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. According to the IDF, Operation Defensive Shield was launched as a counter-terrorist offensive. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Jenin (Arabic: , Hebrew: גנין), a city on the West Bank, is a major Palestinian agricultural center. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... Operation Defensive Shield (In Hebrew, מבצע חומת מגן) was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israeli Defence Forces in April 2002. ... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan 55... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... Offensive may relate to In sports or combat, the team which is attacking, pitching or moving forwards In language or morals, terms and concepts which are unacceptable to some people, such as swearing and profanity. ...


The battle attracted widespread international attention because journalists, particularly in the UK, falsely reported that a massacre of Palestinians had taken place during the fighting, and that hundreds, or even thousands, of bodies had been secretly buried in mass graves by the IDF, allegations that were later shown to be baseless. [1] The word massacre has a number of meanings, but most commonly refers to individual events of deliberate and direct mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents, that would often qualify as war crimes or atrocities. ... Grave in Sarajevo during the siege in 1992-1993. ...


The United Nations (UN) report said that the number of Palestinians killed was at least 52, [2] 22 of whom were civilians, according to Human Rights Watch (HRW). [3] 23 Israeli soldiers were killed. [4] A section of the camp was destroyed during the fighting. United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a U.S.-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research on human rights. ...

Contents


Precursors to the battle of Jenin

The second largest refugee camp in the West Bank, and lying close to Israeli settlements and the green line, the Jenin camp had come under Palestinian civil and security control in 1995. According to Israeli and Palestinian observers who gave information to the UN, 200 armed men from the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Tanzim, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, and Hamas had been using the camp as a base, and of the 100 suicide bombers who had launched attacks since the intifada began in October 2000, 23 [5] or 28 [6] attacks had been launched from the Jenin camp. [7] The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... Tanzim (Organization in Arabic) is a faction of the Palestinian al-Fatah movement. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


From the beginning of March until the first week in May 2002, there were approximately 16 bombings in Israel, mostly suicide attacks. More than 100 persons were killed and scores wounded. 18 Israelis were killed in two separate Palestinian attacks on March 8 and March 9, and a terrorist attack in Netanya killed 28 and injured 140 on March 29. [8] March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (89th in Leap years). ...


When Jenin came under Palestinian Authority control in 1995 per the Oslo Accords, it was under an agreement to protect Israeli civilians from attacks, including suicide bombings, emanating from areas under its security control. The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Oslo Accords, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or Declaration of Principles (DOP), were finalized in Oslo, Norway on August 20, 1993, and subsequently officially signed at a public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993, with Mahmoud Abbas signing for the... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


The Battle

An UNRWA administrated refugee camp near Jenin was entered by Israeli forces in early April 2002, as part of Israel's Operation Defensive Shield, an operation the IDF described as intending "to dismantle the terrorist infrastructure operating out of the P.A.-controlled areas". Over the next few days a battle took place between the IDF and Palestinians. At that time, media reports were conflicting as to the nature of the conflict. The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) was established to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Terrorism refers to a strategy of using violence, or threat of violence, to generate fear, cause disruption, and ultimately, to bring about compliance with specific political, religious, ideological, or personal demands[1]. The targets of terrorist attacks typically are not the individuals who are killed, injured, or taken hostage, but... US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ...


According to the IDF, Israel chose not to bomb the spots of resistance using aircraft as it entered, in order to minimize civilian losses [9], but rather to take hold of the city using infantry, although there appears to have been a limited use of helicopters[10][11]. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. An infantry is a body of soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other... Mil (Russian Federation) Mi-8, by far the most common model of helicopter in the world with more than 12 thousand units built, sixfold quantity comparing to production of the second most common model Sikorsky S-70. ...


According to a CNN report [12] Palestinian Islamic Jihad militant Tabaat Mardawi, told CNN enthusiastically from his prison in Israel, that -- after learning the IDF was going to use troops, and not planes -- "It was like hunting ... like being given a prize. I've been waiting for a moment like that for years." The Cable News Network, usually referred to as CNN, is a cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ...


Mardawi told CNN that Palestinian fighters had spread "between 1000 and 2000 bombs and booby traps" throughout the camp. [13]. Time Magazine said that "some of the bombs were huge – as much as 250 lb. of explosives...compared with the usual 25 lb. a suicide bomber uses." A total of 23 Israeli soldiers were killed in the street fighting. 13 died in a single day (April 9), when Palestinian fighters lured the IDF into a trap. [14] This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ...


Change in Israeli tactics

After the April 9 ambush, the IDF changed tactics, presumably in order to continue the operation without risking more Israeli deaths, and began operating the heavily-armored IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozers. Earlier, the IDF maintained that heavy bulldozers were mainly used to clear booby traps and open routes to armored fighting vehicles. After April 9, the bulldozers demolished each house that was allegedly used by the militants to attack Israeli soldiers, and other houses to widen alleyways or to secure locations for IDF troops. An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... Alternative meanings: vehicle armour, Armor (novel) A hoplite wearing a helmet, a breastplate and greaves (and nothing else). ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor (commonly referred to as a bulldozer) with caterpillar tracks designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. ... A bulldozer is a powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ... This article is about an antipersonnel trap designed for use against humans. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ...


The Israelis insist a warning was given over a loud speaker before each of the houses were destroyed. Some Palestinians claim that there were cases when the IDF bulldozed houses while there were people inside. During this phase of the battle senior Palestinian militants (which Israel considers terrorists due to their involvement in dozens of suicide attacks against Israeli civilians) were killed (such as Mahmoud Tawallbe) and arrested (Ali Sefuri and Thabet Mardawi). Mahmoud Tawallbe was the head of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad in Jenin, one of the main stronghold of the Iranian-sponsored terrorist organization. ...


After the battle

The introduction of the heavily armored bulldozers, which shrugged off explosives and RPGs alike [15], and the threat of being buried alive, caused the Palestinian militants to surrender. Later, IDF forces withdrew gradually from the refugee camp under international pressure. A Rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapon capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...


After the conflict Israeli reports claim that 8-9% of the houses within the refugee camp were destroyed. This was largely within an area of intense fighting of approximately 100 m by 100 m according to the IDF. [16]. An area within the refugee camp, 100 m by 200 m according to some (up to 400 m by 500 m by other estimates [17]) was reported to have been flattened. [18]


Most of the demolition occurred in the Hawashin neighborhood, where most of the militants and explosives remained. Israel states that it demolished those houses because they were densely rigged with explosives.


In October 2002, according to the Walla news agency, Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas websites reported that their forces in Jenin before the Israeli entry included 250 armed militants. The official Kol Yisrael radio station reported that 15,000 explosive charges were at the militants' disposal, as well as a large number of handguns. The militants were well organized and had an extensive system of communications. Walla also mentioned sources who claimed that Palestinians youngsters contributed to the fighting, sometimes even carrying explosive charges in their schoolbags. Kol Yisrael (The Voice of Israel) is the name of Israels public domestic and international radio service. ...


Time Magazine also wrote about the heavily wired (booby-trapped) refugee camp. It stated, for example, that on the outskirts of Jenin, an IDF armoured Caterpillar D9 detonated 124 explosive charges. Time also reported that an unnamed "senior Palestinian military officer" told them that it was probably the gunmen's own booby traps that [had] buried some civilians and fighters alive. [19] (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... An armored Caterpillar D9 bulldozer used by the IDF. Armored bulldozers are a standard tool of combat engineering battalions, and the Israeli Defence Forces has gained notoriety for their use of armored bulldozers for urban warfare in the Al-Aqsa Intifada. ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor (commonly referred to as a bulldozer) with caterpillar tracks designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Tractor Company. ...


Al-Ahram Online [20] has an interview with "Omar the Engineer", a Palestinian bombmaker who claims that some 50 homes were booby trapped. "We chose old and empty buildings and the houses of men who were wanted by Israel because we knew the soldiers would search for them," he said.


According to Israeli authorities, numerous buildings, passages and even bodies were booby-trapped, often prompting Israelis to use armored bulldozers to level sections of the city. The Israelis also claimed to have found more than a dozen explosives-making labs, as well as the bodies of foreign citizens, most of whom were operatives of Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement who had been brought over from Jordan. Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) (August 4, 1929 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born in Cairo, Egypt, Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004); President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA... Fatah (Arabic: فتح); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. ...


Allegations of a Massacre

Rumors of massacres in Jenin swirled through Palestinian communities which were then echoed in the world press for several weeks, pitting world public opinion against Israel. [21] This was not helped as Israeli authorities prevented the international press from entering the refugee camp for two weeks.


Later inquiries by human rights groups and the UN commission did not find evidence of massacres by Israeli forces in Jenin. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


Inflated body counts

Both sides had inflated, or made overly cautious estimates of the number of dead in the refugee camp at the time. The Palestinian Authority did not provide an official count until around two weeks after fighting ended, although unofficial accounts perpetrated much of the inflation detailed before. Analysing the news reports finds a timeline of the inflated estimates which explain the reason for the hysteria caused in much of the world media (note that the following numbers include both civilians and armed combatants unless specifically stated otherwise):

  • Fighting begins
  • The Arab League hears in a speech where Nabil Shaath compares "Israeli actions in the West Bank towns of Jenin and Nablus to the 1982 massacres of hundreds of Palestinans"[22], probably referring to Israel's part in the Sabra and Shatila Massacre where possibly up to 3500 Palestinian refugees were killed
  • Saeb Erekat, a Palestinian minister for Local Government is quoted in the Washington Post making the first allegation of a massacre [23]
  • NBC news hears from Abdel Rahman that "over 250 Palestinians killed" [24]
  • Fighting ends
  • IDF spokesman Brigadier-General Ron Kitrey reports on Israeli Army Radio that there are apparently hundreds killed, the IDF quickly clarify he meant hundreds of casualties (killed or injured).[27]
  • An IDF source reportedly puts the number of dead at 250[28]
  • Palestinian Information Minister, Yasser Abed Rabbo, accuses Israel of digging mass graves for 900 Palestinians in the camp, whilst Secretary-General of the Palestinian Authority, Ahmed Abdel Rahman claimed that "thousands" had died, the most serious accusations of the episode
  • After the IDF reportedly estimate 250[29], and 188[30] a final figure of 45 is given[31]
  • Kadoura Mousa Kadoura, the director of Yasser Arafat's Fatah movement for the northern West Bank set the total dead to 56

Further investigation by the United Nations and international reporters found that 52 Palestinians were killed in the operation, 22 of whom were civilians. [32] April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... Flag of the League of Arab States The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية), is an organization of Arab states (compare Arab world). ... Nabil Shaath (also spelled Shaath, born 1938), a senior Palestinian official, has held the following titles: Palestinian chief negotiator Palestinian cabinet minister Palestinian International Co-operation Minister Planning Minister for the Palestinian National Authority Acting Prime Minister of the PNA Shaath served as Palestines first ever foreign minister... Combatants Lebanese Phalangist Palestinian refugees Commanders Elie Hobeika Strength 150 irregulars Casualties 2 700-3500 Palestinian refugees massacred, 1982. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Saeb Erakat (Sa’ib Muhammad Salih ‘Urayqat; born 1955) was the chief of the PLO Steering and Monitoring Committee, from which he negotiated with Israel regarding the Oslo Accords from 1995 until his resignation in protest from the Palestinian government, in May 2003. ... ... NBC, (Formerly an acronym for the National Broadcasting Company until 2004), is an American television and radio network based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Saeb Erakat (Sa’ib Muhammad Salih ‘Urayqat; born 1955) was the chief of the PLO Steering and Monitoring Committee, from which he negotiated with Israel regarding the Oslo Accords from 1995 until his resignation in protest from the Palestinian government, in May 2003. ... Operation Defensive Shield (In Hebrew, מבצע חומת מגן) was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israeli Defence Forces in April 2002. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Yasser Abd Rabbo (Abu Bashar) is a Palestinian politician (b. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Fatah (Arabic: فتح); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a multi-party confederation. ...


Post-fighting investigations

Massacres refer not only to the numbers killed, but also to the method used.


In an article about the battle in Jenin, Time Magazine ruled out Palestinian allegations of massacre, writing that: (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

A Time investigation concludes that there was no wanton massacre in Jenin, no deliberate slaughter of Palestinians by Israeli soldiers. But the 12 days of fighting took a severe toll on the camp. [33]

As of 2006, this view is widely supported by the international community. 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 2, IDF filmed adult Palestinians carrying out a mock funeral procession. The funeral was fake and the "body" was able to get up and walk. The tape was shown in the documentary The Road to Jenin by Pierre Rehov. On May 8, 2002, The Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment issued a press release [34] stating that it was only Palestinian children playing "funeral". Israeli groups reject this claim outright. May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Pierre Rehov (1952-) is the pseudonym of a French Jewish film maker, most known for his six movies combating anti-Israeli propaganda. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ...


Human Rights Reports

In late April and on May 3, 2002, the UN, Amnesty International and HRW released reports about the Israeli military incursions into Jenin. The reports documented that approximately 30 Palestinian militants, 22 Palestinian civilians, and 23 Israeli soldiers were killed in the fighting and thus felt no evidence that a massacre took place. May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... Amnesty International logo Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international, non-governmental organization with the stated purpose of promoting all the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international standards. ...


UN report

Fifty-two Palestinian deaths had been confirmed by the hospital in Jenin by the end of May 2002. IDF also places the death toll at approximately 52. A senior Palestinian Authority official alleged in mid-April that some 500 were killed, a figure that has not been substantiated in the light of the evidence that has emerged. Article (56).
UN Report was strongly criticized by Human Rights Watch as "flawed" for not having any first-hand evidence and failing to address serious questions[35].

Human Rights Watch report

The HRW report found "no evidence to sustain claims of massacres or large-scale extrajudicial executions by the IDF". The report agreed with the total casualty figures provided by the IDF but documented a higher proportion of civilian casualties. Amnesty International concurred. The HRW report documented instances of unlawful or willful killing by the IDF, some of which could have been avoided if proper procedures were followed, as well as instances of summary executions. It also documented use of Palestinians as 'human shields', by the IDF, and prevention of humanitarian organizations from accessing the camp despite the great need. The report concluded: Human shield is a military term describing the use of civilians to deter an enemy from attacking certain targets—in particular military targets. ...

Israeli forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law, some amounting prima facie to war crimes. Human Rights Watch found no evidence to sustain claims of massacres or large-scale extrajudicial executions by the IDF in Jenin refugee camp. Ultimately, Human Rights Watch verified the deaths of 52 Palestinians, of whom it concluded that 27 were suspected to be armed combatants, 22 were civilians, and the status of the remaining 3 could not be determined.[36] International Humanitarian Law (IHL), also known as the law of war, the laws and customs of war or the law of armed conflict, is the legal corpus comprised of the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Regulations, as well as subsequent treaties, case law, and customary international law. ... Prima facie (PRY-muh-FAY-shee; -shuh) is a Latin expression meaning at first sight, used in common law jurisdictions to denote evidence that is sufficient, if not rebutted, to prove a particular proposition of fact. ...

While focusing mainly on the actions of the IDF, the report also stated that:

Palestinian gunmen did endanger Palestinian civilians in the camp by using it as a base for planning and launching attacks, using indiscriminate tactics such as planting improvised explosive devices within the camp, and intermingling with the civilian population during armed conflict, and, in some cases, to avoid apprehension by Israeli forces.

The report notes that:

The presence of armed Palestinian militants inside Jenin refugee camp, and the preparations made by those armed Palestinian militants in anticipation of the IDF incursion, does not detract from the IDF's obligation under international humanitarian law to take all feasible precautions to avoid harm to civilians ... Unfortunately, these obligations were not met.

Amnesty International report

Unlawful killings violate the "right to life" laid down in Article 6 of the ICCPR. Amnesty International considers that some of these abuses of the right to life would amount to "willful killings" and "willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health" within the meaning of Article 147 of the Fourth Geneva Convention dealing with grave breaches of the Convention; "grave breaches" of the Geneva Convention are war crimes. -[37].

Notes on the independent reports

Israeli critics pointed out that the inquiries included no urban or counter-terrorist warfare specialists and therefore they believe that the investigators were unable to assess the justifiability of the IDF actions. Israel claimed that humanitarian organizations were rash to jump to conclusions about Israeli conduct without investigating thoroughly the conduct of the Palestinian guerrilla forces in the area. Moreover, Israel complained that although terrorists are civilians by definition, they are still combatants, which made their status different from that of the unarmed civilians. Finally, the human rights groups had not investigated the incidents in which ambulances of the Palestinian Red Crescent and equipment of other aid agencies were allegedly being used by Palestinian militants to transport weapons and combatants, thus voiding their nonbelligerent status as defined in the Geneva Convention. A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict who upon capture qualifies for prisoner of war under the Third Geneva Convention (GCIII). ... An ambulance is a vehicle designated for the transport of sick or injured people. ... The terms Red Cross and Red Crescent are often used as short names for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or its two leading international organs, the ICRC and the IFRCS. This page is about the symbol itself, see respective articles for information about the organizations and movements. ...


UN fact finding mission

To settle the contradictory claims, a fact finding mission was proposed by the United Nations on April 19 2002. Israel initially agreed to co-operate with the inquiry, but demanded a set of conditions to do so. Among the conditions, Israel demanded that the mission should include anti-terrorism experts (this was supported by one Amnesty International advisor[38]), that the UN agree not to prosecute Israeli soldiers for potential violations of international law, and that it limit its scope exclusively to events in Jenin.


The UN refused to accept the last two conditions and were forced to ultimately disband their mission. Israel argued that the conditions under which the UN proposed the mission were unfair, as the UN did not agree to give the anti-terrorism expert full membership, would not give the mission a strict mandate, nor declare the mission solely investigatory (as opposed to having a judicial purpose). According to Israel, all three positions violate of the UN's own principles (as stated in the "Declaration on Fact-finding by the United Nations", A/RES/46/59 of December 9, 1991).


On May 7, 2002 the UN General Assembly condemned both the "assaults against Palestinians by Israeli occupying forces, particularly in the Jenin refugee camp" and the refusal to cooperate with fact-finding team [39] May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ...


See also

The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... Terrorism against Israel: Pre-2000 - 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 This page is a partial list of incidents of terrorism against Israel in 2002. ... Operation Defensive Shield (In Hebrew, מבצע חומת מגן) was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israeli Defence Forces in April 2002. ... The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is being pursued not only in the cities, towns, and countryside of Israel and the occupied territories of West Bank and the Gaza Strip with bombs and bullets, it is also a media battle being waged on television and in newspapers and magazines. ... The Caterpillar D9 is a large track-type tractor (commonly referred to as a bulldozer) with caterpillar tracks designed and manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. ... US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ...

External links

Reports by Human Rights groups, the UN, the IDF and the PA

Press reports, opinions and articles about Jenin battle

Whilst considering these press and news reports, it is important to consider the date. At first, many international newspapers reported the possibility of a massacre, whereas 3-4 weeks on, they often describe the massacre as particularly unlikely.

The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an organization founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Chabad Lubavitch, also known as Lubavitch Chabad, is a large branch of Hasidic Judaism. ... The Cable News Network, usually referred to as CNN, is a cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Articles from UPI

Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. United Press International (UPI) is a global news agency headquartered in the United States filing news in English, Spanish and Arabic. ...

Articles from The Observer and The Guardian

  • Ten-day ordeal in crucible of Jenin, Peter Beaumont (April 14, 2002)
  • The lunar landscape that was the Jenin refugee camp, Suzanne Goldenberg (April 16, 2002)
  • 'We fight like girls and we are accused of a massacre', Ewen MacAskill (April 20, 2002)
  • Battle for truth in Jenin, Bryan Whitaker (April 23, 2002)
  • Israel accused over Jenin assault, Chris McGreal in Jerusalem and Brian Whitaker (April 23, 2002)
  • Not a massacre, but a brutal breach of war's rules, Peter Beaumont in Jenin (April 25, 2002)

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ...

Articles from the BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC, sometimes also known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, founded in 1922. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ...

Articles from Ha'aretz

  • Palestinians: IDF tanks enter Nablus; reservist killed in Jenin (4 April, 2002)
  • Peres calls IDF operation in Jenin a 'massacre' (9 April, 2002)
  • Court: IDF can't move bodies; Lieberman: Barak must be ousted (13 April, 2002)
  • Court rejects petitions demanding IDF not remove Jenin dead (14 April, 2002)
  • IDF bulldozers buried Jenin dead, Palestinians claim
  • Court told: IDF leaving dead to rot in Jenin
  • Security Council meets after Israel denies entry to UN team (29 April, 2002)
  • Ticking bomb

Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... April 13 is the 103rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (104th in leap years). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ...

Related issues to Jenin battle


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Al-Aqsa Intifada - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8082 words)
In January, 2002, the IDF Shayetet 13 naval commando captured the Karine A, a large boat carrying weapons from Iran presumably intended to be used by Palestine militants against Israel.
Especially fierce battles took place at the Jenin refugee camp: 32 Palestinian militants, 22 Palestinian civilians, and 23 Israeli soldiers were killed in the fighting.
The battle remains a flashpoint for both sides, due to fraudulent Palestinian allegations of a massacre of thousands of Palestinians that surfaced during the IDF's operations in the camp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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