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Encyclopedia > Battle of Ipsus
Battle of Ipsus
Part of the Wars of the Diadochi
Date 301 BC
Location Phrygia
Result Macedonian victory
Combatants
Antigonids Macedonians
Seleucids
Commanders
Antigonus I†,
Demetrius I of Macedon
Prepelaus,
Lysimachus,
Seleucus I Nicator,
Pleistarchus
Strength
45,000 heavy infantry,
25,000 light infantry,
10,000 cavalry,
75 elephants
40,000 heavy infantry,
20,000 light infantry,
12,000 Persian cavalry,
3,000 heavy cavalry,
400 elephants,
100 scythed chariots (not deployed)
Wars of the Diadochi
ParaitaceneGabieneGazaSalamisRhodesIpsusCorupedium

The Battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia. Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his son Demetrius I of Macedon were pitted against the coalition of three other companions of Alexander: Cassander, ruler of Macedon; Lysimachus, ruler of Thrace; and Seleucus I Nicator, ruler of Babylonia and Persia. The word Diadochi means successors in Greek. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... The Antigonid dynasty was a dynasty of Macedonian kings descended from Alexander the Greats general Antigonus I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed). Antigonus himself ruled mostly over Asia Minor and northern Syria. ... Seleucus I Nicator (Nicator, the Victor) (around 358–281 BC) was one of Alexander the Greats generals who, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, founded the Seleucid Empire. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC, Greek: Δημήτριος), surnamed Poliorcetes (The Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ... Prepelaus (in Greek Πρεπελαος; lived 4th century BC) was a general in the service of Cassander, king of Macedonia. ... Lysimachus (c. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Pleistarchus (d. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... The battle of Paraitacene (317 BC) was a battle in the wars of the successors of Alexander the Great (see diadochi) between Antigonus and Eumenes. ... Commanders Antigonus Monophthalmos Eumenes Casualties ~5000 Heavy Battle of Gabiene (315 BC) was a second great battle (after Paraitacene) between two of Alexander the Greats successors: Antigonus and Eumenes in the wars of the diadochi. ... The Battle of Gaza was a battle of the Third war of the Diadochi between Ptolemy (satrap of Egypt) and Demetrius (son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus). ... The naval Battle of Salamis took place in 306 BC near Salamis, Cyprus between the fleets of Ptolemy I of Egypt and Demetrius, two of the diadochi, the successors to Alexander the Great. ... Combatants Antigonid dynasty Rhodes Ptolemaic dynasty Seleucid Empire Commanders Demetrius  ? Strength 1500 11200 Casualties 1300 5400 For other uses, see Siege of Rhodes (disambiguation). ... The Battle of Corupedium (also called Corupedion) is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC 297 BC Battle of Ipsus: King... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Antigonus I Cyclops or Monophthalmos (the One-eyed, so called from his having lost an eye) (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. ... Demetrius I (337-283 BC, Greek: Δημήτριος), surnamed Poliorcetes (The Besieger), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a king of Macedon (294 - 288 BC). ...  Kingdom of Cassander Other diadochi  Kingdom of Seleucus  Kingdom of Lysimachus  Kingdom of Ptolemy  Epirus Other  Carthage  Rome  Greek colonies Cassander (in Greek, Κάσσανδρος — Kassandros, ca. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (from Greek Makedonía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace... Lysimachus (c. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Silver coin of Seleucus. ... Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...

Contents

Background

Antigonus was 80 years old and the ruler of modern day Syria, Turkey, Lebanon, and Judea. He and his son Demetrius had generally had the better of the fighting in the wars running up to this point: The Siege of Rhodes, although an operational failure, was a victory for the Antigonids in that the Rhodians agreed to help them against everyone and anyone except for Ptolemy; Cassander had been largely neutralized by Demetrius and the Hellenic League; and Ptolemy was still recovering from the Antigonid invasion of 306. Their overall strategy in this fourth War of the Diadochi was to engage the various successors and defeat them in detail, and had so far been successful. Cassander, their only enemy still effectively resisting in 302, was nearly isolated, and his allies had not yet made a move to support him. Seleucus, especially, would have been a major help to Cassander, as he had recently exchanged some of his most eastern lands for 500 elephants from Chandragupta Maurya[1]. However, seeing the plight of his ally, Lysimachus undertook to invade Asia Minor to distract the Antigonid armies fighting against Cassander, who was soon relieved of Demetrius' pressure as the latter moved his army to Anatolia to fight Lysimachus. Cassander himself soon was able to give assistance, keeping only seventeen thousand men with him to fight Demetrius in Thessaly, and together the two allies overran most of western Asia Minor. Map of the southern Levant, c. ... Combatants Antigonid dynasty Rhodes Ptolemaic dynasty Seleucid Empire Commanders Demetrius  ? Strength 1500 11200 Casualties 1300 5400 For other uses, see Siege of Rhodes (disambiguation). ... Deer statues in Mandraki harbor, where the Colossus of Rhodes once stood This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 311 BC 310 BC 309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303... Defeat in detail is a military phrase referring to the tactic of bringing a large portion of ones own force to bear on a small enemy unit, rather than engaging the bulk of the enemy force. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC 299 BC 298 BC Cassander becomes King of... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य), sometimes known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ...


Campaign

Lysimachus, with the contingent from Cassander, was isolated in western Anatolia, on the other side of the Aegean from his base of supply in Europe. In stark opposition, Antigonus and Demetrius were now in their own territory, and their supply lines were far shorter. They also had 75 war elephants with which to support their cavalry and wreak havoc upon the allied phalanx. Confronted with far superior numbers, the allies fell back without major engagement. However, Cassander had previously planned a move by Seleucus to bring his vast numbers of elephants into the fray, and now his ally came from the east to engage Antigonus from the rear. Antigonus was unable to bring Lysimachus and Cassander to battle before Seleucus and his son Antiochus joined up with the allied forces. The united allied army, believed to be about 60,000 in number, faced Antigonus and Demetrius in Phrygia on an open plain well-suited for both the allied preponderance of elephants and the Antigonid superiority in cavalry numbers and training. Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Silver coin of Antiochus I. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


Battle

Except Plutarch's life of Demetrius, almost no histories have survived with an account of the battle. Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


Both sides deployed their phalanx in the center in formation echeloned to the left rear, as was normal among Alexandrine and Diadochi armies. On the allied side, Lysimachus and Cassander split their cavalry evenly between the two flanks, with 100 of Seleucus' elephants deployed in line, with the rest in reserve under his personal command. Lysimachus commanded the right flank cavalry and Antiochus was in command of the left. Light-armed troops, mainly peltasts and a few psiloi, were deployed to the army's front. On the other side, Antigonus placed his most and best cavalry, under Demetrius, on his right flank; he had greater numbers of heavy infantry, but apparently chose not to lengthen his line but rather to deepen the phalanx. He, too, deployed light-armed troops forward of his army. The Oblique Order (or declined or refused flank) is a military tactic where an attacking army focuses its forces to attack a single enemy flank. ... A peltast was a type of light infantry in Ancient Greece who often served as skirmishers. ...


The battle opened with the usual slowly intensifying skirmishing between the two armies' light troops, with elephants eventually thrown into the fray by both sides. Efforts were made by both sides to hamstring the enemy's elephants, but also had to hang back to protect their own. Demetrius' superior right-flank cavalry drove Antiochus' wing back, but was halted in his attempted rear blow by Seleucus, who moved the elephant reserve to block him. Lysimachus on the allied right made slow progress against the Antigonid troops on his wing, but had the foresight to detach some horse archers and skirmishers to the center, to carry the fight against the enemy skirmishers there. More missile troops moved to the unprotected Antigonid right flank, as Demetrius was unable to disengage from the elephants and enemy horse to his front. With control of the center of the field, the allied missile troops rained javelins and arrows down on the numerically superior Antigonid infantry, whose morale began to waver. Eventually they began to break, and streamed towards the rear, fleeing the enemy missile troops. Antigonus attempted to rally his troops and present more of a front to the enemy missile units and main phalanx. At the beginning of the day he had not been able to wear plate armor; this disadvantage was unexpectedly used by an anonymous allied peltast, who killed him with a well-thrown javelin. Without leadership and already beginning to flee, the Antigonid army completely disintegrated, with a fragment of the army surviving under Demetrius, who managed to escape the allied cavalry. Reconstruction of a post-Marian pilum A Roman coin showing Antoninianus of Carinus holding pilum and globe. ...


Aftermath

The last chance to reunite the Alexandrine Empire had now passed. Antigonus had been the only general able to consistently defeat the other Successors; without him, the last bonds the Empire had had began to dissolve. The world was carved up between the victors, with Ptolemy retaining Egypt, Seleucus receiving the bulk of Antigonus' lands in the east and eastern Asia Minor, and Lysimachus receiving the remainder of Asia Minor. Eventually Seleucus would defeat Cassander and Lysimachus (in 281 BC), but died shortly afterward. Ipsus finalized the breakup of an empire, which may account for its obscurity; despite that, it was still a critical battle in classical history and decided the character of the Hellenistic age. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC - 280s BC - 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 286 BC 285 BC 284 BC 283 BC 282 BC 281 BC 280 BC 279 BC 278...


Notes

  1. ^ "The Indians occupy [in part] some of the countries situated along the Indus, which formerly belonged to the Persians: Alexander deprived the Ariani of them, and established there settlements of his own. But Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus in consequence of a marriage contract, and received in return five hundred elephants." Strabo 15.2.1(9)

Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, in Greek:Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ) (c. ... This article deals with the fourth century BC founder of the Maurya dynasty. ...

External links

  • Wiki Classical Dictionary: Battle of Ipsus

  Results from FactBites:
 
IPSUS (10116 words)
This battling amidst the trenches is reminiscent of Roman warfare.
Ipsus, where the final clash occurred, was about 50 miles north east of Synnada and Lysimachus had directed his march to threaten Antigonus' communication to the east and so draw him into a fight.
The chariots are not mentioned at all in the battle but the elephants were to have a decisive influence on the outcome.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Battle of Ipsus (2303 words)
The Battle of Ipsus was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia.
The Battle of Gaza was a battle of the Third war of the Diadochi between Ptolemy (satrap of Egypt) and Demetrius (son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus).
Ipsus finalized the breakup of an empire, which may account for its obscurity; despite that, it was still a critical battle in classical history and decided the character of the Hellenistic age.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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