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Encyclopedia > Battle of Hattin
Battle of Hattin
Part of the Crusades

The Battle of Hattin, from a medieval manuscript
Date July 4, 1187
Location Hattin, near Tiberias
Result Decisive Ayyubid victory
Belligerents
Kingdom of Jerusalem
Knights Templar
Ayyubids
Commanders
Guy of Lusignan #
Raymond III of Tripoli #
Gerard de Rideford #
Balian of Ibelin
Saladin
Strength
Est. 15,000 infantry, 1,000 knights, 500 Turkopoles[1] Est. 20,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry [2]
Casualties and losses
Almost all Unknown

The Battle of Hattin (also known as "The Horns of Hattin" because of a nearby extinct volcano of the same name) took place on Saturday, July 4, 1187, between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty. Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength About 1500 unknown Casualties 700 killed, 800 captive unknown The Battle of Jacobs Ford was fought in 1179 between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of Saladin. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Raynald of Chatillon, King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength 8,000 22,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin at Kerak Castle, stronghold of Raynald of Chatillon. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders al-Afdal Gerard of Ridefort Strength About 7,000 140 knights, numerous others Casualties Unknown Almost all The Battle of Cresson was a small battle fought on May 1, 1187, at the springs of Cresson, or Ain Gozeh, near Nazareth. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Balian of Ibelin The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... On September 7 the army proceeded from Arsuf to Jaffa, which the Crusaders took and fortified strongly. ... The Siege of Damietta occurred in 1218. ... Combatants Ayyubid Crusaders Commanders Emir Fakr ed-din Saint Louis Strength 70,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of Al Mansurah was fought on February 8, 1250 between the French Crusaders led by Louis IX and an Ayyubid army led Emir Fakr-ed-din. ... The Battle of Fariskur was fought on April 6, 1250 between the French Crusaders led by Louis IX and an Egyptian army. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war.[3] As a direct result of the battle, Islamic forces once again became the eminent military power in the Holy Land, reconquering Jerusalem and several other Crusader-held cities.[4] There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-Dīn Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Location

The battle took place near Tiberias in present day Israel. The battlefield, near the town of Hittin, had as its chief geographic feature a double hill (the "Horns of Hattin") beside a pass through the northern mountains between Tiberias and the road from Acre to the west. The Darb al-Hawarnah road, built by the Romans, served as the main east-west passage between the Jordan fords, the Sea of Galilee and the Mediterranean coast. Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... Hittin was a village in Palestine that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Sea of Galilee or Lake Kinneret (Hebrew ים כנרת), is Israels largest freshwater lake. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


Background

Guy of Lusignan became king of Jerusalem in 1186, in right of his wife Sibylla, after the death of Sibylla's son Baldwin V. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was at this time divided between the "court faction" of Guy, Sibylla, and relative newcomers to the kingdom such as Raynald of Chatillon, as well as Gerard of Ridefort and the Knights Templar; and the "nobles’ faction", led by Raymond III of Tripoli, who had been regent for the child-king Baldwin V and had opposed the succession of Guy. Disgusted, Raymond of Tripoli watched as his fellow poulain barons hastened to Jerusalem to make obeisance to King Guy and Queen Sibylla. The great lord of Tripoli rode in the opposite direction, up the Jordan River Valley to Tiberias.[5] The situation was so tense that there was almost open warfare between Raymond and Guy, who wanted to besiege Tiberias, a fortress held by Raymond through his wife Eschiva, Princess of Galilee. War was avoided through the mediation of Raymond's supporter Balian of Ibelin. Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ... Top: Baldwin IV on his sickbed; Bottom: Baldwin V crowned. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1184 until his death. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Raymond III of Tripoli (1140 – 1187) was Count of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 and Prince of Galilee and Tiberias in right of his wife Eschiva. ... The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ...


Meanwhile, the Muslim states surrounding the kingdom had been united during the 1170s and 1180s by Saladin. Saladin had been appointed vizier of Egypt in 1169 and soon came to rule the country as sultan. In 1174, he imposed his rule over Damascus; his authority extended to Aleppo by 1176 and Mosul by 1183. For the first time, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was encircled by Muslim territory united under one ruler. The crusaders defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in 1177, and in the early 1180s there was an uneasy truce between the two sides, which was broken by the raids of Raynald on Muslim caravans passing through his fief of Oultrejordain. Raynald also threatened to attack Mecca itself. For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (French for beyond the Jordan) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan river, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


When Guy became king, Raymond made a separate truce with Saladin, and in 1187 allowed the sultan to send an army into the northern part of the kingdom. At the same time, an embassy was on its way from Jerusalem to Tripoli to negotiate a settlement between Raymond and Guy. This embassy was defeated at the Battle of Cresson on May 1, by a small force under the command of Al-Afdal. Raymond, wracked with guilt, reconciled with Guy, who assembled the entire army of the kingdom and marched north to meet Saladin. Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders al-Afdal Gerard of Ridefort Strength About 7,000 140 knights, numerous others Casualties Unknown Almost all The Battle of Cresson was a small battle fought on May 1, 1187, at the springs of Cresson, or Ain Gozeh, near Nazareth. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Siege of Tiberias

After reconciling, Raymond and Guy met at Acre with the bulk of the crusader army. According to the claims of some European sources, it consisted of 1,200 knights, a greater number of lighter cavalry, and perhaps ten thousand foot soldiers, supplemented by crossbowmen from the Italian merchant fleet, and a large number of mercenaries (including Turcopoles) hired with money donated to the kingdom by Henry II of England.[citation needed][6]Also with the army was the relic of the True Cross, carried by the Bishop of Acre, who was there in place of the ailing Patriarch Heraclius. For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... During the Crusades, turcopoles or turcopoliers (Greek: sons of Turks) were mounted archers. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... The Bishop of Acre was a suffragan bishop of the Crusader Archbishop of Tyre. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ...


On July 2, Saladin, who wanted to lure Guy into moving his army away from the springs at Saffuriya, personally led a siege of Raymond’s fortress of Tiberius while the main Muslim army remained at Kafr Sabt. The garrison at Tiberius tried to pay Saladin off, but he refused, later stating that "when the people realized they had an opponent who could not be tricked and would not be contented with tribute, they were afraid lest war might eat them up and they asked for quarter. . . . But the servant gave the sword dominion over them." The fortress fell the same day. A tower was mined and, when it fell, Saladin's troops stormed the breach killing the opposing forces and taking prisoners. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saffuriyya (also Saffuriya) was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


Holding out, Raymond's wife Eschiva was besieged in the citadel. As the mining was begun on that structure, news was received by Saladin that Guy was moving the Frank army east. The Crusaders had taken the bait.


Guy's decision to leave the safety of his defenses was the result of a Crusader war council held the night of July 2nd. Though reports of what happened at this meeting are biased due to personal feuds among the Franks, it seems Raymond argued that a march from Acre to Tiberias was exactly what Saladin wanted while Sephoria was a strong position for the Crusaders to defend. Furthermore, Guy shouldn't worry about Tiberias, which Raymond held personally and was willing to give up for the safety of the kingdom. In response to this argument, and despite their reconciliation (internal court politics remaining strong), Raymond was accused of cowardice by Gerard and Raynald. The latter influenced Guy to attack immediately.


Guy thus ordered the army to march against Saladin at Tiberias, which is indeed just what Saladin had planned, for he had calculated that he could defeat the crusaders only in a field battle rather than by besieging their fortifications.


The battle

The crusaders began their march from Sephoria on July 3. Raymond led the vanguard; Guy the main army; and Balian, Raynald, and the military orders made up the rearguard. The crusaders were almost immediately under harassment from the Muslim skirmishers on horseback. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By noon on that day, the Frankish army had reached a spring at the village of Turan some six miles (10 km) from Sephoria. Here, according to Saladin, "The hawks of the Frankish infantry and the eagle of their cavalry hovered around the water."


It was still nine miles (14 km) to Tiberias. Therefore, with only a half day of marching time remaining, any attempt to leave this sure water source to seek that objective the same day, all while under the constant attack of Saladin’s army, would be foolhardy. (In 1182 the Frankish army had only advanced 8 miles (13 km) in a full day in face of the enemy and in 1183 Guy had managed but six miles (10 km) in a similar situation, taking a full day.) But, as Saladin wrote, "Satan incited Guy to do what ran counter to his purpose." That is, for unknown reasons, Guy set out that very afternoon, marching his army forward, seeming to head for Tiberias.


When Saladin arrived from the taking of Tiberias, and after the Frankish army left Turan, the Muslims began their attack in earnest. Saladin sent the two wings of his army around the Frankish force and seized the spring at Turan, thus blocking the Frankish line of retreat. This maneuver would give Saladin his victory.


In the ensuing struggle, the Frankish rearguard was forced to a standstill by continuous attacks, thus halting the whole army on the plateau. The crusaders were thus forced to make camp surrounded by the Muslims. They now had no water nor any hope of receiving supplies or reinforcements.


Behe ad-Din summarizes the situation of the Frankish army:

They were closely beset as in a noose, while still marching on as though being driven to death that they could see before them, convinced of their doom and destruction and themselves aware that the following day they would be visiting their graves.

On the morning of July 4, the crusaders were blinded by smoke from fires that Saladin’s forces had set to add to the Frankish army’s misery, through which the Muslim cavalry pelted them with 400 loads of arrows that had been brought up during the night. Gerard and Raynald advised Guy to form battle lines and attack, which was done by Guy's brother Amalric. Raymond led the first division with Raymond of Antioch, the son of Bohemund III of Antioch, while Balian and Joscelin III of Edessa formed the rearguard. While this was being arranged, five of Raymond's knights defected to Saladin and told them of the dire situation in the crusader camp. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, Amalric or Amaury II & I de Lusignan (1145 – April 1, 1205), King of Jerusalem 1197–1205, was an older brother of Guy of Lusignan. ... Raymond IV (died 1199) was the count of Tripoli (1187 – 1189) and prince regent of Antioch (1193 – 1194). ... Bohemund III of Antioch (1144-1201), also know as the Stammerer, was ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1163 to his death. ... Joscelin III of Edessa (d. ...


Thirsty and demoralized, the crusaders broke camp and changed direction for the springs of Hattin, but their ragged approach was attacked by Saladin's army which blocked the route forward and any possible retreat. Count Raymond launched two charges in an attempt to break through to the water supply at the Sea of Galilee. The second of these saw him cut off from the main army and forced to retreat. Most of the crusader infantry had effectively deserted by moving on to the Horns of Hattin. Guy attempted to pitch the tents again to block the Muslim cavalry, but without infantry protection the knights' horses were cut down by Muslim archers and the cavalry was forced to fight on foot. Then they too retreated to the Horns.


Now the crusaders were surrounded and, despite three desperate charges on Saladin's position, were eventually defeated. An eyewitness account of this is given by Saladin’s son, al-Afdal. It is quoted by Ibn al-Athir:

When the King [Guy] reached the hill with that company, they launched a savage charge against the Muslims opposite them, forcing them to retreat to my father [Saladin]. I looked to him and saw that he had turned ashen pale in his distress and had grasped his beard. . . . Then the Muslims returned to the attack against the Franks and they went back up the hill. When I saw them retreating with the Muslims in pursuit, I cried out in joy: "We have beaten them." But the Franks charged again as they had done before and drove the Muslims up to my father. He did what he had done before and the Muslims turned back against them and forced them back up the hill. I cried out again: "We have beaten them." My father turned to me and said: "Be silent. We shall not defeat them until that tent [Guy’s] falls." As Saladin spoke these words, the red tent of the King fell.

Aftermath

Horns of Hattin, 2005, as viewed from the east
Horns of Hattin, 2005, as viewed from the east

The Muslims had captured the royal tent of King Guy, as well as the True Cross after the Bishop of Acre was killed in the fighting. Prisoners included Guy, his brother Amalric II, Raynald, William V of Montferrat, Gerard de Ridefort, Humphrey IV of Toron, Hugh of Jabala, Plivain of Botron, Hugh of Gibelet, and many others. Perhaps only as few as 3,000 Christians escaped the defeat. The anonymous text De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum Libellus claims that Raymond, Joscelin, Balian, and Reginald of Sidon fled the field in the middle of the battle, trampling "the Christians, the Turks, and the Cross" in the process, but this isn't corroborated by other accounts and reflects the author's hostility to the Poleins. Amalric II, king of Jerusalem from 1197 to 1205, was the brother of Guy of Lusignan. ... William V of Montferrat (occ. ... Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1184 until his death. ... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... Hugh of Jabala was the bishop of the Syrian town of Jabala during the 12th century. ... Reginald Grenier (died 1202; also Reynald or Renaud) was Lord of Sidon and an important noble in the late-12th century crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ...


The exhausted captives were brought to Saladin's tent, where Guy was given a goblet of iced water as a sign of Saladin's generosity. When Guy passed the goblet to his fellow captive Raynald, Saladin allowed the old man (Raynald was about 60) to drink but shortly afterwards said that he hadn't offered water to Raynald and thus wasn't bound by the Muslim rules of hospitality. When Saladin accused Raynald of being an oath breaker, Raynald replied that "kings have always acted thus." Saladin then executed Raynald himself, doing so after Raynald refused conversion to Islam, beheading him with his sword. Guy fell to his knees at the sight of Raynald's corpse but Saladin bade him to rise, saying, "Real kings do not kill each other." The True Cross was fixed upside down on a lance and sent to Damascus. Several of Saladin’s men now left the army, taking Frankish prisoners with them as slaves.


On Sunday, July 5th, Saladin traveled the six miles (10 km) to Tiberias and, there, Countess Eschiva surrendered the citadel of the fortress. She was allowed to leave for Tripoli with all her family, followers, and possessions. Raymond of Tripoli, having escaped the battle, died of pleurisy later in 1187. July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is an inflammation of the pleura, the lining of the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, which can cause painful respiration (also called pleuritic chest pain) and other symptoms. ...


On Monday, July 6th, two days after the battle, the captured Templars and Hospitallers were given the opportunity to convert to Islam. According to Imad al-Din, only a few accepted, although those that did became good Muslims. For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care...


The executions were by beheading. In an act of solidarity, many of the captured crusaders wrongly claimed to be Templar knights, forcing their Islamic conquerors to behead them as well [7]. Saint Nicasius, a Knight Hospitaller venerated as a Christian martyr, is said to have been one of the victims.[8] For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ...

"Saladin ordered that they should be beheaded, choosing to have them dead rather than in prison. With him was a whole band of scholars and sufis and a certain number of devout men and ascetics, each begged to be allowed to kill one of them, and drew his sword and rolled back his sleeve. Saladin, his face joyful, was sitting on his dais, the unbelievers showed black despair" - Imad ed-Din, Saladin's Secretary [9]

Guy was taken to Damascus as a prisoner and the others were eventually ransomed. For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


By mid-September, Saladin had taken Acre, Nablus, Jaffa, Toron, Sidon, Beirut, and Ascalon. Tyre was saved by the fortuitous arrival of Conrad of Montferrat. Jerusalem was defended by Queen Sibylla, Patriarch Heraclius, and Balian, who subsequently negotiated its surrender to Saladin on October 2 (see Siege of Jerusalem). For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Toron, now Tibnin in southern Lebanon, was a major Crusader castle, built in the mountains on the road from Tyre to Damascus. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Balian of Ibelin The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ...


News of the disastrous defeat at Hattin was brought to Europe by Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre, as well as other pilgrims and travelers. Plans were immediately made for a new crusade; Pope Gregory VIII issued the bull Audita tremendi, and in England and France the Saladin tithe was enacted to fund expenses. Joscius, also Josce or Josias (died 1202), was Archbishop of Tyre in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the late 12th century. ... Pope Gregory VIII (ca. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Audita tremendi was a papal bull written by Pope Gregory VIII in October of 1187, calling for the Third Crusade. ... The Saladin tithe, or the Aid of 1188, was a tax, or more specifically a tallage, levied in England and to some extent in France in 1188, in response to the capture of Jerusalem by Saladin in 1187. ...


The subsequent Third Crusade, however, did not get underway until 1189, being made up of three separate contingents led by Richard Lionheart, Philip Augustus, and Frederick Barbarossa. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ...


Legends and fiction and nonfiction

According to the chronicler Ernoul, news of the defeat caused Pope Urban III to die of shock. Ernoul is the name generally given to the author of a chronicle of the late 12th century dealing with the fall of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Urban III, né Uberto Crivelli (d. ...


The battle, and much of the background of the conflict, is depicted in the novel The Brethren by Sir Henry Rider Haggard. Look up sir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Henry Rider Haggard KBE (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in exotic locations. ...


Although the battle itself was not shown, the aftermath, including the execution of Raynald, was depicted in the 2005 film Kingdom of Heaven. The year 2005 in film involved some significant events. ... There is another article about the theological concept of the Kingdom of Heaven. ...


The Battle of Hattin is able to be played in Stronghold Crusader for the PC. The level is called Battle of Hattin, Battle on the Hill.


"The Horns of Hattin" is a battle able to be played in the game Medieval: Total War as Saladin. Medieval: Total War (MTW), is a real-time strategy game where the player builds a dynastic empire in medieval Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. ...


"The Horns of Hattin" is also a Campaign Scenario in the Saladin Campaign in Age of Empires II: Age of Kings. Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings (or simply Age of Kings) is a real-time strategy game set in the middle ages, released in 1999. ...


Youssef Chahine's 1963 epic Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din (in English titled 'Saladin') depicts a highly fictionalised version of the battle of Hattin. Youssef Chahine (Arabic: يوسف شاهين) (born January 25, 1926 in Alexandria, Egypt) is an Egyptian film director active in the Egyptian film industry since 1950. ... Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din الناصر صلاج الدين is a movie that was released on 1963, written by Youssef El Sebai, based on the novel by Naguib Mahfouz directed by Youssef Chahine, and starring Ahmed Mazhar, Mohamed Abdel Gawad, Tewfik El Dekn, Omar El-Hariri, Mahmoud El-Meliguy, Leila Fawzi, Hamdi Geiss, Ahmed...


The opening scene of Jack Whyte's 2007 book Standard of Honour depicts the Battle of Hattin. Jack Whyte (Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1939) is an author and writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada since 1967. ...


The Swedish novel Tempelriddaren (The Knight Templar in english), by Jan Guillou, portrays Arn Magnusson, also known as Arn de Gothia, as one of the few survivors (the only one of two surviving Templar Knights) after the battle. The Knight Templar is the second book in Jan Guillous The Knight Templar (Crusades trilogy) book series. ...


The novel Knight Crusader by Ronald Welch has the Battle of Hattin included as a major part of the book. Ronald Welch (Pseudonym of Ronald Oliver Felton) (1909 - 1982) His pseudonym comes from his wartime regiment, The Welch. ...


References

  1. ^ Madden, Thomas (2005). Crusades The Illustrated History. Ann Arbor: University of Michiga P. 
  2. ^ Mills, Charles (1844). The History of the Crusades: For the Recovery and Possession of the Holy Land. Lea & Blanchard. 
  3. ^ Concise History of the Crusades - Madden
  4. ^ Concise History of the Crusades - Madden
  5. ^ O'Shea, Stephen: "Sea of Faith", page 189. Walker and Company, 2006
  6. ^ O'Shea, Stephen: "Sea of Faith", page 190. Walker and Company, 2006
  7. ^ History Makers - Richard Lionheart, ITV
  8. ^ http://home.att.net/~ilsiciliano/page35_st_nicasius.htm
  9. ^ History of the Crusaders - Thomas Madden

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Battle of Hattin

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies and is part of the Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies (ORB). ...

Sources

  • M. W. Baldwin, Raymond III of Tripolis and the Fall of Jerusalem (1140-1187). Princeton University Press, 1936.
  • De Expugnatione Terrae Sanctae per Saladinum, trans. James A. Brundage, in The Crusades: A Documentary Survey. Marquette University Press, 1962.
  • Peter W. Edbury, The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Ashgate, 1996.
  • P. M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1986.
  • R. L. Nicholson, Joscelyn III and the Fall of the Crusader States, 1134-1199. Brill, 1973.
  • Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. Cambridge University Press, 1952.
  • Kenneth Setton, ed. A History of the Crusades, vol. I. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958 (available online).
  • R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193. Cambridge University Press, 1956.
  • John Gillingham, "Richard I", Yale English Monarchs. Yale University Press, 1999.
  • Lyons & Jackson, "Saladin-The Politics of the Holy War". Cambridge University Press, 1982.
  • Jonathan Phillips, "The Crusades 1095-1197". Longman, 2002.

Coordinates: 32°48′13″N 35°26′40″E / 32.80361, 35.44444 The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Marquette University Press is a university press. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... Founded in 1683 in Leiden, the Netherlands, Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher and is listed on Euronext, Amsterdam. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) was originally incorporated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on 26 March 1890, and the imprint of the University of Pennsylvania Press first appeared on publications in the closing decade of the nineteenth century--among the earliest such imprints in America. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



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