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Encyclopedia > Battle of Hastings
The Battle of Hastings
Part of the Norman Conquest

Death of Harold in the Battle of Hastings, as shown on the Bayeux Tapestry
Date 14 October 1066
Location Senlac Hill, Battle near Hastings, East Sussex, England
Result Decisive Norman victory
Belligerents
Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total),
Flemings,
French
Anglo-Saxons,
the Þingalið
Commanders
William of Normandy,
Odo of Bayeux
Harold Godwinson
Strength
7,400-8,400
(maximum 2,200 cavalry, 1,700 archers, 4,500 men-at-arms)
7,500
(2,000 housecarls, 5,500 fyrd)
Casualties and losses
Around 3,000 Around 5,000

The Battle of Hastings was the decisive Norman victory in the Norman Conquest of England. The battle took place at Senlac Hill, approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) north-west of Hastings, on which an abbey was subsequently built. Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to the Battle of Hastings The Norman Conquest of England was the conquest of the Kingdom of England by William the Conqueror (Duke of Normandy), in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings and the subsequent Norman control of England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x725, 1577 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Harold Godwinson Bayeux Tapestry ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Location within the British Isles Battle is a small town in East Sussex, England, about 5 miles (8 km) from Hastings, and the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold II to become William I. Battle Abbey takes its name from the town... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Bretons are a distinct celtic ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France. ... Flemings (Dutch: Vlamingen) are inhabitants of Flanders in the widest sense of the term, i. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The Battle of Hastings was the retinues last battle. ... William I of England (c. ... Odo of Bayeux (c. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... Norman conquests in red. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... The ridge on which King Harold II deployed his army for the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, overlooked a south-facing slope known in English as Santlache (Sandy Stream). The Normans punned this word into Senlac (Blood Lake): thus Senlac Hill is the commonly held name for the... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... Novices room at Battle Abbey Battle Abbey, actually named St. ...


The battle took place on 14 October 1066, between the Norman army of Duke William of Normandy from France, and the English army led by King Harold II. Harold was killed during the battle; traditionally, it is believed he was shot through the eye with an arrow. Although there was further English resistance for some time to come, this battle is seen as the point at which William gained control of England. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Bold textInsert non-formatted text here This statue of Rollo the Viking (founder of the fiefdom of Normandy) stands in Falaise, Calvados, birthplace of his descendant William I the Conqueror (the Duke of Normandy who became King of England). ... William I of England (c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ...


The famous Bayeux Tapestry depicts the events before and during the battle. The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ...

Contents

Background

Harold, next to the King, was the most powerful man in England; he claimed the throne of England for himself in January 1066, soon after Edward the Confessor died. He secured the support of the Witenagemot for his accession. Some sources say that while Edward had promised the throne to his cousin William, on his deathbed he decided to confer it to Harold instead. Harold Godwinson (Haraldur Guðinason), or Harold II (c. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... St Edward the Confessor or Eadweard III (c. ... Biblical pharaoh depicted as an Anglo-Saxon king with his witan (11th century) The Witenagemot (also called the Witan, more properly the title of its members) was a political institution in Anglo-Saxon England which operated between approximately the 7th century and 11th century. ...


Duke William of Normandy held fast to his claim to the throne. He took Harold's crowning as a declaration of war. William had been establishing policy in England for over 15 years, and was not ready to give up his position so easily. William planned to invade England, and take the crown for himself. The initial difficulty was that the Norman army was not powerful enough, so nobles as far as southern Italy were called to convene at Caen, in Normandy. There, William promised land and titles to his followers and that the voyage was secured by the Pope himself. William assembled a fleet of around 700 ships - a staggering logistical feat - and sailed for England. , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


On 28 September 1066 William, after being delayed by a storm in the English Channel, asserted his claim to the English crown by military force, landing unopposed at a marshy, tidal inlet at Bulverhythe, between what are now the modern towns of Hastings and Bexhill-on-Sea. The beachhead is within two miles of the Senlac battlefield, is sheltered, and has access to high ground, whilst Pevensey, which had long been held to be the Duke's landing place, is marsh-bound—presenting problems for landing troops, horses and stores, and remote from the road to London. is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... Bexhill-on-Sea is a town and seaside resort in the county of East Sussex, in the south of England. ... The ridge on which King Harold II deployed his army for the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, overlooked a south-facing slope known in English as Santlache (Sandy Stream). The Normans punned this word into Senlac (Blood Lake): thus Senlac Hill is the commonly held name for the... Pevensey is a small village (1991 pop. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Upon hearing the news of the landing of the Duke's forces, the English King, Harold II, who had just annihilated an invading Norwegian Viking army under King Harald Hardråda and Tostig Godwinson (Harold's brother) at the Battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, hurried southward to meet the invaders. His brother, Earl Gyrth urged a delay while more men could be assembled, but Harold was determined to show his people that he could defend his new kingdom decisively against every invader. He departed on the morning of 12 October, gathering what available forces he could on the way. After camping at Long Bennington, he arrived at Senlac Hill the night of 13 October.[1] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Harald III Sigurdsson (1015 – September 25, 1066), later surnamed Harald HardrÃ¥de (Old Norse: Haraldr harðráði, roughly translated as stern counsel or hard ruler) was the king of Norway from 1047[1] until 1066. ... Tostig Godwinson (1026? – September 25, 1066) was an Anglo-Saxon earl of Northumbria and brother of King Harold II of England, the last Anglo-Saxon King of England. ... Combatants Norwegians, Northumbrian rebels, Scots Anglo-Saxon England, the Þingalið Commanders Harald HardrÃ¥de(Harald Hadrada)† Tostig Godwinson† Harold Godwinson Strength Around 7,500 Around 7,000 Casualties Unknown, around 7,000 Unknown, around 2,000 The Battle of Stamford Bridge in England took place on September 25, 1066, shortly... For other uses, see York (disambiguation). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map sources for Long Bennington at grid reference SK835445 Long Bennington is a village in South Kesteven, south Lincolnshire, England. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Harold deployed his force, astride the road from Hastings to London, on Senlac Hill some six miles inland north-west of Hastings. Behind him was the great forest of Anderida (the Weald), and in front, the ground fell away in a long glacis-like slope, which at the bottom rose again as the opposing slope of Telham Hill. For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The ridge on which King Harold II deployed his army for the Battle of Hastings on October 14, 1066, overlooked a south-facing slope known in English as Santlache (Sandy Stream). The Normans punned this word into Senlac (Blood Lake): thus Senlac Hill is the commonly held name for the... Anderida is an ancient Roman fort at Pevensey, near Eastbourne in Sussex, England. ... A weald once meant a dense forest, especially the famous great wood once stretching far beyond the ancient counties of Sussex and Kent, England, where this country of smaller woods is still called the Weald. ... A glacis, in military engineering (see Fortification and Siege) is an artificial slope of earth in the front of works, so constructed as to keep an assailant under the fire of the defenders to the last possible moment. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Saxon army

The Saxon army is usually thought to be around 7,500 strong, and consisted entirely of infantry. It is most probable that all the members of the army rode to battle, but once at the appointed place they dismounted to fight on foot. For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


The core of the Saxon army was made up of full-time professional soldiers called Housecarls. They had a long-standing dedication to the King, and would fight to the last man if necessary. Their armour consisted of a conical helmet, a chain mail hauberk, and they carried a kite -shaped shields. Their primary weapon was the Danish battleaxes which they wielded with two hands, although every man would have carried a sword as well. The housecarls were the standing army of Anglo Saxon England, made up of professional soldiers of the king. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the defensive device. ... The Danish long axe went by many names, including Dane-axe, English long axe, Viking axe, and hafted axe. ...


The bulk of the army, called the fyrd, comprised part-time soldiers drawn from the landowning minor nobility. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of pre-conquest England and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year. The Victorian concept of the Noble Peasant defending his lands with a pitchfork has been relentlessly quashed by modern archaeological research. In Saxon times, defenses were based upon the housecarls, who were the professional soldiers of the king, and the fyrd, a militia of all able-bodied men that was called up from the districts threatened with attack. ... Thegn or Thane, is an Anglo-Saxon word (þeg(e)n) meaning an attendant, servant, retainer or official. ... Victorian can refer to: people from or attributes of places called Victoria (disambiguation page), including Victoria, Australia, people who lived during the British Victorian era of the 19th century, and aspects of the Victorian era, for example: Victorian architecture Victorian fashion Victorian morality Victorian literature This is a disambiguation page...


The Saxons' most formidable defense was the shield wall, in which all the men on the front ranks locked their shields together. In the early stages of the battle, the shield wall was very effective at defending against the Norman archery barrages. The entire army took up position along the ridge-line; as casualties fell in the front lines the rear ranks would move forward to fill the gaps.[2] The formation of Shield walls is a military tactic common to many cultures. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ...


The Norman army

The Norman army was estimated to be as high as 8,400 strong and consisted of, at the most, 2,200 cavalry, 4,500 infantry and 1,700 missile troops (archers and crossbowmen). William's strategy relied on archers to soften the enemy, followed by a general advance of the infantry and then a cavalry charge. The Norman army was made up of nobles, mercenaries and troops from France, to as far as southern Italy. Norman conquests in red. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Scythian bowmen on gold plaque from Kul oba kurgan, in Crimea, fourth century BC. An archer is someone who practices archery. ... A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles. ... Look up Noble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Noble can refer to: Nobility, a hereditary caste Nobel Prize, awarded to people who have made outstanding contributions to society Noble gas, chemical elements in group 18 (old-style Group 0) of the periodic table Noble metal, metals that are resistant to... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


The Norman army's power derived from its cavalry which were reckoned amongst the best in Europe. They were heavily armoured, and usually had a lance and a sword. As with all cavalry, they were generally at their most effective against troops whose formation had begun to break up. The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...


Apart from the missile troops, the Norman infantry were probably protected by chain mail and armed with spear, sword and shield, like their Saxon counterparts. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the defensive device. ...


The inclusion of large numbers of missile troops in William's army reflected the trend in other European armies for composite forces who combined on the battlefield. The bow was a relatively short weapon with a short draw, but was effective on the battlefied at this time. Hastings also marks the first known use of the crossbow in English history. This article is about the weapon. ...


Prelude

On the morning of Saturday, 14 October 1066, Duke William of Normandy arrived, flying the Papal banner, and gathered his army below the English position. The Norman army was of comparable size to the Saxon force and was composed of William's Norman, Breton, and Flemish vassals and allies along with their retainers, and freebooters from as far away as Norman Italy. The nobles had been promised English lands and titles in return for their material support, but the common troopers were to be paid with the spoils and "cash", and hoped for land when English fiefs were handed out. Many had also come because they considered it a holy crusade, because the Pope had decided to bless the invasion. The army was deployed in the classic medieval fashion of three divisions, or "battles"—the Normans taking the centre, the Bretons on the left wing and the Franco-Flemish on right wing. Each battle comprised infantry, cavalry and archers along with crossbowmen. The archers and crossbowmen stood to the front for the start of the battle. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the book, see 1066 And All That. ... Pope John Paul II has reigned since 22 Oct 1978. ... Norman conquests in red. ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... The geographical region and former county of Flanders contains not only the two Belgian provinces but also the present-day French département of Nord, in parts of which there is still a Flemish-speaking minority, and the southern part of the Dutch province of Zeeland known as Zeeuws-Vlaanderen... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For marine freebooters, see pirate For American usage, see filibuster (settler) For Irish usage, see rapparee For the musical trio from Thunder Bay, Ont. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Look up division in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... A crossbow is a weapon consisting of a bow mounted on a stock that shoots projectiles. ...


William's minstrel and knight, Ivo Taillefer, begged his master for permission to strike the first blows of the battle. Permission was granted, and Taillefer rode before the English alone, tossing his sword and lance in the air and catching them while he sang an early version of The Song of Roland. The earliest account of this tale (in The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio) says that an English champion came from the ranks, and Taillefer quickly slew him, taking his head as a trophy to show that God favoured the invaders. Later 12th century sources say that after killing the English champion, Taillefer charged into the Saxon ranks and killed one to three men before being killed. For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Taillefer was the surname of a Norman warrior and bard, whose exact name and place of birth are unknown. ... Eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture. ... Early written source for the Norman invasion of England in September through December 1066; attributed to Bishop Guy of Amiens, uncle to Count Guy of Ponthieu, who figures rather prominently in the Bayeux Tapestry as the vassal of Duke William of Normandy who captured Harold Godwinson in 1064. ...


The Battle

William relied on a basic strategy with archers in the front rank weakening the enemy with arrows, followed by infantry which would engage in close combat, and finally culminating in a cavalry charge that would break through the English forces. However, his strategy did not work as well as planned. William's army attacked the English as soon as they were ready and formed up. The Norman archers opened fire with several volleys, but many of the arrows hit the shield wall and had very little effect. Believed to have been softened up, William ordered his infantry to attack. As they charged up the hill, the English threw down whatever they could find, stones, javelins, maces. The barrage inflicted heavy casualties amongst the Norman ranks, causing the lines to break up. Look up Javelin on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Javelin can refer to several things: For the spear-like object,used as a thrown weapon in ancient times see Javelin Ancient For the modern athletic discipline see Javelin throw. ...


The infantry charge reached the English lines, where hand-to-hand fighting of very heavy ferocity took place. William had expected the Saxons to be faltering, but something was going wrong. The arrow barrage had little to no effect, and nearly all the English troops still stood, their shield wall intact. As a result, William had to order his cavalry charge far sooner than expected. Despite their careful breeding and training, faced with a wall of axes, spears and swords, many of the horses simply shied away. After about an hour of fighting, the Breton division on William's left faltered and broke completely, fleeing down the hill. Realising they would be quickly outflanked, the Norman and Flemish divisions were repulsed with heavy casualties and retreated along with the Bretons. Unable to resist the temptation, many of the English broke ranks, including hundreds of fyrdmen, and Harold's brothers, Leofwyne and Gyrthe. In the following confused fighting, William's horse was killed from underneath him, and he toppled to the ground. Witnessing the apparent death of their leader, the Normans panicked and took to flight. However, William took off his helmet to show he was alive and rallied his army.


William and a group of knights attacked the pursuing, now dispersed English, who were no longer protected by the shield wall and cut down large numbers of fyrdmen. Many did not recognise the Norman counter-attack until it was too late, but some did manage to scramble back up the hill to the safety of the huscarls; others, including Harold's brothers, were not so fortunate. The two armies formed up, and a temporary lull fell over the battle. William took advantage of this lull to ponder a new strategy. The Normans' near rout had turned to William's advantage, since the English lost much of the protection provided by the shield wall. Without the cohesion of a disciplined, strong formation, the individual English were easy targets. Keeping this in mind, William launched his army at the strong English position yet again. What happened next is open to debate. Some historians state that the Normans attempted several feint retreats, but this seems unlikely, as it would have inflicted too heavy casualties and would have been very complicated to carry out. The strategy worked either way, and many of the English huscarles were killed.


With a large number of English fyrdmen now holding the front rank, the disciplined shield wall that the huscarles had maintained began to falter and this presented an interesting opportunity to William. At the start of the battle, William's bowmen had fired directly into the English force, and was thus ineffective because of their shields. Though many on the front ranks still had shields, William ordered his archers to fire directly over the shield wall, so their arrows landed in the clustered rear ranks of the English army. The archers did this, and with great success. Legend states that it was at this point that Harold was hit in the eye by an arrow, though that is speculated from a scene in the Bayeux Tapestry. Many of the English were now weary, and lost the discipline of the shield wall. William's army attacked again, and managed to make small chinks in the shield wall. They were able to exploit these gaps, and the Saxon army began to fragment. William and a handful of knights broke through the wall, and struck down the English king. Without their leader, and many of the nobles now killed, hundreds of fyrdmen routed the field. The huscarles kept their oath of loyalty to the king, and fought bravely until they were all killed. Scythian bowmen on gold plaque from Kul oba kurgan, in Crimea, fourth century BC. An archer is someone who practices archery. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ...


The bodies were cleared from the battlefield, William's tent pitched and a celebratory dinner held. Though casualties are entirely speculative, it seems likely that around 5,000 English and 3,000 Normans were killed during the battle.


Aftermath

Harold's plaque (2006)
Harold's plaque (2006)

Only a remnant of the defenders made their way back to the forest. Some of the Norman forces pursued the English but were ambushed and destroyed in the dusk when they ran afoul of steep ground, called, in later (12th century) sources, "the Malfosse", or "bad ditch".[citation needed] William rested his army for two weeks near Hastings, waiting for the English lords to come and submit to him. Then, after he realised his hopes of submission at that point were in vain, he began his advance on London. His army was seriously reduced in November by dysentery, and William himself was gravely ill. However, he was reinforced by fresh troops crossing the English Channel. After being thwarted in an attempt to cross London Bridge, he approached the city by a circuitous route, crossing the Thames at Wallingford and advancing on London from the north-west. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 355 KB) Summary The site where King Harold I died. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 355 KB) Summary The site where King Harold I died. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... For the Thoroughbred racehorse of the same name, see English Channel (horse). ... For other uses, see London Bridge (disambiguation). ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ...


The northern earls, Edwin and Morcar, Esegar the sheriff of London, and Edgar the Atheling, who had been elected king in the wake of Harold's death, all came out and submitted to the Norman duke before he reached London. William was crowned king on Christmas Day, 1066 at Westminster Abbey. For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... Edwin (died 1070) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and nephew of Hereward. ... Morcar (or Morkere) (d. ... Look up Sheriff in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Edgar Ætheling or Eadgar II (c. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ...


Legacy

See also: Norman conquest of England#Significance.
Plaque at Battle Abbey commemorating the fusing of the Anglo-Saxon and Norman peoples
Plaque at Battle Abbey commemorating the fusing of the Anglo-Saxon and Norman peoples

Battle Abbey was built on the site of the battle. A plaque marks the place where Harold is believed to have fallen and the location where the high altar of the church once stood. The settlement of Battle, East Sussex, grew up around the abbey and is now a small market town. The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ... Novices room at Battle Abbey Battle Abbey, actually named St. ... Location within the British Isles Battle is a small town in East Sussex, England, about 5 miles (8 km) from Hastings, and the site of the Battle of Hastings, where William, Duke of Normandy, defeated King Harold II to become William I. Battle Abbey takes its name from the town... The market town is a medieval phenomenon. ...


The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the events before, during, and after the Battle of Hastings. The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to the 1066 Norman invasion of England as well as the events of the invasion itself. ...


The Battle of Hastings is an excellent example of the application of the theory of combined arms. The Norman bowmen, cavalry and infantry cooperated together to deny the Saxons the initiative, and gave the homogeneous English army few tactical options except defence. Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ...


However, it is quite likely that this tactical sophistication existed primarily in the minds of the Norman chroniclers. The account of the battle given in the earliest source, the Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, is one where the Norman advance surprises the English, who manage to gain the top of Senlac Hill before the Normans. The Norman light infantry is sent in while the English are forming their shield wall (to no avail) and then the main force was sent in (no distinction being made between infantry and cavalry). Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... Early written source for the Norman invasion of England in September through December 1066; attributed to Bishop Guy of Amiens, uncle to Count Guy of Ponthieu, who figures rather prominently in the Bayeux Tapestry as the vassal of Duke William of Normandy who captured Harold Godwinson in 1064. ...


Succeeding sources include (in chronological order) William of Poitiers's Gesta Guillelmi (written between 1071 and 1077), The Bayeux Tapestry (created between 1070 and 1077), and the much later Chronicle of Battle Abbey, the chronicles written by William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, and Eadmer's Historia Novorum in Anglia embellishes the story further, with the final result being a William whose tactical genius was at a high level—a level that he failed to display in any other battle. William of Pointers (c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... Florence of Worcester (died July 7, 1118) was a 12th century English chronicler. ... Eadmer, or Edmer (c. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Howarth p.165
  2. ^ Howarth p.157

References

  • Howarth, David, 1066: The Year of the Conquest, Barnes and Noble, New York, 1993.
  • Douglas, Daniel C. William the Conqueror. Berkeley: U of California Press, 1992.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

Further reading

Books

Christopher Gravett is a British historian specialising in the military history of the Middle Ages, with an interest in the arms and armour of the period. ... Early written source for the Norman invasion of England in September through December 1066; attributed to Bishop Guy of Amiens, uncle to Count Guy of Ponthieu, who figures rather prominently in the Bayeux Tapestry as the vassal of Duke William of Normandy who captured Harold Godwinson in 1064. ... Although the genealogy of early Ponthieu and Boulogne is scanty (and the 12th century versions unreliable, because of their efforts to tie the ruling houses of Boulogne and Ponthieu into earlier noble houses), it is most likely that Guy, the bishop of Amiens, was the uncle (and not the brother...

Articles

The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts scenes commemorating the Battle of Hastings in 1066, with annotations in Latin. ...

Re-enactments

Coordinates: 50°54′43″N, 0°29′15″E Daniel Robert Snow was born in London on December 3, 1978. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... The Battle of Hastings reenactment is a yearly event at Battle Abbey in Battle, East Sussex, UK, recreating the Battle of Hastings. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

The districts of England are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government. ... For other uses, see Hastings (disambiguation). ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... Looking at East Hill Cliff Railway from the bottom of the cliff East Hill Cliff Railway (called locally the East Hill Lift) located in Hastings, East Sussex opened on August 10, 1902. ... After landing here in 1066, William Of Normandy ordered a fortification to be built, one being Pevensey Castle and the other was Hastings. ... View of Hastings Old Town from the East Hill Hastings Old Town, is an area in Hastings considered by many as a place of historical importance and a tourist attraction. ... Hastings Pier is a pleasure pier in Hastings, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 712 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1532 × 1290 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Helenswood Girls School, is a secondary school in Hastings, East Sussex in the United Kingdom, and has achieved specialist Arts College status. ... The William Parker Sports College, formerly known as Hastings Grammar School, and later as William Parker School, is a secondary school in Hastings, East Sussex in the United Kingdom. ... See also Michael John Foster, MP for Worcester Michael Jabez Foster (born February 26, 1946) British politician He is the Labour Member of Parliament for Hastings and Rye Michael Foster was born in Hastings, East Sussex and attended the local Hastings Secondary School for Boys and the Hastings Grammar School... Gareth Barry (born February 23, 1981 in Hastings) is an English football player who currently is the captain of English Premier League side Aston Villa. ... Jo Brand (born Josephine Grace Brand 3 May 1957, Hastings, East Sussex) is an English comedienne. ... Simon Fuller (born May 17, 1960 in Hastings, England) is one of the most important figures in the entertainment business in the world. ... Portrait of Grey Owl (1936), by Yousuf Karsh. ... Alexandra Park Alexandra Park is public park located in Hastings, East Sussex in the UK. It was originally planned out by Robert Marnock and occupies approximately 109 acres of the town. ... The Cinque Ports RFC Crest // Cinque Ports Rugby Football Club is an English community rugby union club who will play in the Sussex rugby leagues in the 2007/2008 Season. ... Fairlight Road Car Park Hastings Country Park was formed in 1974 and covers 660 acres east of Hastings in England. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Hastings United FC are a semi-professional English football club who currently play in the Isthmian League Division One South. ... Foyles War is a detective television programme created by screen-writer and author Anthony Horowitz, and commissioned by ITV after the long-running detective series Inspector Morse came to an end in 2000. ... Although part of the Borough of Hastings, and an ancient parish in its own right, the area that became known as St Leonards-on-Sea was only laid out in the 19th Century in its present form by James Burton as a place of elegant houses designed for the well... Ore, a former village, is now part of the urban area of the town of Hastings in East Sussex. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of hastings - Battle of Hastings, England (490 words)
Battle of hastings - Battle of Hastings, England
The Battle of Hastings was fought on October 14th 1066.
Battle of Stamford Bridge - 1066 » Battle of Hastings - 1066 The battle of Hastings was fought on the morning of the 14th October 1066.
Battle of Hastings 1066 Introduction (0 words)
Battle of Hastings which was fought between King Harold II of England and Duke William of Normandy
To speak of this battle without recourse to the events that came before, would be an injustice to the people of this island who have fought and died for her.
Not all are required for an understanding of the Battle of Hastings.
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