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Encyclopedia > Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald
Part of the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War
Battle of Grunwald
Battle of Grunwald, by Jan Matejko, 1878. Oil on canvas.
Date July 15, 1410
Location Grunwald (Tannenberg), present-day Poland
Result Decisive Polish–Lithuanian victory
Combatants
Kingdom of Poland
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Teutonic Order and Mercenaries and Various Knights from the rest of Europe
Commanders
Władysław II Jagiełło, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen
Strength
39,000 27,000
Casualties
Unknown 8,000 dead
14,000 captured
Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War
Bydgoszcz – Dąbrówno – Kurzętnik – Grunwald – Marienburg – Radzyń – Koronowo – Działdowo – Tuchola – Golub

The Battle of Grunwald (or Battle of Tannenberg) took place on July 15, 1410 with the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ranged against the Knights of the Teutonic Order. It was the decisive engagement in the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) and one of the greatest battles of medieval Europe. Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Jan Matejko , self-portrait. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... // Hitorical events Battle of Grunwald - the greatest medieval battle, fought in 1410 near the village of Grunwald Places and geographical features in Poland Grunwald village is a village in Gmina Grunwald, Poland. ... Stębark (German:Tannenberg) is a village in Poland. ... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Grunwald, painted by Wojciech Kossak. ... Modern view of the castle of Malbork The Siege of Marienburg was an unsuccessful siege of the Teutonic Order headquarters, the castle in Marienburg, by the joint Polish-Lithuanian forces under King WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw JagieÅ‚Å‚o. ... Combatants Kingdom of Poland Teutonic Order Czech mercenaries Silesian mercenaries Commanders King Ladislaus II Jogaila SÄ™dziwój Ostroróg Piotr Niedźwiedzki Michael Küchmeister von Sternberg Strength 2 000 men 1 000 Teutonic Knights 3 000 Czech and Silesian mercenaries Casualties little 800-1 000 killed (est. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... The Jagiellon Era 1385-1572, was dominated by the union of Poland with Lithuania under the Jagiellon Dynasty, founded by the Lithuanian grand duke Jagiello. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War occurred between 1409 and 1411, pitting the Polish Commonwealth and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania against the Teutonic Order of Knights. ...


The battle saw the Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights decisively defeated — and the order never recovered its former power. This article needs to be wikified. ...


The few eyewitness accounts are contradictory. It took place near several smaller villages, and different names in various languages are attributed to it.

Contents

Names and Locations

The battle was fought in the plains between the villages of Grunwald (Lithuanian: Žalgiris), Stębark (German: Tannenberg), and Łodwigowo (German: Ludwigsdorf) in Prussia, which at that time was territory governed by the Teutonic Order, but which is now in Poland. The nearest city of any size was Gilgenburg (since 1945: Dąbrówno). The names Žalgiris (from the Lithuanian žalia giria) and Grunwald (from the German grüner Wald) both translate as "Green Forest"; it was also called Zielone Pole ("Green Field") in Old Polish, and, in German, Grunenfelde or Grunefeld ("Green field") in the oldest texts. // Hitorical events Battle of Grunwald - the greatest medieval battle, fought in 1410 near the village of Grunwald Places and geographical features in Poland Grunwald village is a village in Gmina Grunwald, Poland. ... ST or St may stand for: Abbreviation for Street (St. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Motto Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Government Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I (first)  - 1688–1701 Frederick III (last) King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I (first)  - 1888–1918 William II (last) Prime Minister1,2... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... DÄ…brówno (-Polish, German: Gilgenburg) is a gmina (municipality) in the Ostródzki Powiat of the Warmia-Masuria Voivodship in Poland. ...


The battle is called

  • Schlacht bei Tannenberg (Battle of Tannenberg) by Germans,
  • Žalgirio mūšis (Battle of Žalgiris) by Lithuanians,
  • Bitwa pod Grunwaldem (Bitwa pod Grundwaldu, Battle of Grunwald) by Poles,
  • Гру́нвальдзкая бі́тва (Grúnvaldzkaya bі́tva, Battle of Grunwald) by Belarusians,
  • Ґрю́нвальдська би́тва (Grúnvaldska bítva, Battle of Grunwald) by Ukrainians and
  • Grünwald suğışı by Tatars.
  • Grünwaldi csata by Hungarians.

Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Eve of the battle

In the 13th century, the Teutonic Knights, subject directly to the Pope, had been requested by Konrad of Masovia to come to the lands surrounding Culm (Chełmno) to assist in the Crusade against the (pagan) Prussians. Preceding that were several years of attacks and conquest attempts by Konrad on the Prussians, which were unsuccessful. The Teutonic Order was called in to stabilize the territory between the Prussians and the Duchy of Masovia. The Teutonic Order received the territory of Prussia via golden bulls from the Emperor and papal edict, which gave them effective carte blanche as owners of a new 'Christianized' state of Prussia, instead of the 'pagan' native land of Terra Prussiae. They later received the territory of further north Baltic coastal regions of what are now Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, and showed every sign of further expansion. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Dukes of Masovia | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Sieradz-Leczyca | Prussian history ... CheÅ‚mno (older English: ; German: ) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land (Culmerland). ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


The Order of Dobrin was established by Konrad of Masovia previously and had received land around Plock. They were just a handful and were therefore ineffective, so by papal order they were combined with the Teutonic Order. They built many towns, including Culm Chełmno. The Prussians fought against takeover of their territory. In order to further their war efforts against the (pagan) Lithuanian state, the Teutonic Knights instituted a series of crusades, enlisting support from other European countries. The Order of Dobrin (also known as Brothers of DobrzyÅ„, Polish Bracia DobrzyÅ„scy; German: Orden von Dobrin) was a military order created in Poland during the 13th century to defend against Baltic Prussian raids. ... CheÅ‚mno (older English: ; German: ) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land (Culmerland). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


In 1385 the Union of Kreva joined the crown of Poland and Lithuania, and the subsequent marriage of Grand Duke Jogaila of Lithuania and reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland was to shift the balance of power; both nations were more than aware that only by acting together could the expansionist plans of the Teutonic Order be thwarted. Jogaila accepted Christianity and became the King of Poland as Władysław Jagiełło. Lithuania's conversion to Christianity removed much of the rationale of the Teutonic Knights' anti-pagan crusades. It can be said the Ordenstaat lost its raison d'etre. Events August 14 - Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese under John I of Portugal and the Castilians, under John I of Castile. ... The Union of Krewo[1], also known as KrÄ—va Act[2] (other names Union of Krevo, Act of Kreva) was a set of promises of Jogaila, Grand Duke of Lithuania for marriage between him and the underage reigning Queen Jadwiga of Poland. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... This article is about the 14th-century queen and saint. ... Wladislaus II on Jan Matejkos painting Jagello redirects here. ... The Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights (German: ) was formed during the Teutonic Knights conquest of Prussia and the still pagan Baltic Prussians in the 13th century. ...


The Knights, however, invaded again in 1398 what were now Christian states of Poland and Lithuania. At this time, the Poles and the Lithuanians had little option but to suffer in silence, for they were still not prepared militarily to confront the power of the Knights. Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ...


In 1409, an uprising in Teutonic-held Samogitia started. The king of Poland and Lithuania announced that he would stand by his promises in case the Teutons invaded Lithuania. This was used as a pretext, and on August 14, 1409 the Teutonic Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen declared war on the Polish-Lithuanian union. The forces of the Teutonic Order initially invaded Greater Poland and Kuyavia, but the Poles repelled the invasion and reconquered Bydgoszcz (Bromberg), which led to a subsequent armistice agreement that was to last until June 24, 1410. The Lithuanians and Poles used this time in preparations to remove the Teutonic threat once and for all. Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... The Eldership of Samogitia (Lithuanian: Žemaičių seniūnija) was the western part of Lithuania Artistic picture of Žemaičių Seniūnija in 18th century. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... KUYAVIA (sometimes spelt Cuyavia; in German KUJAWIEN, in Polish KUJAVY) is a historical region of Poland, named after the pagan tribe of the Kujawier (name in German) still known there under that name in the tenth century AD. It is the northernmost part of Greater Poland, west of Masovia and... Bydgoszcz ( ; German: ; Latin: ) is a city in northern Poland, on the Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ...


The forces of the Teutonic Knights were aware of the Polish-Lithuanian build-up and expected a dual attack, by the Poles towards Danzig (Gdańsk) and by the Lithuanians towards Samogitia. To counter this threat, Ulrich von Jungingen concentrated part of his forces in Schwetz (Świecie) while leaving the large part of his army in the eastern castles of Ragnit (Ragainė, Rhein (Ryn) near Lötzen (Giżycko), and Memel (Klaipėda). Poles and Lithuanians continued to screen their intentions by organising several raids deep into enemy territory. Ulrich von Jungingen asked for the armistice to be extended to July 4 in order to let the mercenaries from western Europe arrive. Enough time had already been given for the Polish-Lithuanian forces to gather in strength. GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... The Eldership of Samogitia (Lithuanian: Žemaičių seniÅ«nija) was the western part of Lithuania Artistic picture of Žemaičių SeniÅ«nija in 18th century. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Neman (German Ragnit, Lithuanian RagainÄ—, Polish Ragneta) is a town in Russias Kaliningrad Oblast, 11 kilometres East of the city of Sovetsk, on the bank of the Neman river. ... This article needs translation. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia i Mazury Municipal government UrzÄ…d Miejski w Giżycku Mayor Jolanta Piotrkowska Area 13,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 29 800 - 2148/km² Founded City rights - - Latitude Longitude 54°02 N 21°46 E Area code +48 87 Car plates NGI Twin towns - Municipal... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ...


On June 30, 1410, the forces of Greater Poland and Lesser Poland crossed the Vistula over a pontoon bridge and joined with the forces of Masovia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Jogaila's Polish forces and the Lithuanian soldiers of his cousin Vytautas the Great (to whom Jogaila had ceded power in Lithuania in the wake of his marriage to the Polish queen) assembled on July 2, 1410. A week later they crossed into the territory of the Teutonic Knights, heading for the enemy headquarters at the castle of Marienburg (Malbork). The Teutonic Knights were caught by surprise. June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Kraków Katowice WrocÅ‚aw Łódź PoznaÅ„ Bydgoszcz Lublin BiaÅ‚ystok GdaÅ„sk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O... The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... Pontoon bridge across the James River at Richmond, Virginia, 1865. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Malbork Castle 2003. ...


Ulrich von Jungingen withdrew his forces from the area of Schwetz (Świecie) and decided to organise a line of defence on the river Drewenz (Drwęca). The river crossings were fortified with stockades and the castles nearby reinforced. After meeting with his War Council, Jogaila decided to outflank the enemy forces from the East and on his attack on Prussia he continued the march towards Marienburg through Soldau (Działdowo) and Neidenburg. The towns were heavily damaged and Gilgenburg was completely plundered and burned to the ground, causing many refugees. On July 13, the two castles were captured and the way towards Marienburg was opened. Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... DrwÄ™ca is a river in northern Poland and a tributary of the Vistula river (near ToruÅ„). It has a length of 207 km (17th longest) and a basin area of 5,344 km² (all in Poland). ... A stockade is an enclosure of palisades and tall walls made of logs placed side by side vertically with the tops sharpened to provide some security. ... Flank is a word which might mean any of several different things: A flank is the side of either a horse or a military unit. ... DziaÅ‚dowo (German: ) is a town in north-central Poland with 20,830 inhabitants (2004). ... July 13 is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Opposing forces

In the early morning of July 15, 1410, both armies met in the fields near the villages of Grunwald, Tannenberg and Łodwigowo (Ludwigsdorf). Both armies were dislocated in line formations. The Polish-Lithuanian army was set up in front of the villages of Ludwigsdorf and Tannenberg. The left flank was guarded by the Polish forces of king Jogaila and composed mostly of heavy cavalry. The right flank of the allied forces was guarded by the army of Grand Duke Vytautas, and composed mostly of light cavalry. Among the forces on the right flank were banners from all over the Grand Duchy, as well as Tatar skirmishers and Moldavians sent by Alexandru cel Bun. The opposing forces of the Teutonic Order were composed mostly of heavy cavalry and infantry. They were to be aided by troops from Western Europe called "the guests of the Order,", who were still on the way, and other Knights who had been summoned to participate by a Papal Bull. is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... // Hitorical events Battle of Grunwald - the greatest medieval battle, fought in 1410 near the village of Grunwald Places and geographical features in Poland Grunwald village is a village in Gmina Grunwald, Poland. ... Stębark (German:Tannenberg) is a village in Poland. ... Other languages FAQs | Table free Welcome to Wikipedia, the free-content encyclopedia that anyone can edit. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Lipka Tatars (also known as Lithuanian Tatars, Lipkowie or MuÅ›limi) were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Alexandru cel Bun Alexandru cel Bun on a Moldovan coin Alexandru cel Bun (Alexandru I MuÅŸat, Alexander the Kind) was the ruler of Moldavia 1400-1432, son of Roman I MuÅŸat. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ...


The exact number of soldiers on both sides is hard to estimate. There are only two reliable sources describing the battle. The best-preserved and most complete account, Banderia Prutenorum, was written by Ioannes Longinus but does not mention the exact numbers. The other is incomplete and preserved only in a brief 16th century document. Months after the battle, in December 1410, the Order's new Grand Master Heinrich von Plauen the Elder sent letters to Western European monarchs in which he described the battle as a war against the forces of evil pagans. This view was shared by many chronicle writers. Since the outcome of the battle was subject to propaganda campaigns on both sides, many foreign authors frequently overestimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces in an attempt to explain the dramatic result. Blazon of the Order of Teutonic Knights. ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ... Heinrich von Plauen, the Elder (born circa 1370 in Lochstädt near Königsberg - died 1429 in Lochstädt) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, famous for saving the Marienburg after the Orders defeat in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410. ...


In one of the Prussian chronicles it is mentioned that "the forces of the Polish king were so numerous that there is no number high enough in the human language". One of the anonymous chronicles from the German Hanseatic city of Lübeck mentions that the forces of Jogaila numbered some 1,700,000 soldiers, the forces of Vytautas with 2,700,000 (with a great number of Ukrainians or Ruthenians as they were called then), in addition to 1,500,000 Tatars. Among the forces supposedly aiding the Polish-Lithuanian army were "Saracens, Turks, pagans of Damascus, Persia and other lands". According to Enguerrand de Monstrelet, the Teutons fielded some 300,000 men, while their enemies under the kings of "Lithuania, Poland and Sarmatia" fielded 600,000. Andrew of Regensburg estimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces at 1,200,000 men-at-arms. It must be noted that mediaeval chroniclers were notorious for sensationally inflating figures, and armies of the sizes quoted were actually impossible with the logisitics technology of the day. The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... For the rugby club Saracens see Saracens (rugby club) The term Saracen comes from Greek sarakenoi. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Motto (official) Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (national) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 8000 BCE   -  Middle... Assassination of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, on the Bridge of Montereau, in 1419. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ...


More recent historians estimate the strength of the opposing forces at a much lower level. Ludwik Kolankowski estimated the Polish-Lithuanian forces at 16,000-18,000 Polish cavalry and 6,000-8,000 Lithuanian light cavalry, with the Teutonic Knights fielding 13,000-15,000 heavy cavalry. Jerzy Dąbrowski estimated the overall strength of the allied forces at 18,000 Polish cavalry and 11,000 Lithuanians and Ruthenians, with the opposing forces bringing 16,000 soldiers. If these figures are accepted, this would make the battle less well attended than the Battle of Towton fought in Yorkshire, England, in the same century, which engaged two armies of around 40,000 men, 28,000 of whom died. Jerzy DÄ…browski (1899-1967) was a Polish aeronautical engineer. ...

Historian Poland Lithuania Others Teutonic Order
Lübeck Chronicle 1 700 000 2 700 000 1 500 000
Enguerrand de Monstrelet 600 000 300 000
Andrew of Regensburg 1 200 000
Ludwik Kolankowski 18 000 heavy cavalry 8 000 light cavalry 15 000 heavy cavalry
Jerzy Dąbrowski 18 000 11 000 16 000 + 3 000 guests
Henryk Łowmiański 12 000 heavy cavalry 7 200 light cavalry 11 000 heavy cavalry
Andrzej Nadolski 20 000 10 000 1000 15 000
Teutonic Knights before the Battle of GrunwaldScreenshot from the 1960 Polish movie Krzyżacy (The Teutonic Knights), based on the 19th-century novel of the same name, written by Henryk Sienkiewicz
Teutonic Knights before the Battle of Grunwald
Screenshot from the 1960 Polish movie Krzyżacy (The Teutonic Knights), based on the 19th-century novel of the same name, written by Henryk Sienkiewicz

Regardless of such estimates, most of the modern historians count only the cavalry units. Apart from 16,000 cavalry, the Teutonic Order also fielded some 9,000 infantry, archers and crossbow troops. Both armies also had large military camps, tabors and other units, which made up some 10% of their total strength. Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Assassination of the Duke of Burgundy, John the Fearless, on the Bridge of Montereau, in 1419. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Jerzy DÄ…browski (1899-1967) was a Polish aeronautical engineer. ... Henryk ŁowmiaÅ„ski (August 22, 1898 near UkmergÄ— - September 4, 1984 in PoznaÅ„) – Polish medieval historian. ... Teutonic order from the film Krzyżacy on a novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Teutonic order from the film Krzyżacy on a novel by Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Screenshot of a KDE desktop. ... Aleksander Ford (born November 24, 1908; died April 4, 1980) was a Polish film director. ... The Teutonic Knights (Polish: ) is a 1900 historical novel written by Polish writer and Nobel laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... 15th century man wearing coat of mail, shield, and armed with a crossbow/arbalest and resting on a pavise. ... A military camp or bivouac is a minor, semi-permanent facility for the lodging of an army. ... This is an article on the military formation called tabor. ...


Both armies were organised in banners, see Banderia Prutenorum. Each heavy cavalry banner was composed of approximately 240 mounted knights as well as their squires and armour-bearers. Each banner flew its own standard and fought independently. Lithuanian banners were usually weaker and composed of approximately 180 light cavalry soldiers. The structure of foot units (pikemen, archers, crossbowmen) and the artillery is unknown. A banner is a flag or other piece of cloth bearing a symbol, logo, slogan or other message. ... Blazon of the Order of Teutonic Knights. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... A pike is a pole weapon once used extensively by infantry principally as a counter-measure against cavalry assaults. ... It has been suggested that Primitive Archery be merged into this article or section. ... 15th century man wearing coat of mail, shield, and armed with a crossbow/arbalest and resting on a pavise. ...


The forces on both sides were composed of troops coming from a variety of countries and lands. Apart from units fielded by lands of Poland, Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Teutonic Order, there were also mercenaries from Western Europe (most notably Alsace, Lorraine, German Countries, Moravia, Bohemia and Moldavia. Historians of the Soviet Union attempted to overemphasize the Russian role in the battle. For example, they included some Lithuanian banners, such as Smolensk, into the Russian list. They also phrased the description of the battle to make it appear that the support from Russian lands was decisive. In fact there was a 'joke' that "the battle with the fascist Teutons was won by joint Polish-Soviet forces" (most of the territory of the Grand Duchy was part of the Soviet Union in the 20th century). The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


The overall commander of the joint Polish-Lithuanian forces was king Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland, with the Polish units subordinated to Marshal of the Crown Zbigniew of Brzezie and Lithuanian units under the immediate command of Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas. Until recently it was believed that the Sword Bearer of the Crown Zyndram of Maszkowice was the commander in chief of the joint army, but this idea was based on a false translation of the description of the battle by Ioannes Longinus. The Teutonic Forces were commanded directly by the Grand Master of the Order Ulrich von Jungingen. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o. ... Zadora Coat of Arms Zbigniew z Brzezia or Zbigniew Lanckoroński (ca. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Zyndram z Maszkowic (Zyndram of Maszkowice, ca. ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ...


Course of the battle

Initial positions
Initial positions
Retreat of Lithuanian light cavalry
Retreat of Lithuanian light cavalry
Right-flank Polish/Lithuanian assault
Right-flank Polish/Lithuanian assault
Polish heavy cavalry break-through
Polish heavy cavalry break-through

The opposing forces formed their lines at dawn. At noon the forces of Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas started an all-out assault on the left flank of the Teutonic forces, near the village of Tannenberg (Stębark). The Lithuanian cavalry was supported by a cavalry charge of several Polish banners on the right flank of the enemy forces. The enemy heavy cavalry counter-attacked on both flanks and fierce fighting occurred. Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Author: Screen2 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... ST or St may stand for: Abbreviation for Street (St. ...


After more than an hour, the Lithuanian light cavalry started a planned retreat maneuver towards marshes and woods. This maneuver was often used in the east of Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Mongols. Vytautas, who had experience in battles against Mongols, used it in this battle. Only three banners of Smolensk commanded by Lengvenis (Simon Lingwen), son of Algirdas, brother of Jogaila and a cousin of Vytautas, remained on the right flank after the retreat of Vytautas and his troops. One of the banners was totally destroyed, while the remaining two were backed up by the Polish cavalry held in reserve and broke through the enemy lines to the Polish positions. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. ... Columns of Gediminas Algirdas (approximate English transcription [ˈaːl(É™).gır. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ...


Heavy cavalry of the Order started a disorganised pursuit after the retreating Lithuanians, which might have been a fatal mistake. The Knights entered the marshes, where Vytautas reorganized his forces to return to battle. Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ...


At the same time heavy fighting continued on the left flank of the Polish forces. After several hours of massed battle, the Teutonic cavalry started to gain the upper hand. According to Ioannes Longinus the Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen personally led a cavalry charge on the strongest Polish unit — the Banner of the Land of Cracow. The Polish ranks started to waver and the flag of the banner was lost. However, it was soon recaptured by the Polish knights, and king Jogaila ordered most of his reserves to enter combat. Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ...


The arrival of fresh troops allowed the Poles to repel the enemy assault and the forces of Ulrich von Jungingen were weakened. At the same time his reserves were still busy pursuing the evading Lithuanian cavalry. When they finally returned to the battlefield, it was already too late for the Teutonic charge to succeed and the forces of the Order started the withdrawal. Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ...


At pivotal role in triggering the Teutonic retreat is attributed to the leader of the banner of Culm, [1] [2] Nikolaus von Renys, born in Prussia, identified by linginus as Swabia, (name used by Poles for German), (some Poles insist on Mikołaj of Ryńsk). The founder and leader of the Lizard Union, a group of Order Knights sympathetic to Poland, refused to fight the Polish. Lowering the banner he was carrying was taken as a signal of surrender by the Teutonic troops. Accused of treason, ultimately von Renys was beheaded by his order, along with all of his male descendants. Nicholas von Renys (German: ; Polish: ; 1360 - 1411) was a secular Prussian knight during the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411). ... Germany. ... Lizard Union (Polish: ) was a secret organization of szlachta from CheÅ‚mno Land, established in 1397 for protection against Teutonic Knights. ...


After several hours of fighting, Ulrich von Jungingen decided to join his embattled forces in the main line of engagement. Vytautas, however, also returned to the battlefield with the reorganized forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and joined the fierce fighting. The Teutonic forces were by then becoming outnumbered by the mass of Polish knights and the advancing Lithuanian infantry, which all of a sudden had come pouring on the battlefield from the surrounding forests. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


Ulrich von Jungingen personally led the assault with 16 banners of heavy cavalry, which until then were held in reserve. Jogaila, however, threw in all his remaining reserves, as well as several already tired units. Putting up heavy resistance, the 16 banners of the Grand Master were surrounded and began to suffer high losses, including the Grand Master himself, who was probably killed by Polish peasantry. Seeing the fall of their Grand Master, the rest of the Teutonic forces started to withdraw towards their camp. Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ...


Part of the routed units retreated to the forests where they were pursued by the Lithuanian and Polish cavalry, while the rest retreated to the camp near the village of Grunwald, where they tried to organise the defence by using the tabor tactics: the camp was surrounded by wagons tied up with chains, serving as a mobile fortification. However, the defences were soon broken and the camp was looted. According to the anonymous author of the Chronicle of the Conflict of Ladislaus King of Poland with the Teutons Anno Domini 1410, there were more bodies in and around the camp than on the rest of the battlefield. The pursuit after the fleeing Teutonic cavalry lasted until the dusk. // Hitorical events Battle of Grunwald - the greatest medieval battle, fought in 1410 near the village of Grunwald Places and geographical features in Poland Grunwald village is a village in Gmina Grunwald, Poland. ... This is an article on the military formation called tabor. ...


Despite the technological superiority of the Teutonic Knights, to the point of this being believed to be the first battle in this part of Europe in which field-artillery was deployed, the numbers and tactical superiority of the Polish Lithuanian alliance were to prove overwhelming.


Jan Žižka of Trocnov lost his first eye in the battle, fighting for the Lithuanians. Jan Žižka (or John Zizka of Trocnov or Johann Ziska Czech: Jan Žižka z Trocnova) (c. ...


Aftermath

Painting by Alfons Mucha, detailing carnage after the Battle of Grunwald.
Painting by Alfons Mucha, detailing carnage after the Battle of Grunwald.

The defeat of the Teutonic Order was resounding. According to Andrzej Nadolski about 8,000 Teuton soldiers were killed in the battle, and an additional 14,000 taken captive. Most of the approximately 250 members of the Order were also killed, including much of the Teutonic leadership. Apart from Ulrich von Jungingen himself, the Polish and Lithuanian forces killed also the Grand Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrode, Grand Komtur Kuno von Lichtenstein and Albrecht von Schwartzburg, the Grand Treasurer Thomas von Merheim. Image File history File links Battle_of_Grunwald_(After_the_Battle). ... Image File history File links Battle_of_Grunwald_(After_the_Battle). ... Alfons Mucha Alfons Maria Mucha (or Alphonse Maria Mucha)   (July 24, 1860–July 14, 1939) was a Czech painter and decorative artist. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ...


Markward von Salzbach, the Komtur of Brandenburg, and mayor Schaumburg of Sambia were executed by order of Vytautas after the battle. The only higher officials to escape from the battle were Grand Hospital Master and Komtur of Elbing Werner von Tettinger. Such a slaughter of noble knights and personalities was quite unusual in Mediæval Europe. This was possible mostly due to the participation of the peasantry who joined latter stages of the battle, and took part in destruction of the surrounded Teutonic troops. Unlike the noblemen, the peasants did not receive any ransom for taking captives; they thus had less of an incentive to keep them alive. Among those taken captive were Kasimir V, duke of Stettin (Szczecin), and Konrad the White, duke of Oels (Oleśnica).   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... ElblÄ…g (IPA: ; German: ) is a city in northern Poland with 127,892 inhabitants (2006). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... OleÅ›nica (German Oels or Öls. ...


After the battle Polish and Lithuanian forces stayed on the battlefield for three days. All notable officials were interred in separate graves, while the body of Ulrich von Jungingen was covered with royal coat and transported to Marienburg Castle. The rest of the dead were gathered in several mass graves. There are different speculations as to why Jogaila decided to wait that long. After three days, the Polish-Lithuanian forces moved on to Marienburg and laid siege upon the castle, but the three days time had been enough for the Teutons to organise the defence. Troops from Livonia were expected to support their brothers, and the ongoing conflict with Sigismund of Luxemburg could cause problems elsewhere. After several weeks of siege, the Lithuanian Grand Duke withdrew from the war and it became clear that the siege would not be effective. The nobility from Lesser Poland also wanted to end the war before the harvest, and the siege was lifted. Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ... There are many fortresses, castles, and towns of this name. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ...


In the battle, both Polish and Lithuanian forces had taken several thousand captives. Most of the mercenaries were released shortly after the battle on the condition that they will return to Cracow on 29 September 1410. After that move, the king held most of the Teutonic officials, while the rest returned to Prussia to beg the Teutonic Order officials for their liberation and ransom payment. This proved to be a major drain of the Teutonic budget as the value of a Teutonic Knight was quite high. September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 29 - The Aragonese capture Oristano, capital of the giudicato di Arborea in Sardinia July 15 – Battle of Grunwald (also known as Tannenberg or Zalgiris). ...


For instance, one of the mercenaries named Holbracht von Loym had to pay sixty times (German: Schock) the number of 150 Prager Groschen, that is almost 30 kilograms of pure silver, a value uncommon even in modern times. With his army defeated and the remnants of it composed mostly of ill-paid mercenaries, Heinrich von Plauen the Elder had little incentive to continue the fight, especially since some of the Hanseatic cities owned by the Teutons had changed sides. Thus, after retaking Danzig from rebellious burghers, the peace negotiations were started. 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ... Prager Groschen (German: , Latin: , Czech: , Polish: ) was a Groschen-type silver coin that became very common throughout the Medieval Central Europe. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... Heinrich von Plauen, the Elder (born circa 1370 in Lochstädt near Königsberg - died 1429 in Lochstädt) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, famous for saving the Marienburg after the Orders defeat in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410. ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


According to the Peace of Thorn in 1411, the Order had to cede the Dobrin Land (Dobrzyn Land) to Poland, and resign their claims to Samogitia for the lifetime of the king. This is thought to be a diplomatic defeat for Poland and Lithuania as they pushed for attempts to dismantle the Teutonic Knights state altogether. However, while the Poles and Lithuanians were unable to translate the military victory in the battle to greater geographical gains, the financial consequences of the peace treaty were much worse for the Teutons, having to pay about 5 tons of silver in each of the next four years. Peace of Toruń 1411 or the First Peace of Toruń was a peace treaty signed on 1 February 1411 in Toruń between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order ending the so called Great War of 1409-1410 (see the Battle of Grunwald). ... Dobrzyń Land (German: ; Polish: ) is a territory of historical interest surrounding present day Dobrzyń nad Wisłą in Poland (German: ). The Order of Dobrin received the territory as a base in 1228 and was later absorbed into the Teutonic Knights. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ...


The massacre of Teutonic troops left them with few forces to defend their remaining territories. The Grand Masters from then on had to rely on mercenary troops, which proved too expensive for the Teutons' budget to sustain. Although Heinrich von Plauen the Elder, the successor to Ulrich von Jungingen, managed to save his state from complete breakdown, the opposition to his rule among the burghers, the knights and within the Order itself forced his ouster. Heinrich von Plauen, the Elder (born circa 1370 in Lochstädt near Königsberg - died 1429 in Lochstädt) was the 27th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, famous for saving the Marienburg after the Orders defeat in the Battle of Tannenberg in 1410. ... Ulrich von Jungingen Ulrich von Jungingen (born 1360 in Jungingen– died July 15, 1410 near Tannenberg) was the 26th Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, as successor to his elder brother Konrad von Jungingen. ...


The Teutons' lost support due to their internal conflicts and constant tax increases, which decades later was manifested in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation, or Alliance against Lordship, in 1441. This led to a series of conflicts that culminated in 1454 the Thirteen Years' War, ending with another defeat of the victorious order. On February 21, 1440, a group made up of individuals from the Prussian cities, gentry and clergy, formed the Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: ZwiÄ…zek Pruski), under the leadership of the big cities Gdansk, Elblag, and Torun. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ...


Influences of the Battle of Grunwald on modern culture

Poland

Jagiełło in a 2003 reconstruction of the battle.
Jagiełło in a 2003 reconstruction of the battle.

The battle of Grunwald is regarded as one of the most important battles in Polish history. It is often depicted by an ideogram of two swords, which were supposedly given to king Jagiello and Grand Duke Vytautas before the battle by the Teutonic envoys to "raise Polish desire for battle". Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 463 KB) Battle of Grunwald reconstruction 2003 Author: Wojsyl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 463 KB) Battle of Grunwald reconstruction 2003 Author: Wojsyl File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Jagiellons were a royal dynasty which reigned in some Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Chinese character. ...

Cross of Grunwald medal, with its double swords.
Cross of Grunwald medal, with its double swords.

In 1914, on the eve of World War I, during the celebrations marking the 500-year anniversary of the battle a monument by Antoni Wiwulski was erected in Kraków. The ceremony spawned demonstrations of outrage within Polish society against the aggressive politics of the German Empire, including the forcible Germanization of Poles after the partitions of Poland. Polish poet Maria Konopnicka wrote the fiercely Polish-patriotic and anti-German poem Rota. About the same time, Henryk Sienkiewicz wrote his novel The Teutonic Knights (Polish: Krzyżacy) , one of his series of books designed to increase the patriotic spirit among the Poles. The book was eventually depicted in the film The Teutonic Knights by Aleksander Ford. Today, a festival is held every year to commemorate this medieval battle. Thousands of medieval reenactors, many of them in knight's armor, from all across Europe gather every year in July at the Grunwald fields to reconstruct the battle again. Great care is put to the historical details of the armour, weapons and the conduct of the battle. Image File history File links Order Krzyża Grunwaldu kl. ... Image File history File links Order Krzyża Grunwaldu kl. ... Order Krzyża Grunwaldu kl. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Monument of Wladyslaw Jagiello on 500. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Maria Konopnicka (May 23, 1842, SuwaÅ‚ki — October 8, 1910, Lwów) was a Polish poet, novelist, translator and essayist. ... Rota (Oath) is a 20th-century Polish poem and anthem, at one time a candidate to be the Polish national anthem. ... Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... The Teutonic Knights (Polish: ) is a 1900 historical novel written by Polish writer and Nobel laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Aleksander Ford (born November 24, 1908; died April 4, 1980) was a Polish film director. ... 2003 reenactment of the Battle of Grunwald Infantry of the Teutonic Order on the march during the 2006 recreation of the battle of Grunwald Polish heavy infantry assaulting a single Teutonic bombard Medieval reenactment is a form of historical reenactment that focuses on re-enacting European history in the period...


Order Krzyża Grunwaldu (The Cross of Grunwald medal) was a Polish military decoration created in 1943 by the commander of the Gwardia Ludowa (confirmed in 1944 by the Krajowa Rada Narodowa) which was awarded for heroism in World War II. Order Krzyża Grunwaldu kl. ... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gwardia Ludowa (Peoples Guard, abbreviated GL) was a communist armed organisation in Poland, organised by the Soviet created Polish Workers Party. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... State National Council (Polish Krajowa Rada Narodowa, KRN) was a political body formed in the late stages of the Second World War in the Soviet Union, as a begining of new Polish government. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In Poland there are sport teams named "Grunwald"' like Grunwald Poznań. Grunwald PoznaÅ„ is a sports club based in PoznaÅ„, Poland, with several sections: field hockey (Hokej na trawie) shooting (Strzelectwo) Wrestling (Zapasy) Handball (PiÅ‚ka rÄ™czna) Orienteering (Biegi na orientacjÄ™) Tennis (Tenis ziemny) See also Football in Poland External link http://www. ...


Belarus

In the 15th century present-day Belarus was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Many cities from the region contributed troops to the Grand Duchy's side. The victory in the Battle of Grunwald is widely respected and commemorated. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Żamojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


Lithuania

The victory at the Battle of Grunwald or Žalgirio mūšis in 1410 is synonymous with the peak of the political and military power of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The demise of the Teutonic order ended the period of German expansion and created preconditions for political stability, economic growth and relative cultural prosperity that lasted until the rise of Muscovy in the late 16th century. In the Lithuanian historical discourse regarding the battle there is a lasting controversy over the roles played by the Lithuanian-born king of Poland Jogaila, and his cousin, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vytautas, the latter usually being favoured as a national hero. There is also well known speculation about two swords which were presented to Jogaila before battle, why two swords for one commander? It's widely believed that Teutonic Order sent one sword for Vytautas, but as he was commanding on the field of battle both of them were presented for Jogaila. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Jogaila, or WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o[1] (ca 1362–1434), was a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland. ...


The term Žalgiris became a symbol of resistance to foreign domination over Lithuania. The leading Lithuanian basketball and football teams are called BC Žalgiris and FK Žalgiris to commemorate the battle. The victories of BC Žalgiris Kaunas against the Soviet Army sports club CSKA Moscow in the late 1980s served as a major emotional inspiration for the Lithuanian national revival, and the consequent emergence of the Sąjūdis movement that helped lead to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five active players each try to score points against one another by throwing a ball through a 10-foot high hoop (the basket) under organized rules. ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... BC Žalgiris is a basketball team based in Kaunas, Lithuania. ... FK Žalgiris is a Lithuanian football club, playing in the capital, Vilnius. ... PBC CSKA Moscow (Central Sports Army Club Moscow, Russian: ПБК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian basketball club, often referred to as Red Army for its past affiliation with the Soviet Army. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... S is the nineteenth letter in the modern Latin alphabet. ...


Germany

In Germany the battle was known as the Battle of Tannenberg. In 1914 yet another Battle of Tannenberg took place between Germany and Russia, ending with a Russian defeat. In German propaganda during the WWI / WWII period the 1914 battle was put forth as a revenge for the Polish - Lithuanian victory 504 years earlier, and the battle itself was purposefully named to suit this agenda. Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Russia and the Soviet Union

Due to the participation of the Smolensk regiment in the battle, Russians consider the battle to be a Polish-Lithuanian-Russian coalition against invading Germans. The banner from Starodub took part in the battle. This town is now part of the Bryansk region in Russia. A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Starodub (Стародуб in Russian; could be translated as old oak), a town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia. ...


Banners

Poland

The exact Order of Battle of the Polish forces is unknown. However, Ioannes Longinus in his Historiæ Polonicæ written after 1455 recorded 51 Polish banners, together with their descriptions, blazoning and commanders. An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... ... no changes . ... Chorągiew pancerna of rotmistrz Józef Hulewicz painted by Wojciech Kossak. ...


This list also has some obvious errors: at the time of the battle several of the banners attributed to Poland were constituents of the Lithuanian army (e.g. Lwow, Podolia, Halitcz); Pahonia (Vytis, The Chase) was an exclusively Lithuanian banner, etc. The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ...


It is not certain whether the list is complete.

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of The Crown - Court Banners
Great Banner of Kraków and the Kingdom of Poland The Crown Arms of Poland Elite troops, under Zyndram of Maszkowice
"Gończa" Court Banner Goncza Coat of Arms under Andrzej of Ochocice of Osorya
Pogoń Court Banner Pogoń Pahonia under Andrzej Ciołek of Żelechów and Jan of Sprowa of Odrowąż
Saint George Bohemian and Moravian mercenaries, under Sokol and Zbyslavek
  Army of The Crown - Regional Banners
Greater Poland Greater Poland Coat of Arms of Greater Poland
Land of Sandomierz Flag of Sandomierz
Kalisz Flag of Kalisz
Land of Sieradz Sieradz Flag of Sieradz
Land of Lublin Jeleń
Land of Łęczyca Leczyca Flag of Łęczyca
Land of Cuyavia Cuyavia Coat of Arms of Cuyavia
Land of Lwów Lwow Banner of Lwów
Land of Wieluń Wielun Flag of Wieluń Reinforced with mercenaries from Silesia
Land of Przemyśl Przemyśl Flag of Przemyśl
Dobrzyń Dobrzyn Coat of Arms of Dobrzyń
Land of Chełm ChelmCoat of Arms of Chełm
Three banners of Podolia Coat of Arms of Podolia Split up due to large number of knights
Land of Halicz Halicz Coat of Arms of Halicz
  Army of The Crown - Masovian Banners
Two banners of
Duke Siemowit IV of Masovia
Masovia Coat of Arms of Masovia Masovia, mostly Płock area Dukes of Masovia
Duke Janusz I of Masovia Banner of Masovia as flown by the forces of Janusz I own Masovia, mostly Warsaw area Dukes of Masovia
  Army of The Crown - Personal Banners
Archbishop of Gniezno
Mikołaj Kurowski
Sreniawa Śreniawa
Bishop of Poznań
;Wojciech Jastrzębiec
Jastrzębiec under Jarand of Brudzewo
Castellan of Kraków
Krystyn of Ostrów
Rawicz Rawicz
Voivod of Kraków
Jan of Tarnów
Leliwa Leliwa
Voivod of Poznań
Sędziwój of Ostroróg
Nałęcz Nałęcz
Voivod of Sandomierz
Mikołaj of Michałowo
Poraj Poraj
Voivod of Sieradz
Jakub of Koniecpol
Pobóg
Castellan of Śrem
Iwo of Obiechów
Wieniawa
Voivod of Łęczyca
Jan Ligęza
Półkozic Półkozic
Castellan of Wojnice
Andrzej of Tęczyn
Topór Topór
Marshal of The Crown
Zbigniew of Brzezie
Zadora Zadora
Chambelain of Kraków
Piotr Szafraniec
Starykon Starykoń
Castellan of Wiślica
Klemens of Moskorzów
Piława
Castellan of Śrem and mayor of Greater Poland
Wincenty of Granów
Leliwa Leliwa
Dobko of Oleśnica Dębno Dębno
Spytko of Tarnów Leliwa Leliwa
Lord High Steward of Kalisz
Marcin of Sławsko
Zaremba
Dobrogost Świdwa of Szamotuły Nałęcz Nałęcz
Krystyn of Koziegłowy Lis Lis
Master King's Cup-Bearer
Jan Mężyk
Wadwicz Wadwicz
Deputy Chancellor of the Crown
Mikołaj Trąba
Trąby
Mikołaj Kmita of Wiśnicz Sreniawa Śreniawa
Gryf Clan Gryf Gryf Family of Gryf, under Zygmunt of Bobowa
Zaklika of Korzkiew Syrokomla Syrokomla
Clan of Koźlerogi Kozlerogi Koźlerogi Family, under Castellan of Wiślica Florian of Korytnica
Jan of Jičín Benešovec Moravia Volunteers from Moravia, commanded by certain Helm
Steward of the Crown and starost of Lwów
Gniewosz of Dalewice
Strzegomia Strzegomia Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia Only foreign volunteers and mercenaries
Duke of Lithuania Sigismund Korybut Pogoń Vytis

Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Banner of the Land of Kraków Basically a White Eagle used as a symbol of the Piast Dynasty This particular banner was flown as the war banner of the Banner of Kraków during the Battle of Grunwald. ... Flag of Poland with the coat of arms The coat of arms of Poland consists of a white eagle on a red shield. ... Zyndram z Maszkowic (Zyndram of Maszkowice, ca. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ossorya - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Pogoń - Vytis, Pahonia or Pogoń Derivative work of Image:Vytis. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Ciołek - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Old fire station. ... Odrowąż - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Coat of Arms of Sieradz Sieradz is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 44,700 inhabitants (1995). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lublin Powiat city county Gmina Lublin Established before 12th century City Rights 1317 Government  - Mayor Adam Wasilewski Area  - City 147. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town of 18000 inhabitants in central Poland. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Kuyavia (sometimes spelt Cuyavia, Polish Kujawy) is a historical region of Poland. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... WieluÅ„ is a town in central Poland with 25,500 inhabitants (1995). ... Image File history File links Flaga_Wielun. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Places PrzemyÅ›l – a city in SE Poland, probably established by an unknown duke called PrzemysÅ‚ PrzemyÅ›l Voivodship – a Polish province from 1975 to 1998 People PrzemysÅ‚, PrzemysÅ‚aw, PÅ™emysl or Przemko is a common Slavic name. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Golub-Dobrzyń is a town in central Poland, located on the both sides of the Drweca river. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... CheÅ‚m ( ; Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 72,595 inhabitants (2005). ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Banner of Podolia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Emblem of Masovia Siemowit IV (also known as Ziemowit IV) (ca. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Bridge across the Vistula at PÅ‚ock. ... Seal of the Duchy of Masovia. ... Coat of Arms of Janusz I Janusz I (ca. ... Image File history File links Banner_Masovia. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Seal of the Duchy of Masovia. ... Throughout the Commonwealth Realms The Crown is an abstract concept which represents the legal authority for the existence of any government. ... Gniezno (pronounced: [gɲȋεznÉ”]) is a town in central-western Poland, some 50 km east of PoznaÅ„, inhabited by about 73,000 people. ... Banner of Szreniawa Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Szreniawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Polish: StoÅ‚eczne Miasto PoznaÅ„ (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Wojciech of JastrzÄ™biec (ca. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Jastrzebiec. ... Jastrzębiec - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Banner of Rawicz Coat of Arms according to Ioannes Longinus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Rawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Noble Family Tarnowski Coat of Arms Leliwa Parents Jan z Tarnowa Katarzyna Consorts Elżbieta ze Sternberka Children with Elżbieta ze Sternbarka Katarzyna Tarnowska Jan Feliks Tarnowski Jan Rafał Tarnowski Jan Amor Młodszy Tarnowski Jan Amor Starszy Tarnowski Jan Gratus Tarnowski Date of Birth... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Leliwa. ... Leliwa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... PoznaÅ„ ( ; full official name: The Capital City of PoznaÅ„, Polish: StoÅ‚eczne Miasto PoznaÅ„ (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Banner of Nałęcz File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Flag of Sandomierz Sandomierz Coat of Arms Sandomierz(Sandomir) ( listen) is a city in south-eastern Poland with 25,714 inhabitants (2006). ... Banner of Poraj File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Poraj - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Coat of Arms of Sieradz Sieradz is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 44,700 inhabitants (1995). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Pobog. ... Pobóg - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ... Water tower Åšrem is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 29,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Wieniawa Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Wieniawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Łęczyca (in full The Royal Town of Łęczyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto Łęczyca) is a town of 18000 inhabitants in central Poland. ... Banner of Półkozic File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Image File history File links Banner of Topór Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Topór - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Zadora Coat of Arms Zbigniew z Brzezia or Zbigniew Lanckoroński (ca. ... Zadora Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Zadora - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Banner of Starykoń File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Starykoń - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... WiÅ›lica is a town on the Nida River in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship in Poland. ... Pilawa Coat of Arms This work is copyrighted. ... Pilawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Water tower Åšrem is a town on Warta river in central Poland with 29,800 inhabitants (1995). ... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Leliwa. ... Leliwa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Flag of Dębno Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Dębno - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Noble Family Tarnowski Coat of Arms Leliwa Parents Jan z Tarnowa Katarzyna Consorts Sandochna ze Zgłobienia Children with Sandochna ze Zgłobienia Jan Tarnowski-Jarosławski Rafał Tarnowski-Jarosławski Spytek Tarnowski-Jarosławski Jadwiga Tarnowska-Jarosławska Date of Birth abt. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Herb_Leliwa. ... Leliwa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Kalisz (pronounce: [kaliʃ]) is a city in central Poland with 109,800 inhabitants (1995). ... Zaremba Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Zaremba - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... SzamotuÅ‚y - town in Poland, in Greater Poland Voivodship, about 30 km northwest of PoznaÅ„. It is the capital of SzamotuÅ‚y County. ... Banner of Nałęcz File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Banner of Lis Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lis - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Banner of Wadwicz Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Wadwicz - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... // MikoÅ‚aj TrÄ…ba, of TrÄ…by Coat of Arms (1358 - 2 December 1422) was a Polish Roman Catholic priest, Royal Notary from 1390, Deputy Chancellor of the Crown 1403-12, bishop of Halicz 1410-12, archbishop of Gniezno from 1412, and first primate of Poland 1417-22. ... Traby Clan This work is copyrighted. ... Trąby - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Banner of Szreniawa Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Szreniawa - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Banner of Gryf Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gryf - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Banner of Syrokomla Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Syrokomla - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Banner of Jelita Coat of Arms File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Jelita - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... WiÅ›lica is a town on the Nida River in ÅšwiÄ™tokrzyskie Voivodship in Poland. ... Banner of Odrowąż File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Odrowąż - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg... Gniewosz z Dalewic (died after 1410; lit. ... Banner of Kościesza File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Kościesza - is a Polish Coat of Arms. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pogoń - Vytis, Pahonia or Pogoń Derivative work of Image:Vytis. ... Vytis The Coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Knight) or Pogoń. Structure The heraldic shield features a red field with an armored knight on a white (silver) horse holding a silver sword in his right hand above his head. ...

Lithuania

Due to different system of feudal overlordship, as well as lack of heraldic traditions, the units of Grand Duchy of Lithuania were all grouped under banners of two types: the Vytis and the Columns of Gediminas. The only difference between various lands using the same emblem was the blazon. The hareness and the colour of the horse on the Pahonia (Pogoń) differed. Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Vytis The Coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Knight) or Pogoń. Structure The heraldic shield features a red field with an armored knight on a white (silver) horse holding a silver sword in his right hand above his head. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... This is an article about Heraldry. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ...


Note that the number of Lithuanian banners is uncertain. According to Ioannes Longinus there were 40 banners on the right flank of the Polish-Lithuanian forces, 10 flying the Columns of Gediminas and 30 flying the Vytis. However, he also mentions that there might have been 2 additional banners from Smolensk and up to six additional banners of Samogitia. German authors also mention that there were three auxiliary banners of Moldavia flying their own flags. In addition, it is probable that the units from Trakai, Volhynia, Smolensk, Kiev and Nowogrodek used their own emblems. Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Vytis The Coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Knight) or Pogoń. Structure The heraldic shield features a red field with an armored knight on a white (silver) horse holding a silver sword in his right hand above his head. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Etnographic regions of Lithuania. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2005)  - City 3,950,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok, Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a Belarusian city with an old history, the first capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ...

Banner of Battle sign Origin Remarks
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Vytis Banners
Vytautas the Great Vytis
Minsk Pahonia
Polock Pahonia
Hrodna Pahonia
Kreva Pahonia
Krichev Pahonia
Mahileu Pahonia
Niasvizh Pahonia
Novgorod Pahonia
Novhorod-Siverskyi Pahonia
Orsha Pahonia
Slonim Pahonia
Slutsk Pahonia
Vitsebsk Pahonia
Vladzimir Pahonia
  Army of the Grand Duchy - Flying the Columns Banners
Sigismund Kestutaitis Columns of Gediminas
Manvydas Columns of Gediminas
Yurij, son of Lengvenis Columns of Gediminas
Trakai Columns of Gediminas
Vilnius Columns of Gediminas
Hrodna Columns of Gediminas
Kaunas Columns of Gediminas
Lida Columns of Gediminas
Medininkai Columns of Gediminas
Three (?) Banners of Smolensk Columns of Gediminas under Lengvenis (Simon Lingwen)
Vitebsk Columns of Gediminas
Kiev Columns of Gediminas
Pinsk Columns of Gediminas
Navahradak Columns of Gediminas
Brest Columns of Gediminas
Wolkowysk Columns of Gediminas
Drohiczyn Columns of Gediminas
Mielnik Columns of Gediminas
Krzemieniec Columns of Gediminas
Starodub Columns of Gediminas
  Auxiliary Units
Lipka Tatars none approximately 1000 skirmishers under Jalal ad-Din
Three Banners of Moldavia approximately 900 foot soldiers and 25 knights under Logofăt Mihaiu Alexandrel

The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Vytautas the Great, 17th century painting Trakai Island Castle Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:  ; Belarusian: ; Polish: ; Ruthenian: Vitovt; German: ; Latin: Alexander Vitoldus; ca. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... Vytis The Coat of arms of the Republic of Lithuania is the Vytis (the Knight) or Pogoń. Structure The heraldic shield features a red field with an armored knight on a white (silver) horse holding a silver sword in his right hand above his head. ... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк, also spelt as Polacak; Polish: PoÅ‚ock; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina river. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Kreva (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ) is a town in Belarus, near the border of Lithuania and Belarus. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Krichev or Krychaw (Belarusian: ; Łacinka: KryčaÅ­; Russian: ) is a city in the western Belarusian Mahilyow Voblast. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Mahilyow, or Mahileu (Belarusian: Магілёў; Russian: Могилёв (Mogilev), Polish Mohylew or Mogilew) is a city in the eastern Belarus, close to the border to Russia with about 300,000 inhabitants. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Niasvizh (Belarusian: Нясьві́ж, Нясві́ж; Russian: Несвиж (Nesviz); Polish: Nieśwież) is a city in Belarus. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Novhorod-Siverskyj (Ukrainian: ) or Novgorod-Sjeverskij (Russian: ) is a historic town in the Chernihiv Oblast (province) of Ukraine, on the bank of the Desna River, 200 km from the capital Kiev and 45 km south from the Russian border. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Orsha (Belarusian: Во́рша; Russian: О́рша; Polish: Orsza) is a city in Belarus, an important railway node along the Minsk–Moscow line. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Slonim (Belarusian: Сло́нім; Russian: Сло́ним Polish: SÅ‚onim) is a city in Belarus in the Hrodna voblast, located at the junction of the Scara and Isa rivers, 143 km southeast of Hrodna. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Slutsk (Belarusian: Слу́цак, Слуцк; Polish Słuck; Russian: Слуцк) is a town in Belarus, located on the Sluc river, 105 km south of Minsk. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Vitsebsk (Belarusian: Ві́цебск (Viciebsk); Russian: Ви́тебск (Vitebsk); Polish: Witebsk) is a city in Belarus, near the border with Russia and Latvia. ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... Volodymyr-Volynsky (Володимир-Волинський; Polish: Włodzimierz Wołyński, Russian: Vladimir Volynski) is a city in Volyn region, northwestern Ukraine, with a population of 38,000 (2004). ... Pogoń - a version of Vytis used during the Battle of Grunwald by the banners of White Ruthenia Derivative of Image:Pogon. ... The Pahonia (Belarusian: , translated as Chase) is a historical symbol of Belarus. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Columns of Gediminas Trakai Island Castle Sigismund I Kestutian (Belarusian: , Lithuanian: , Polish: ; born after 1350, murdered 20 March 1440 in Trakai) was the Grand Prince of Lithuania from 1432 to 1440. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Monwid (ca 1300 – 1348) was the Prince of Kiernow and Wslonim 1341 – 1342. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Trakai district municipality Elderate Trakai elderate Number of elderates Coordinates General information Capital of Trakai district municipality Trakai elderate Population (rank) 5,504 in 2005 (56th) First mentioned 1337 Granted city rights 1409 The reconstructed Trakai Island Castle Trakai (Polish: ) is... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Hrodna City emblem Hrodna (Belarusian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; Lithuanian: ; Yiddish: Grodne; German: ) is a city in Belarus. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.n... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Lida (Belarusian: Лі́да, Russian: Ли́да, Lithuanian: Lyda) is a small city located in western Belarus, approximately 70 km west of Minsk. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Castle walls and tower drawn in the 19th century by Napoleon Orda Medininkai Castle is a medieval castle in Vilnius district, Lithuania built in the late 13th century or the first quarter of the 14th century. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Lengvenis (Simeon Lingwen, born ca. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2005)  - City 3,950,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Pinsk (Belarusian: , Russian: ), a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, travesed by the river Prypiać, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Navahradak (Нава́градак in Belarusian; Russian: Novogrudok; Polish: Nowogródek; Lithuanian: Naugardukas) is a city in western Belarus. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Brest (Belarusian: , Russian: , Polish: ; Alternative names), formerly Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk, is a city (population 290,000 in 2004) in Belarus close to the Polish border where the Western Bug and Mukhavets Rivers meet. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... VaÅ­kavysk (Belarusian: , Polish: ) is a town in the Hrodna Province of Belarus. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Drohiczyn is a town in north-eastern Poland. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... For the town in Bulgaria see Melnik, Bulgaria. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Kremenets (Ukrainian:Кременець, Polish: Krzemieniec) is a city in Ternopil Oblast, Galicia-Volhynia, Western Ukraine. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... Starodub (Стародуб in Russian; could be translated as old oak), a town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia. ... Pillars of Gediminas, one of the ancient symbols of Lithuania Made by Halibutt in no time just in GIMP File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Columns of Gediminas (Lithuanian Gedimino Stulpai, Polish Słupy Giedymina) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania, one of its historical coats of arms, mostly used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania initially as a state symbol and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Moldobour. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Logothetes. ...

Related reading

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Non-fiction

  • Stefan Kuczyński, Szymon Kobyliński, Chorągwie grunwaldzkich zwycięzców (The Banners of the Victors of Grunwald); WAiF, Warsaw, 1989. ISBN 83-221-0467-7
  • Ioannes Longinus (Jan Długosz), Annales seu Cronicæ Incliti Regni Poloniæ; PWN, Warsaw, 2000. ISBN 83-01-13301-5
  • Ioannes Longinus (Jan Długosz), Bitwa grunwaldzka; Ossolineum, Wrocław, 2003. ISBN 83-04-04632-6
  • Mečislovas Jučas, Žalgirio mūšis (Battle of Grunwald); Mokslas, Vilnius, 1990. ISBN 5-420-00242-6
  • Sven Ekdahl, Die Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410. Quellenkritische Untersuchungen. Bd. 1: Einführung und Quellenlage. ISBN 3-428-05243-9
  • Sven Ekdahl Die "Banderia Prutenorum" des Jan Dlugosz: Eine Quelle zur Schlacht bei Tannenberg 1410 : Unters. zu Aufbau, Entstehung u. Quellenwert d. Hs. : mit e. ... Klasse ; Folge 3, Nr. 104). ISBN 3-525-82382-7
  • Schlacht bei Tannenberg- Historical account by Jörg Dendl

Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan Długosz Jan Długosz, also known as Joannes Longinus or Joannes Dlugossius (1415-1480) was a Polish historian (a chronicler) and a secretary of Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki of Kraków. ... The building of the Ossolineum Institute in Wrocław The former building of the Ossolineum Institute in Lwów, now Ukraine. ... Motto: Miasto spotkaÅ„ (the meeting place) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lower Silesian Powiat city county Gmina WrocÅ‚aw Established 10th century City Rights 1262 Government  - Mayor RafaÅ‚ Dutkiewicz Area  - City 292. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

Fiction

Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (IPA: [], artistic name: “Litwos”, IPA: []) ( May 5, 1846, Wola Okrzejska, Congress Poland, - November 15, 1916, Vevey, Switzerland), Oszyk Coat of Arms, was a Polish novelist and publicist. ... The Teutonic Knights (Polish: ) is a 1900 historical novel written by Polish writer and Nobel laureate Henryk Sienkiewicz. ... Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas, and Poland. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet, and travel writer, and a leading representative of Neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also

Combatants Novgorod Teutonic Knights Commanders Prince Alexander Yaroslavich, AKA Alexander Nevsky Russian Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich was in charge of the campaign but it is likely a Crusader was in charge of the army. ... Blazon of the Order of Teutonic Knights. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Battle of Grunwald - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4116 words)
It was the decisive battle of the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War (1409-1411) and the greatest battle of medieval Europe.
The battle was fought in the plains between the villages of
Jagiełło in a 2003 reconstruction of the battle.
Battle of Tannenberg (1914) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (507 words)
The Battle of Tannenberg in 1914 was a decisive conflict between the Russian Empire and the German Reich in the first days of The Great War, fought by the Russian 1st and 2nd Armies and the German Eighth Army between August 17 and September 2, 1914.
Interestingly, an ancestor of Hindenburg had fallen at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410.
The battle is at the centre of Alexander Solzhenitsyn's novel August 1914.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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