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Encyclopedia > Battle of Glorietta Pass
Battle of Glorieta Pass
Roy Anderson, artist
Battle of Glorieta Pass
Conflict American Civil War
Date March 26-28, 1862
Place Santa Fe County and San Miguel County, New Mexico
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America Confederate States of America
Commanders
John P. Slough
John M. Chivington
Charles L. Pyron
William R. Scurry
Strength
Northern Division, Army of New Mexico 4th, 5th, and 7th Texas Cavalry Regiment, artillery, and a company of independent volunteers
Casualties
142 189
Sibley's New Mexico Campaign
Valverde – Glorieta Pass

The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 2628, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War. Dubbed the "Gettysburg of the West" by historians, it was the decisive blow by Union forces to stop the Confederate invasion of the West along the base of the Rocky Mountains. (Roy Anderson, artist; Courtesy of Pecos National Historical Park) Digital image: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... 1862 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Santa Fe County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... San Miguel County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... Colonel John Chivington (1821-1894), born in Lebanon, Ohio, was the hero of Glorietta Pass and the man responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... 1862 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... See also the town of Battle, East Sussex, England Generally, a battle is an instance of combat between two or more parties wherein each group will seek to defeat the others. ... The New Mexico campaign was a military operation in 1862 of the American Civil War in which the Confederate General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the New Mexico Territory in an attempt to control the southwest and the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. ... The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 until 1865 between the United States – forces coming mostly from the 23 northern states of the Union – and the newly-formed Confederate States of America, which consisted of 11 southern states that had declared their secession. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in North America... The Union Army refers to the United States Army during the American Civil War. ... National Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God our Vindicator) Official language English de facto nationwide Various European and Native American languages regionally Capital Montgomery, Alabama February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861 Richmond, Virginia May 29, 1861–April 9, 1865 Danville, Virginia April 3–April 10, 1865 Largest city New Orleans... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ...


New Mexico Campaign

The commanders of the New Mexico Campaign were the Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley and the Union Colonel Edward Canby. Sibley had outmaneuvered Canby at the Battle of Valverde in February, driving Canby back to his fort, then advancing up along the Rio Grande Valley to seize Santa Fe on March 10. Sibley set up his division headquarters at the abandoned Union storehouse garrison at Albuquerque. Henry Hopkins Sibley was a brigadier general during the American Civil War fighting on the side of the Confederate States of America in the New Mexico Territory. ... Major General E.R.S Canby Major General Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817–April 11, 1873) graduated from West Point in 1839. ... This article is about the river that empties into the Gulf of Mexico. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... The Rio Grande flowing past Albuquerque Image of Albuquerque, New Mexico taken by NASA Albuquerque is the largest city in the state of New Mexico, U.S.A.. It is the county seat of Bernalillo County, and is situated in the central part of the state, straddling the Rio Grande...


In March, Sibley sent a Confederate force of 200–300 Texans under the command of Major Charles L. Pyron on an advance expedition over the Glorieta Pass, a strategic location on the Santa Fe Trail at the southern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains southeast of Santa Fe. Control of the pass would allow the Confederates to advance onto the High Plains and to make an assault on Fort Union, the Union stronghold along the invasion route northward over Raton Pass. State nickname: Lone Star State Other U.S. States Capital Austin Largest city Houston Governor Rick Perry Official languages None. ... Battle of Glorieta Pass Conflict American Civil War Date March 26-28, 1862 Place Santa Fe County and San Miguel County, New Mexico Result Union victory The Battle of Glorieta Pass was the decisive battle of the New Mexico campaign fought during the American Civil War from March 26 - March... The Santa Fe Trail was an important route in the western United States, leading from Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. ... The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains located in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado in the United States. ... Santa Fe (Spanish for holy faith) or Santa Fé (Portuguese) is the name of a number of places in the world: United States of America: Santa Fe, the state capital of New Mexico Santa Fe, Florida Santa Fe, Missouri Santa Fe, Tennessee Santa Fe, Texas Rancho Santa Fe, California It... The Great Plains states. ... Fort Union National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service located in Watrous, New Mexico. ... Raton Pass (7834 feet) is a mountain pass along the Colorado-New Mexico border in the United States. ...


Battle

The Texans were led by Charles L. Pryon and William R. Scurry. The Union forces were led by Colonel John P. Slough of the 1st Colorado Volunteers, with units under the command of Major John M. Chivington, who became known as the hero of the battle The 1st Colorado Volunteers (officially the 1st Regiment of Colorado Volunteers) was a volunteer infantry regiment of the United States Army formed in the Colorado Territory in 1861 and active in the American West in the late 19th century. ... Colonel John Chivington (1821-1894), born in Lebanon, Ohio, was the hero of Glorietta Pass and the man responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre. ...


Pyron's force camped forced at Johnson’s Ranch, at one end of the pass. Union Maj. John M. Chivington led more than 400 soldiers to the Pass and on the morning of March 26 moved out to attack. After noon, Chivington’s men captured some Rebel advance troops and then found the main force behind them. Chivington advanced on them, but their artillery fire threw him back. He regrouped, split his force to the two sides of the pass, caught the Rebels in a crossfire, and soon forced them to retire. Pyron and his men retired about a mile and a half to a narrow section of the pass and formed a defensive line before Chivington’s men appeared. March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ...


The Union forces flanked Pyron’s men again and punished them with enfilade fire. The Confederates fled again and the Union cavalry charged, capturing the rearguard. Chivington then retired and went into camp at Kozlowski’s Ranch. No fighting occurred the next day as reinforcements arrived for both sides. Lt. Col. William R. Scurry's troops swelled the Rebel ranks to about 1,100 while Union Col. John P. Slough arrived with about 900 men. Both Slough and Scurry decided to attack and set out early on the 28th to do so. As Scurry advanced down the canyon, he saw the Union forces approaching, so he established a battle line, including his dismounted cavalry. Slough hit them before 11:00 a.m. The Confederates held their ground and then attacked and counterattacked throughout the afternoon. Enfilade and defilade are military tactical concepts used to describe a fighting units exposure to enemy fire. ...


The fighting then ended as Slough retired first to Pigeon’s Ranch and then to Kozlowski’s Ranch. Scurry soon left the field also, thinking he had won the battle. Chivington’s men, however, had destroyed all Scurry's supplies and animals at Johnson's Ranch, forcing him to retreat to Santa Fe, the first step on the long road back to San Antonio, Texas. The Federals had won and, thereby, stopped Confederate incursions into the Southwest. Glorieta Pass was the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory. Canby was promoted to brigadier general three days after his victory. Downtown San Antonio as viewed from the Tower of the Americas San Antonio is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. ... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ...


Parts of the battlefield are preserved in Pecos National Historical Park.


References

  • National Park Service battle description (http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/nm002.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
John Chivington - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (873 words)
He was celebrated as the hero of the 1862 Battle of Glorieta Pass, and later became infamous for his role in the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre.
His heroics as the Battle of Glorietta Pass in the New Mexico Territory, where he destroyed the Confederate supply wagons and forced the Texans to retreat, earned him great praise and he was appointed colonel of regiment in April 1862.
Chivington declared that his forces had fought a battle with hostile Indians and the action was initially celebrated as a victory, with some soldiers callously displaying Indian body parts as trophies.
First Colorado Cavalry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (332 words)
It was formed both to protect Colorado against incursions from the Confederate South and to fight the native Americans that already inhabited the area.
Command of this unit was given Colonel John Chivington, who had apparently legitimately distinguished himself at the Battle of Glorietta Pass in the New Mexico Territory early in 1862, against Confederate forces.
Body parts were taken as souvenirs and this event was the basis of the slaughter of an Indian village in the movies Soldier Blue and Little Big Man.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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