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Encyclopedia > Battle of Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
Part of the American Civil War

The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. July 3d. 1863, by Currier and Ives
Date July 1July 3, 1863
Location Adams County, Pennsylvania
Result Union victory
Combatants
United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America
Commanders
George G. Meade Robert E. Lee
Strength
93,921[1] 71,699[2]
Casualties
23,055
(3,155 killed,
14,531 wounded,
5,369 captured/missing)[1]
23,231
(4,708 killed,
12,693 wounded,
5,830 captured/missing)[2]

The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1July 3, 1863), fought in, and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War,based on deaths per hour.[3] and is frequently cited as the war's turning point.[4] Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, ending Lee's invasion of the North. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Download high resolution version (900x569, 409 KB)The battle of Gettysburg, Pa. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Adams County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength 11,000 9,500 Casualties 907 (69 killed, 352 wounded, 486 missing/captured)[1] 523[1] The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Middleburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 17-19, 1863 Place Loudoun County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Middleburg took place from June 17-19, 1863 in Loudoun County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength Divisions Divisions Casualties 400 total (US and CS) 400 total (US and CS) The Battle of Upperville took place on June 21, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Darius N. Couch Albert G. Jenkins Strength Elements of Pennsylvania and New York state militia Elements of the 16th Virginia Cavalry Regiment Casualties 16 dead 20-30 wounded 11 wounded The Skirmish of Sporting Hill was a relatively small skirmish... The Battle of Hanover took place on June 30, 1863, in York County, Pennsylvania as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William F. Smith Jeb Stuart Strength Federal militia (app. ... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Fairfield was a cavalry engagement during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Williamsport Conflict American Civil War Date July 6-16, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Williamsport, also known as the Battle of Hagerstown or Falling Waters, took place from July 6-16, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of... Battle of Boonsboro Conflict American Civil War Date July 8, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Boonsboro took place on July 8, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William H. French Richard H. Anderson Strength Divisions Divisions Casualties 440 total (US and CS) 440 total (US and CS) The Battle of Manassas Gap, also known as the Battle of Wapping Heights, took place on July 23, 1863, in... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Following his success at Chancellorsville in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley for his second invasion of the North, hoping to reach as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or even Philadelphia, and to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved almost on the eve of battle and replaced by Meade. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Location in Dauphin County and state of Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country Commonwealth County Dauphin Incorporated 1791 Charter 1860 Government  - Mayor Stephen R. Reed (D) Area  - City  11. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


The two armies began to collide at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended initially by a Union cavalry division, which was soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of town to the hills just to the south. is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A corps (plural same as singular; a word that migrated from the French language, pronounced IPA: (cor), but originating in the Latin corpus, corporis meaning body) is either a large military unit or formation, an administrative grouping of troops within an army with a common function (such as artillery or...


On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled. The Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, and fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Peach Orchard. On the Union right, demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. Across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines. Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Devils Den is the nickname for a terrain feature south of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, that was the site of fierce fighting at the Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ...


On the third day of battle, July 3, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, and cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. Pickett's Charge was repulsed by Union rifle and artillery fire at great losses to the Confederate army. Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 Americans were casualties in the three-day battle. That November, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ...

Contents

Background and movement to battle

Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines.      Confederate      Union
Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines.      Confederate      Union
Further information: Gettysburg Campaign, Gettysburg Battlefield, Confederate order of battle, and Union order of battle

Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a decisive victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville (April 30May 6, 1863), Robert E. Lee decided upon a second invasion of the North (the first was the unsuccessful Maryland Campaign of September 1862). Such a move would upset Federal plans for the summer campaigning season and possibly relieve the besieged Confederate garrison at Vicksburg. It would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much needed rest. In addition, Lee's 72,000-man army[2] could threaten Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, and possibly strengthen the growing peace movement in the North.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1564x2269, 815 KB)Map of the Gettysburg Campaign (up to July 3, 1863) of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1564x2269, 815 KB)Map of the Gettysburg Campaign (up to July 3, 1863) of the American Civil War. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg on the Confederate side. ... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War on the Union side. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Vicksburg is a city in Warren County, Mississippi. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Thus, on June 3, Lee's army began to shift northward from Fredericksburg, Virginia. In order to attain more efficiency in his commands, Lee had reorganized his two large corps into three new corps. Lt. Gen. James Longstreet retained command of his First Corps. The old corps of deceased Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson was divided into two, with the Second Corps going to Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and the new Third Corps to Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill. The Cavalry Corps was commanded by Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart.[6] is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... For other uses of Stonewall Jackson, see Stonewall Jackson (disambiguation). ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ...


The Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven infantry corps, a cavalry corps, and an Artillery Reserve, for a combined strength of about 94,000 men.[1] However, President Lincoln replaced Hooker with Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade, a Pennsylvanian, because of Hooker's defeat at Chancellorsville and his timid response to Lee's second invasion north of the Potomac River. George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Largest metro area Delaware Valley Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[1] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[1] The Battle of... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


The first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between the opposing cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia. The Confederate cavalry under Stuart was surprised and nearly routed by the the Union I Corps, but Stuart eventually prevailed. The battle, the largest cavalry engagement of the war, proved that for the first time, the Union horse soldier was equal to his Southern counterpart.[7] June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength 11,000 9,500 Casualties 907 (69 killed, 352 wounded, 486 missing/captured)[1] 523[1] The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the American Civil War. ... Culpeper is an incorporated town in Culpeper County, Virginia, United States. ...


By mid-June, the Army of Northern Virginia was poised to cross the Potomac River and enter Maryland. After defeating the Federal garrisons at Winchester and Martinsburg, Ewell's Second Corps began crossing the river on June 15. Hill's and Longstreet's corps followed on June 24 and June 25. Hooker's army pursued, keeping between the U.S. capital and Lee's army. The Federals crossed the Potomac from June 25 to June 27.[8] Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... Martinsburg is a city located in Berkeley County, West Virginia. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lee gave strict orders to his army to minimize any negative impacts on the civilian population. Food, horses, and other supplies were generally not seized outright, although quartermasters reimbursing northern farmers and merchants using Confederate money were not well received. Various towns, most notably York, Pennsylvania, were required to pay indemnities in lieu of supplies, under threat of destruction. The most controversial of the Confederate actions during the invasion was the seizure of some forty northern African Americans, a few of whom were escaped slaves but most freemen. They were sent south into slavery under guard.[9] Nickname: Coordinates: , Country United States State Pennsylvania County York Incorporated  - Borough September 24, 1787  - City January 11, 1887 Government  - Mayor John Brenner Area  - City  5. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


On June 26, elements of Maj. Gen. Jubal Early's division of Ewell's Corps occupied the town of Gettysburg after chasing off newly raised Pennsylvania militia in a series of minor skirmishes. Early laid the borough under tribute but did not collect any significant supplies. Soldiers burned several railroad cars and a covered bridge, and they destroyed nearby rails and telegraph lines. The following morning, Early departed for adjacent York County.[10] is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Jubal Early may refer to: Jubal Anderson Early - a Confederate General during the American Civil War Jubal Early - a character on the Firefly television series. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an army composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... A covered bridge is a bridge, often single-lane, with enclosed sides and a roof. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... York County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


Meanwhile, in a controversial move, Lee allowed J.E.B. Stuart to take a portion of the army's cavalry and ride around the east flank of the Union army. Lee's orders gave Stuart much latitude, and both generals share the blame for the long absence of Stuart's cavalry, as well as for the failure to assign a more active role to the cavalry left with the army. Stuart and his three best brigades were absent from the army during the crucial phase of the approach to Gettysburg and the first two days of battle. By June 29, Lee's army was strung out in an arc from Chambersburg (28 miles (45 km) northwest of Gettysburg) to Carlisle (30 miles (48 km) north of Gettysburg) to near Harrisburg and Wrightsville on the Susquehanna River.[11] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Chambersburg is a borough in Pennsylvania, United States. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Cumberland Founded 1751 Government  - Mayor Kirk R. Wilson Area  - Borough  5. ... Location in Dauphin County and state of Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country Commonwealth County Dauphin Incorporated 1791 Charter 1860 Government  - Mayor Stephen R. Reed (D) Area  - City  11. ... Wrightsville is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... The Susquehanna River (originally Sasquesahanough per the 1612 John Smith map) is a river located in the northeastern United States. ...


In a dispute over the use of the forces defending the Harpers Ferry garrison, Hooker offered his resignation, and Abraham Lincoln and General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck, who were looking for an excuse to get rid of him, immediately accepted. They replaced him early on the morning of June 28 with Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade, commander of the V Corps.[12] Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ...


On June 29, when Lee learned that the Army of the Potomac had crossed its namesake river, he ordered a concentration of his forces around Cashtown, located at the eastern base of South Mountain and eight miles (13 km) west of Gettysburg.[13] On June 30, while part of Hill's Corps was in Cashtown, one of Hill's brigades, North Carolinians under Brig. Gen. J. Johnston Pettigrew, ventured toward Gettysburg. The memoirs of Maj. Gen. Henry Heth, Pettigrew's division commander, claimed that Pettigrew was in search of a large supply of shoes in town, but this explanation may have been devised in retrospect to justify an overly heavy reconnaissance force.[14] is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cashtown-McKnightstown is an unincorporated census_designated place located in Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... South Mountain is a long mountain ridge in Maryland and Pennsylvania which comprises a northern extension of the Blue Ridge Mountains. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... J. Johnston Pettigrew James Johnston Pettigrew (July 4, 1828 – July 17, 1863) was an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


When Pettigrew's troops approached Gettysburg on June 30, they noticed Union cavalry under Brig. Gen. John Buford arriving south of town, and Pettigrew returned to Cashtown without engaging them. When Pettigrew told Hill and Heth about what he had seen, neither general believed that there was a substantial Federal force in or near the town, suspecting that it had been only Pennsylvania militia. Despite General Lee's order to avoid a general engagement until his entire army was concentrated, Hill decided to mount a significant reconnaissance in force the following morning to determine the size and strength of the enemy force in his front. Around 5 a.m. on Wednesday, July 1, two brigades of Heth's division advanced to Gettysburg.[15] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Buford, Jr. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


First day of battle

Further information: Battle of Gettysburg, First Day
Map of battle, July 1.

General Buford realized the importance of the high ground directly to the south of Gettysburg, knowing that if the Confederates could gain control of the heights, Meade's army would have difficulty dislodging them. He decided to utilize three ridges west of Gettysburg: Herr Ridge, McPherson Ridge, and Seminary Ridge (proceeding west to east toward the town). These were appropriate terrain for a delaying action by his small division against superior Confederate infantry forces, meant to buy time awaiting the arrival of Union infantrymen who could occupy the strong defensive positions south of town at Cemetery Hill, Cemetery Ridge, and Culp's Hill.[16] The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, began as an American Civil War meeting engagement between isolated units of the Army of Northern Virginia (under Confederate General Robert E. Lee) and the Army of the Potomac (Union Major General George G. Meade), but soon escalated into... Download high resolution version (489x680, 166 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (489x680, 166 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in...


Heth's division advanced with two brigades forward, commanded by Brig. Gens. James J. Archer and Joseph R. Davis. They proceeded easterly in columns along the Chambersburg Pike. Three miles (5 km) west of town, about 7:30 a.m. on July 1, Heth's two brigades met light resistance from vedettes of Union cavalry, and deployed into line. Eventually, they reached dismounted troopers from Col. William Gamble's cavalry brigade, who raised determined resistance and delaying tactics from behind fence posts with fire from their breechloading carbines.[17] By 10:20 a.m., the Confederates had pushed the Union cavalrymen east to McPherson Ridge, when the vanguard of the I Corps (Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds) finally arrived.[18] James Jay Archer (December 19, 1817 – October 24, 1864) was a lawyer and an officer in the United States Army during the Mexican War and in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Joseph Robert Davis (1825-1896) was a Confederate General during the American Civil War and nephew of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The French military term vedette (formed from Latin videre, to see), migrated into English and other languages to refer to a mounted sentry or outpost, who has the function of bringing information, giving signals or warnings of danger, etc, to a main body of troops. ... William Gamble William Gamble (January 1, 1818 – December 20, 1866) was a civil engineer and a Union cavalry officer in the American Civil War. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1840 – July 1, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. ...


North of the pike, Davis gained a temporary success against Brig. Gen. Lysander Cutler's brigade but was repulsed with heavy losses in an action around an unfinished railroad bed cut in the ridge. South of the pike, Archer's brigade assaulted through Herbst (also know as McPherson's) Woods. The Federal Iron Brigade under Brig. Gen. Solomon Meredith enjoyed initial success against Archer, capturing several hundred men, including Archer himself.[19] General Lysander Cutler Lysander Cutler (February 16, 1807 – July 30, 1866) A Union Army general during the American Civil War. ... The Iron Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army during the American Civil War, consisting primarily of Western regiments, that was noted for its ability to withstand almost any fire, and its regiments combined took the highest casualty percentage of the war. ... Solomon Meredith (May 29, 1810 – October 2, 1875) was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ...


Early in the fighting, while General Reynolds was directing troop and artillery placements just to the east of the woods, he fell from his horse, killed by a bullet, which struck him behind the right ear.[20] Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday assumed command. Fighting in the Chambersburg Pike area lasted until about 12:30 p.m. It resumed around 2:30 p.m., when Heth's entire division engaged, adding the brigades of Pettigrew and Col. John M. Brockenbrough.[21] Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... John Mercer Brockenbrough (August 1, 1830 – August 24, 1892) was a farmer and a Confederate colonel in the American Civil War. ...


As Pettigrew's North Carolina Brigade came on line, they flanked the 19th Indiana and drove the Iron Brigade back. The 26th North Carolina (the largest regiment in the army with 839 men) lost heavily, leaving the first day's fight with around 212 men. By the end of the three-day battle, they had about 152 men standing, the highest casualty percentage for one battle of any other regiment, North or South.[22] Slowly the Iron Brigade was pushed out of the woods toward Seminary Ridge. Hill added Maj. Gen. William Dorsey Pender's division to the assault, and the I Corps was driven back through the grounds of the Lutheran Seminary and Gettysburg streets.[23] “Flanking” redirects here. ... William Dorsey Pender William Dorsey Pender (February 6, 1834 – July 3, 1863) was one of the youngest, and most promising, generals fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. ... Image:Olddorm. ...


As the fighting to the west proceeded, two divisions of Ewell's Second Corps, marching west toward Cashtown in accordance with Lee's order for the army to concentrate in that vicinity, turned south on the Carlisle and Harrisburg Roads toward Gettysburg, while the Union XI Corps (Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard) raced north on the Baltimore Pike and Taneytown Road. By early afternoon, the Federal line ran in a semi-circle west, north, and northeast of Gettysburg.[24] The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


However, the Federals did not have enough troops; Cutler, who was deployed north of the Chambersburg Pike, had his right flank in the air. The leftmost division of the XI Corps was unable to deploy in time to strengthen the line, so Doubleday was forced to throw in reserve brigades to salvage his line.[25]


Around 2:00 p.m., the Second Corps divisions of Maj. Gens. Robert E. Rodes and Jubal Early assaulted and out-flanked the Union I and XI Corps positions north and northwest of town. The brigades of Col. Edward A. O'Neal and Brig. Gen. Alfred Iverson suffered severe losses assaulting the I Corps division of Brig. Gen. John C. Robinson south of Oak Hill. Early's division profited from a blunder made by Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, when he advanced his XI Corps division to Blocher's Knoll (directly north of town and now known as Barlow's Knoll); this represented a salient[26] in the corps line, susceptible to attack from multiple sides, and Early's troops overran his division, which constituted the right flank of the Union Army's position. Barlow was wounded and captured in the attack.[27] Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ... Edward Asbury ONeal (September 20, 1818–November 20, 1890) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Alfred Iverson, Jr. ... John Cleveland Robinson (April 10, 1817 – February 18, 1897) was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Francis C. Barlow Francis Channing Barlow (October 19, 1834 – January 11, 1896) was a lawyer, politician, and Union general during the American Civil War. ...


As Federal positions collapsed both north and west of town, Gen. Howard ordered a retreat to the high ground south of town at Cemetery Hill, where he had left the division of Brig. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr as a reserve.[28] Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock assumed command of the battlefield, sent by Meade when he heard that Reynolds had been killed. Hancock, commander of the II Corps and his most trusted subordinate, was ordered to take command of the field and to determine whether Gettysburg was an appropriate place for a major battle.[29] Hancock told Howard, who was technically superior in rank, "I think this the strongest position by nature upon which to fight a battle that I ever saw." When Howard agreed, Hancock concluded the discussion: "Very well, sir, I select this as the battle-field." Hancock's determination had a morale-boosting effect on the retreating Union soldiers, but he played no direct tactical role on the first day.[30] Adolph von Steinwehr Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich von Steinwehr (September 25, 1822 – February 25, 1877) was a Prussian army officer who emigrated to the United States, became a geographer, cartographer, and author, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ...


Gen. Lee understood the defensive potential to the Union if they held this high ground. He sent orders to Ewell that Cemetery Hill be taken "if practicable." Ewell chose not to attempt the assault; this decision is considered by historians to be a great missed opportunity.[31]


The first day at Gettysburg, more significant than simply a prelude to the bloody second and third days, ranks as the 23rd biggest battle of the war by number of troops engaged. About one quarter of Meade's army (22,000 men) and one third of Lee's army (27,000) were engaged.[32]


Second day of battle

Lee's Plan for July 2.
Further information: Second Day, Little Round Top, Culp's Hill, and Cemetery Hill

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x1315, 399 KB)Map of actions in the Battle of Gettysburg, second day, Lees plan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (950x1315, 399 KB)Map of actions in the Battle of Gettysburg, second day, Lees plan. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ...

Plans and movement to battle

Throughout the evening of July 1 and morning of July 2, most of the remaining infantry of both armies arrived on the field, including the Union II, III, V, VI, and XII Corps. Longstreet's third division, commanded by George Pickett, had begun the march from Chambersburg early in the morning; it did not arrive until late on July 2.[33] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Union Army, XII Corps, 3rd Division Badge The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... George Edward Pickett (January 28[1] or January 16, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a career U.S. Army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Union line ran from Culp's Hill southeast of the town, northwest to Cemetery Hill just south of town, then south for nearly two miles (3 km) along Cemetery Ridge, terminating just north of Little Round Top. Most of the XII Corps was on Culp's Hill; the remnants of I and XI Corps defended Cemetery Hill; II Corps covered most of the northern half of Cemetery Ridge; and III Corps was ordered to take up a position to its flank. The shape of the Union line is popularly described as a "fishhook" formation. The Confederate line paralleled the Union line about a mile (1,600 m) to the west on Seminary Ridge, ran east through the town, then curved southeast to a point opposite Culp's Hill. Thus, the Federal army had interior lines, while the Confederate line was nearly five miles (8 km) in length.[34]


Lee's battle plan for July 2 called for Longstreet's First Corps to position itself stealthily to attack the Union left flank, facing northeast astraddle the Emmitsburg Road, and to roll up the Federal line. The attack sequence was to begin with Maj. Gens. John Bell Hood's and Lafayette McLaws's divisions, followed by Maj. Gen. Richard H. Anderson's division of Hill's Third Corps. The progressive en echelon sequence of this attack would prevent Meade from shifting troops from his center to bolster his left. At the same time, Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's and Jubal Early's Second Corps divisions were to make a "demonstration" against Culp's and Cemetery Hills (again, to prevent the shifting of Federal troops), and to turn the demonstration into a full-scale attack if a favorable opportunity presented itself.[35] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Bell Hood (June 1[1] or June 29[2], 1831 – August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War and an old friend of Lt. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Four OS2U Kingfisher airplanes flying in right echelon formation. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ...


Lee's plan, however, was based on faulty intelligence, exacerbated by Stuart's continued absence from the battlefield. Instead of moving beyond the Federals' left and attacking their flank, Longstreet's left division, under McLaws, would face Maj. Gen. Daniel Sickles's III Corps directly in their path. Sickles was dissatisfied with the position assigned him on the southern end of Cemetery Ridge. Seeing higher ground more favorable to artillery positions a half mile (800 m) to the west, he advanced his corps—without orders—to the slightly higher ground along the Emmitsburg Road. The new line ran from Devil's Den, northwest to the Sherfy farm's Peach Orchard, then northeast along the Emmitsburg Road to south of the Codori farm. This created an untenable salient at the Peach Orchard; Brig. Gen. Andrew A. Humphreys's division (in position along the Emmitsburg Road) and Maj. Gen. David B. Birney's division (to the south) were subject to attacks from two sides and were spread out over a longer front than their small corps could defend effectively.[36] Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1819 – May 3, 1914) was a colorful and controversial American politician, Union general in the American Civil War, and diplomat. ... Andrew A. Humphreys Andrew Atkinson Humphreys (November 2, 1810 – December 27, 1883), was a career U.S. Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... David B. Birney David Bell Birney (May 29, 1825 – October 18, 1864) was a businessman, lawyer, and a Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Longstreet's attack was to be made as early as practicable; however, Longstreet got permission from Lee to await the arrival of one of his brigades, and while marching to the assigned position, his men came within sight of a Union signal station on Little Round Top. Countermarching to avoid detection wasted much time, and Hood's and McLaws's divisions did not launch their attacks until just after 4 p.m. and 5 p.m., respectively.[37]


Attacks on the Union left flank

Map of battle, July 2.

As Longstreet's divisions slammed into the Union III Corps, Meade was forced to send 20,000 reinforcements[38] in the form of the entire V Corps, Brig. Gen. John C. Caldwell's division of the II Corps, most of the XII Corps, and small portions of the newly arrived VI Corps. The Confederate assault deviated from Lee's plan since Hood's division moved more easterly than intended, losing its alignment with the Emmitsburg Road,[39] attacking Devil's Den and Little Round Top. McLaws, coming in on Hood's left, drove multiple attacks into the thinly stretched III Corps in the Wheatfield and overwhelmed them in Sherfy's Peach Orchard. McLaws's attack eventually reached Plum Run Valley (the "Valley of Death") before being beaten back by the Pennsylvania Reserves division of the V Corps, moving down from Little Round Top. The III Corps was virtually destroyed as a combat unit in this battle, and Sickles's leg was amputated after it was shattered by a cannonball. Caldwell's division was destroyed piecemeal in the Wheatfield. Anderson's division assault on McLaws's left, starting around 6 p.m., reached the crest of Cemetery Ridge, but they could not hold the position in the face of counterattacks from the II Corps, including an almost suicidal counterattack by the 1st Minnesota against a Confederate brigade, ordered in desperation by Hancock.[40] Download high resolution version (493x681, 170 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (493x681, 170 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John C. Caldwell John Curtis Caldwell (April 17, 1833 – August 31, 1912) was a teacher, a Union general in the American Civil War, and an American diplomat. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... The Pennsylvania Reserves was an infantry division during the American Civil War, noted for its famous commanders and high casualities. ... The First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer regiment during the American Civil War that is famous for charging a Confederate brigade on July 2, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg, preventing a serious breach in the Union army defensive line on Cemetery Ridge. ...


As fighting raged in the Wheatfield and Devil's Den, Col. Strong Vincent of V Corps had a precarious hold on Little Round Top, an important hill at the extreme left of the Union line. His brigade of four relatively small regiments was able to resist repeated assaults by Brig. Gen. Evander Law's brigade of Hood's division. Meade's chief engineer, Brig. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren, had realized the importance of this position, and dispatched Vincent's brigade, an artillery battery, and the 140th New York to occupy Little Round Top mere minutes before Hood's troops arrived. The defense of Little Round Top with a bayonet charge by the 20th Maine was one of the most fabled episodes in the Civil War and propelled Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain into prominence after the war.[41] Strong Vincent (1837-06-17–1863-07-07) was a lawyer who became famous as a U.S. Army officer during the fighting on Little Round Top at the American Civil War Battle of Gettysburg, where he was mortally wounded. ... Evander M. Law Evander McIvor Law (August 7, 1836 – October 31, 1920) was an author, teacher, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Gouverneur Kemble Warren (January 8, 1830 – August 8, 1882) was a civil engineer and prominent general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a combat unit of the United States Army during the American Civil War, most famous for its defense of Little Round Top at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. ... Maj. ...


Attacks on the Union right flank

About 7:00 p.m., the Second Corps' attack by Johnson's division on Culp's Hill got off to a late start. Most of the hill's defenders, the Union XII Corps, had been sent to the left to defend against Longstreet's attacks, and the only portion of the corps remaining on the hill was a brigade of New Yorkers under Brig. Gen. George S. Greene. Because of Greene's insistence on constructing strong defensive works, and with reinforcements from the I and XI Corps, Greene's men held off the Confederate attackers, although the Southerners did capture a portion of the abandoned Federal works on the lower part of Culp's Hill.[42] George Sears Greene George Sears Greene (May 6, 1801 – January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ...


Just at dark, two of Jubal Early's brigades attacked the Union XI Corps positions on East Cemetery Hill where Col. Andrew L. Harris of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, came under a withering attack, losing half his men; however, Early failed to support his brigades in their attack, and Ewell's remaining division, that of Maj. Gen. Robert E. Rodes, failed to aid Early's attack by moving against Cemetery Hill from the west. The Union army's interior lines enabled its commanders to shift troops quickly to critical areas, and with reinforcements from II Corps, the Federal troops retained possession of East Cemetery Hill, and Early's brigades were forced to withdraw.[43] Andrew Lintner Harris (also known as The Farmer-Statesman) (November 17, 1835 – September 13, 1915) was one of the heroes of the Battle of Gettysburg and the last Civil War general to serve as a governor in the U.S., serving as the 44th governor of Ohio. ... Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ...


Jeb Stuart and his three cavalry brigades arrived in Gettysburg around noon but had no role in the second day's battle. Brig. Gen. Wade Hampton's brigade fought a minor engagement with George Armstrong Custer's Michigan cavalry near Hunterstown to the northeast of Gettysburg.[44] Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Custer redirects here. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ...


Third day of battle

Further information: Culp's Hill, Pickett's Charge, and Third Day cavalry battles
Map of battle, July 3.

General Lee wished to renew the attack on Friday, July 3, using the same basic plan as the previous day: Longstreet would attack the Federal left, while Ewell attacked Culp's Hill.[45] However, before Longstreet was ready, Union XII Corps troops started a dawn artillery bombardment against the Confederates on Culp's Hill in an effort to regain a portion of their lost works. The Confederates attacked, and the second fight for Culp's Hill ended around 11 a.m., after some seven hours of bitter combat.[46] Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... On the Third Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863) in the American Civil War, the attention of history has focused on the disastrous infantry assault nicknamed Picketts Charge. ... Download high resolution version (492x679, 179 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (492x679, 179 KB) I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lee was forced to change his plans. Longstreet would command Pickett's Virginia division of his own First Corps, plus six brigades from Hill's Corps, in an attack on the Federal II Corps position at the right center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. Prior to the attack, all the artillery the Confederacy could bring to bear on the Federal positions would bombard and weaken the enemy's line.[47]

The "High Water Mark" on Cemetery Ridge as it appears today. The monument to the 72nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment ("Baxter's Philadelphia Fire Zouaves") appears at right, the Copse of Trees to the left.

Around 1 p.m., from 150 to 170 Confederate guns[48] began an artillery bombardment that was probably the largest of the war. In order to save valuable ammunition for the infantry attack that they knew would follow, the Army of the Potomac's artillery at first did not return the enemy's fire. After waiting about 15 minutes, about 80 Federal cannons added to the din. The Army of Northern Virginia was critically low on artillery ammunition, and the cannonade did not significantly affect the Union position. Around 3 p.m., the cannon fire subsided, and 12,500 Southern soldiers stepped from the ridgeline and advanced the three-quarters of a mile (1,200 m) to Cemetery Ridge in what is known to history as "Pickett's Charge". As the Confederates approached, there was fierce flanking artillery fire from Union positions on Cemetery Hill and north of Little Round Top, and musket and canister fire from Hancock's II Corps. Nearly one half of the attackers did not return to their own lines. Although the Federal line wavered and broke temporarily at a jog called the "Angle" in a low stone fence, just north of a patch of vegetation called the Copse of Trees, reinforcements rushed into the breach, and the Confederate attack was repulsed.[49] ImageMetadata File history File links 3698. ... ImageMetadata File history File links 3698. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ...


There were two significant cavalry engagements on July 3. Stuart was sent to guard the Confederate left flank and was to be prepared to exploit any success the infantry might achieve on Cemetery Hill by flanking the Federal right and hitting their trains and lines of communications. Three miles (5 km) east of Gettysburg, in what is now called "East Cavalry Field" (not shown on the accompanying map, but between the York and Hanover Roads), Stuart's forces collided with Federal cavalry: Brig. Gen. David McM. Gregg's division and George A. Custer's brigade. A lengthy mounted battle, including hand-to-hand sabre combat, ensued. Custer's charge, leading the 1st Michigan Cavalry, blunted the attack by Wade Hampton's brigade, blocking Stuart from achieving his objectives in the Federal rear. Meanwhile, after hearing news of the day's victory, Brig. Gen. Judson Kilpatrick launched a cavalry attack against the infantry positions of Longstreet's Corps southwest of Big Round Top. Brig. Gen. Elon J. Farnsworth protested against the futility of such a move but obeyed orders. Farnsworth was killed in the attack, and his brigade suffered significant losses.[50] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David McM. Gregg David McMurtrie Gregg (April 10, 1833 – August 7, 1916) was a farmer, diplomat, and a Union cavalry general in the American Civil War. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Wade Hampton during the Civil War Wade Hampton III (March 28, 1818 – April 11, 1902) was a Confederate cavalry leader during the American Civil War and afterwards a politician from South Carolina, representing it as governor and U.S. Senator. ... Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (1836-1881) Hugh Judson Kilpatrick (14 January 1836 near Deckertown, New Jersey – 4 December 1881 in Santiago, Chile) was a officer in the Union army during the American Civil War achieving the rank of Brevet Major General, the United States Minister to Chile, and a failed... Big Round Top from the entrenchments on Little Round Top photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863 Big Round Top (also called Round Top or Sugar Loaf) is the dominating terrain feature on the southern part of the Gettysburg Battlefield in Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... Elon John Farnsworth (July 30, 1837 – July 3, 1863) was a Union Army cavalry general in the American Civil War, killed at the Battle of Gettysburg. ...


Aftermath

The Confederate retreat

Gettysburg Campaign (July 5July 14).

The armies stared at one another across the bloody fields on July 4, the same day that the Vicksburg garrison surrendered to Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Lee reformed his lines into a defensive position, hoping that Meade would attack. The cautious Union commander, however, decided against the risk, a decision for which he would later be criticized. He did order a series of small probing actions, including sending the U.S. Regulars over a mile towards the right of the Confederate lines, but they withdrew under artillery fire and Meade decided not to press an attack. A series of sharp exchanges between the opposing skirmish lines merely added more names to the casualty lists. By mid-afternoon, the firing at Gettysburg had essentially stopped, and both armies began to collect their remaining wounded and bury some of the dead. A proposal by Lee for a prisoner exchange was rejected by Meade.[51] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1016x908, 239 KB)Map of the Gettysburg Campaign (July 5-14, 1863) of the American Civil War. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1016x908, 239 KB)Map of the Gettysburg Campaign (July 5-14, 1863) of the American Civil War. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ...


On July 5, in a driving rain, the bulk of the Army of Northern Virginia left Gettysburg on the Hagerstown Road; the Battle of Gettysburg was over, and the Confederates headed back to Virginia. Meade's army followed, although the pursuit was half-spirited. The recently rain-swollen Potomac trapped Lee's army on the north bank of the river for a time, but when the Federals finally caught up, the Confederates had forded the river. The rear-guard action at Falling Waters on July 14 ended the Gettysburg Campaign and added some more names to the long casualty lists, including General Pettigrew, who was mortally wounded.[52] is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In a brief letter to Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck written on July 7, Lincoln remarked on the two major Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg. He continued: is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Now, if Gen. Meade can complete his work so gloriously prosecuted thus far, by the literal or substantial destruction of Lee's army, the rebellion will be over.[53]

Halleck then relayed the contents of Lincoln's letter to Meade in a telegram. However, despite repeated pleas from Lincoln and Halleck, which continued over the next week, Meade did not pursue Lee's army aggressively enough to destroy it before it crossed back over the Potomac River.[54]


Reaction to the news of the Union victory

The news of the Union victory electrified the North. A headline in The Philadelphia Inquirer proclaimed "VICTORY! WATERLOO ECLIPSED!" New York diarist George Templeton Strong wrote:[55] The Philadelphia Inquirer is one of a two Knight Ridder newspaper duopoly daily for the Philadelphia area. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000...

The results of this victory are priceless. ... The charm of Robert E. Lee's invincibility is broken. The Army of the Potomac has at last found a general that can handle it, and has stood nobly up to its terrible work in spite of its long disheartening list of hard-fought failures. ... Copperheads are palsied and dumb for the moment at least. ... Government is strengthened four-fold at home and abroad. The Copperheads were a faction of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...

George Templeton Strong, Diary, p. 330.

"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan.
"The Harvest of Death": Union dead on the battlefield at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, photographed July 5 or July 6, 1863, by Timothy H. O'Sullivan.

Download high resolution version (862x667, 63 KB)Incidents of the war. ... Download high resolution version (862x667, 63 KB)Incidents of the war. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Timothy H. OSullivan (c. ...

Impact on the Confederacy

The Confederates had lost politically as well as militarily. During the final hours of the battle, Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens was approaching the Union lines at Norfolk, Virginia, under a flag of truce. Although his formal instructions from Confederate President Jefferson Davis had limited his powers to negotiations on prisoner exchanges and other procedural matters, historian James M. McPherson speculates that he had informal goals of presenting peace overtures. Davis had hoped that Stephens would reach Washington from the south while Lee's victorious army was marching toward it from the north. President Lincoln, upon hearing of the Gettysburg results, refused Stephens's request to pass through the lines. Furthermore, when the news reached London, any lingering hopes of European recognition of the Confederacy were finally abandoned. Henry Adams wrote, "The disasters of the rebels are unredeemed by even any hope of success. It is now conceded that all idea of intervention is at an end."[56] This is an article about the Confederate Vice President. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... German troops after surrendering to the U.S. Third Army carry the white flag (WW2 photo). ... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... Henry Brooks Adams (February 16, 1838 - March 27, 1918) was a U.S. historian, journalist and novelist. ...


Casualties

The two armies had suffered between 46,000 and 51,000 casualties. Union casualties were 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured or missing).[57] Confederate casualties are more difficult to estimate. Many authors cite about 28,000 overall casualties, but Busey and Martin's definitive 2005 work, Regimental Strengths and Losses, documents 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured or missing).[58] The casualties for both sides during the entire campaign were 57,225.[59] There was one documented civilian death during the battle: Ginnie Wade, 20 years old, was shot by a stray bullet that passed through her kitchen in town while she was making bread.[60] Image File history File links Gettysburg_national_cemetery_img_4164. ... Image File history File links Gettysburg_national_cemetery_img_4164. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Ginnie Wade Mary Virginia Ginnie Wade (May 21, 1843 – July 3, 1863), a seamstress, was the only Gettysburg civilian killed during the Battle of Gettysburg. ...


Nearly 8,000 had been killed outright; these bodies, lying in the hot summer sun, needed to be buried quickly. Over 3,000 horse carcasses[61] were burned in a series of piles south of town; townsfolk became violently ill from the stench. The ravages of war would still be evident in Gettysburg more than four months later when, on November 19, the Soldiers' National Cemetery was dedicated. During this ceremony, President Abraham Lincoln with his Gettysburg Address re-dedicated the Union to the war effort. is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gettysburg National Cemetery Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ...


Today, the Gettysburg National Cemetery and Gettysburg National Military Park are maintained by the U.S. National Park Service as two of the nation's most revered historical landmarks. Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States government agency that deals with U.S. National Parks and U.S. National Monuments. ...


Historical assessment

Assessment of Lee's leadership style

Throughout the campaign, General Lee seemed to have entertained the belief that his men were invincible; most of Lee's experiences with the army had convinced him of this, including the great victory at Chancellorsville in early May and the rout of the Union troops at Gettysburg on July 1.[62] Although high morale plays an important role in military victory when other factors are equal, Lee could not refuse his army's desire to fight. To the detrimental effects of their collective blind faith was added the fact that the Army of Northern Virginia had many new and inexperienced commanders (Neither Hill nor Ewell, for instance, though capable division commanders, had commanded a corps before). It had recently lost Stonewall Jackson, one of its most competent offensive generals. Also, Lee's method of giving generalized orders and leaving it up to his lieutenants to work out the details contributed to his defeat. Although this method may have worked with Jackson, it proved inadequate when dealing with corps commanders unused to Lee's style of command. Lee faced dramatic differences in going from defender to invader—long supply lines, a hostile local population, and an imperative to force the enemy from its position. Lastly, after July 1, the Confederates were simply not able to coordinate their attacks. Lee faced a new and very dangerous opponent in George Meade, and the Army of the Potomac stood to the task and fought well on its home territory.[63] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

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Campaign & Battles

Gettysburg Campaign: Campaign OverviewBrandy StationSecond WinchesterAldieMiddleburgUppervilleSporting HillHanoverCarlisleGettysburgHunterstownFairfieldWilliamsportBoonsboroManassas Gap
Actions at Gettysburg: First DaySecond DayThird Day cavalry battlesBig Round TopCemetery HillCulp's Hill • Devil's Den • Little Round Top • Peach Orchard • Pickett's Charge • Wheatfield Meade and Lee of Gettysburg Gettysburg Campaign (through July 3); cavalry movements shown with dashed lines. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength 11,000 9,500 Casualties 907 (69 killed, 352 wounded, 486 missing/captured)[1] 523[1] The Battle of Brandy Station was the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Winchester II Conflict American Civil War Date June 13-15, 1863 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Second Battle of Winchester took place from June 13– 15, 1863, in Frederick County and Winchester, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American... The Battle of Aldie took place on June 17, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Middleburg Conflict American Civil War Date June 17-19, 1863 Place Loudoun County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Middleburg took place from June 17-19, 1863 in Loudoun County, Virginia as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Alfred Pleasonton J.E.B. Stuart Strength Divisions Divisions Casualties 400 total (US and CS) 400 total (US and CS) The Battle of Upperville took place on June 21, 1863, in Loudoun County, Virginia, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Darius N. Couch Albert G. Jenkins Strength Elements of Pennsylvania and New York state militia Elements of the 16th Virginia Cavalry Regiment Casualties 16 dead 20-30 wounded 11 wounded The Skirmish of Sporting Hill was a relatively small skirmish... The Battle of Hanover took place on June 30, 1863, in York County, Pennsylvania as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William F. Smith Jeb Stuart Strength Federal militia (app. ... The Battle of Hunterstown was a minor cavalry engagement in Adams County, Pennsylvania, on July 2, 1863, during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Battle of Fairfield was a cavalry engagement during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Williamsport Conflict American Civil War Date July 6-16, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Williamsport, also known as the Battle of Hagerstown or Falling Waters, took place from July 6-16, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of... Battle of Boonsboro Conflict American Civil War Date July 8, 1863 Place Washington County, Maryland Result Inconclusive The Battle of Boonsboro took place on July 8, 1863 in Washington County, Maryland as part of the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William H. French Richard H. Anderson Strength Divisions Divisions Casualties 440 total (US and CS) 440 total (US and CS) The Battle of Manassas Gap, also known as the Battle of Wapping Heights, took place on July 23, 1863, in... The First Day of the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1, 1863, began as an American Civil War meeting engagement between isolated units of the Army of Northern Virginia (under Confederate General Robert E. Lee) and the Army of the Potomac (Union Major General George G. Meade), but soon escalated into... Map of battle, July 2. ... On the Third Day of the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863) in the American Civil War, the attention of history has focused on the disastrous infantry assault nicknamed Picketts Charge. ... Big Round Top from the entrenchments on Little Round Top photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863 Big Round Top (also called Round Top or Sugar Loaf) is the dominating terrain feature on the southern part of the Gettysburg Battlefield in Adams County, Pennsylvania. ... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in... Map of battle, July 2. ... Little Round Top, western slope, photographed by Timothy H. OSullivan, 1863. ... Map of battle, July 2. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ... Map of battle, July 2. ...

Notable CSA Leaders
Robert E. LeeE. Porter AlexanderRichard H. AndersonJubal A. EarlyRichard S. EwellHenry HethA.P. HillJohn B. HoodAllegheny JohnsonJames LongstreetLafayette McLawsW. Dorsey PenderJ. Johnston PettigrewGeorge E. PickettRobert E. RodesJ.E.B. StuartIsaac R. Trimble
Notable USA Leaders
George G. MeadeJohn BufordJoshua L. ChamberlainGeorge A. CusterAbner DoubledayGeorge S. GreeneWinfield S. HancockJoseph HookerOliver O. Howard • Henry J. Hunt • Alfred PleasontonJohn F. ReynoldsJohn SedgwickDaniel E. SicklesHenry W. SlocumGeorge SykesGouverneur K. Warren
Other Topics

American Civil WarConfederate Order of BattleUnion Order of BattleDepartment of the MonongahelaDepartment of the SusquehannaGettysburg AddressGettysburg National CemeteryCemetery RidgeSeminary Ridge
Army of the Potomac: I CorpsII CorpsIII CorpsV CorpsVI CorpsXI CorpsXII Corps1st Minnesota20th Maine
Army of Northern Virginia: First Corps • Second Corps • Third Corps • Cavalry Corps
Gettysburg today: BattlefieldTownCollegeLutheran Theological Seminary
Popular media: Gettysburg (film)Gettysburg (game)Gettysburg (music)CycloramaSid Meier's Gettysburg!Terrible Swift SwordThe Killer Angels Image File history File links Download high resolution version (712x1024, 122 KB) Summary Description: Portrait of Gen. ... // For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Edward Porter Alexander Edward Porter Alexander (May 26, 1835 – April 28, 1910) was an engineer, an officer in the U.S. Army, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and later a railroad executive, planter, and author. ... Richard H. Anderson Richard Heron Anderson ( October 7, 1821 – June 26, 1879) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Henry Heth Henry Heth (December 16, 1825 – September 27, 1899) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... John Bell Hood John Bell Hood (June 1, 1831–August 30, 1879) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War, the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Lafayette McLaws Lafayette McLaws ( January 15, 1821 – July 24, 1897) was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... William Dorsey Pender William Dorsey Pender (February 6, 1834 – July 3, 1863) was one of the youngest, and most promising, generals fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War. ... J. Johnston Pettigrew James Johnston Pettigrew (July 4, 1828 – July 17, 1863) was an author, lawyer, linguist, diplomat, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of George E. Pickett George Edward Pickett (January 25, 1825 – July 30, 1875) was a major-general in the army of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. ... Robert E. Rodes Robert Emmett Rodes ( March 29, 1829 – September 19, 1864) was a railroad civil engineer and a promising young Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed in battle in the Shenandoah Valley. ... James Ewell Brown Stuart (February 6, 1833 – May 12, 1864) was an American soldier from Virginia and a Confederate Army general during the American Civil War. ... Isaac R. Trimble Isaac Ridgeway Trimble (May 15, 1802 – January 2, 1888) was a U.S. Army officer, a civil engineer, a prominent railroad construction superintendent and executive, and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (641x899, 96 KB)[edit] Summary Photoshop cropped and cleaned up by Hal Jespersen. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... John Buford, Jr. ... Maj. ... George Armstrong Custer George Armstrong Custer (December 5, 1839 - June 25, 1876) was an American cavalry commander in the Civil War and the Indian Wars who is best remembered for his defeat and death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against a coalition of Native American tribes, led by... Abner Doubleday Abner Doubleday (June 26, 1819 – January 26, 1893), was a career U.S. Army officer and Union general in the American Civil War. ... George Sears Greene George Sears Greene (May 6, 1801 – January 28, 1899) was a civil engineer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Winfield S. Hancock during the Civil War Winfield Scott Hancock (February 14, 1824 - February 9, 1886) was born in Montgomery Square, Pennsylvania and named after the famous general Winfield Scott. ... Joseph Hooker (November 13, 1814 – October 31, 1879), known as Fighting Joe, was a career U.S. Army officer and a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Note: This article is about Gen. ... Alfred Pleasonton Alfred Pleasonton was a U.S. Army officer and general of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. ... John Fulton Reynolds (September 20, 1840 – July 1, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Sedgwick John Sedgwick (September 13, 1813 – May 9, 1864) was a teacher, a career military officer, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War. ... Portrait of Daniel Sickles during the Civil War Daniel Edgar Sickles (October 20, 1825–May 3, 1914) was an American soldier, statesman and diplomat. ... Portrait of General Henry W. Slocum by Mathew Brady, ca. ... George Sykes George Sykes (October 9, 1822 – February 8, 1880) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... Gouverneur Kemble Warren (January 8, 1830 – August 8, 1882) was a civil engineer and prominent general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg on the Confederate side. ... The following units and commanders fought in the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War on the Union side. ... The Department of the Monogahela was a military department created by the United States War Department during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The Department of the Susquehanna was a military department created by the United States War Department during the Gettysburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... The only known photo of Abraham Lincoln at Gettysburg (seated, center), taken about noon, just after Lincoln arrived and some three hours before he spoke. ... Soldiers National Monument at the center of Gettysburg National Cemetery, Randolph Rogers, sculptor Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... A strip of land in Gettysburg thats located between Cemetery Hill and Little Round Top. ... Seminary Ridge is a geographic feature immediately to the west of the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... I Corps (First Corps) was the designation of four different corps_sized units in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... There were five corps in the Union Army designated as II Corps (Second Corps) during the American Civil War. ... Daniel Sickles and staff after the Battle of Gettysburg There were four formations in the Union Army designated as III Corps (or Third Corps) during the American Civil War. ... The V Corps (Fifth Corps) was a unit of the Union Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. ... The VI Corps (Sixth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The XI Corps (Eleventh Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, best remembered for its humiliating defeats at the battles of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in 1863. ... Union Army, XII Corps, 3rd Division Badge The XII Corps (Twelfth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War. ... The First Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a volunteer regiment during the American Civil War that is famous for charging a Confederate brigade on July 2, 1863, during the Battle of Gettysburg, preventing a serious breach in the Union army defensive line on Cemetery Ridge. ... The 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment was a combat unit of the United States Army during the American Civil War, most famous for its defense of Little Round Top at the 1863 Battle of Gettysburg. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Battle Flag in the Second Corps (37th Va. ... The Cavalry Corps battle flag belonging to JEB Stuart The Cavalry Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia was the only organized cavalry corps in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. ... Gettysburg Map The Gettysburg Battlefield was the site of the Battle of Gettysburg, fought July 1 to July 3, 1863, in and around the borough of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the county seat of Adams County, which had approximately 2,400 residents at the time. ... Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km) south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the county seatGR6. ... Gettysburg College is a private national four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, adjacent to the famous battlefield. ... Image:Olddorm. ... Gettysburg is a 1993 movie that dramatizes the decisive Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War. ... Gettysburg is a board wargame produced by Avalon Hill which re-enacts the American Civil War battle of Gettysburg. ... Gettysburg (1863) is an extended piece of music written by Jon Schaffer, the leader of American heavy metal band Iced Earth and performed by Iced Earth and the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra. ... The Gettysburg National Military Park Cyclorama Center in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is the home of the Battle of Gettysburg Cyclorama, a 360 degree circular oil-on-canvas painting that depicts Picketts Charge, the climactic Confederate attack on the Union center on July 3, 1863. ... Sid Meiers Gettysburg! is a real-time tactics computer game designed by Sid Meier the co-founder of Firaxis Games, then was released in 1997 by Electronic Arts. ... Terrible Swift Sword: The Three Days of Gettysburg (often abbreviated as TSS) is a classic grand tactical, regimental level board game depicting the Battle of Gettysburg of the American Civil War. ... The Killer Angels front cover The Killer Angels (1974) is a historical novel by Michael Shaara that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1975. ...

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References

  • Busey, John W., and Martin, David G., Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg, 4th Ed., Longstreet House, 2005, ISBN 0-944413-67-6.
  • Clark, Champ, and the Editors of Time-Life Books, Gettysburg: The Confederate High Tide, Time-Life Books, 1985, ISBN 0-8094-4758-4.
  • Coddington, Edwin B., The Gettysburg Campaign; a study in command, Scribner's, 1968, ISBN 0-684-84569-5.
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars, Frederick A. Praeger, 1959.
  • Foote, Shelby, The Civil War, A Narrative: Fredericksburg to Meridian, Random House, 1958, ISBN 0-394-49517-9.
  • Harman, Troy D., Lee's Real Plan at Gettysburg, Stackpole Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0054-2.
  • Longacre, Edward G., The Cavalry at Gettysburg, University of Nebraska Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8032-7941-8.
  • Martin, David G., Gettysburg July 1, rev. ed., Combined Publishing, 1996, ISBN 0-938289-81-0.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • Nye, Wilbur S., Here Come the Rebels!, Louisiana State University Press, 1965 (reprinted by Morningside House, 1984), ISBN 0-89029-080-6.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., Gettysburg – The First Day, University of North Carolina Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8078-2624-3.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., Gettysburg – The Second Day, University of North Carolina Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8078-1749-X.
  • Pfanz, Harry W., Gettysburg: Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8078-2118-7.
  • Rawley, James A., Turning Points of the Civil War, University of Nebraska Press, 1966, ISBN 0-8032-8935-9.
  • Sauers, Richard A., "Battle of Gettysburg", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Gettysburg, Houghton Mifflin, 2003, ISBN 0-395-86761-4.
  • Symonds, Craig L., American Heritage History of the Battle of Gettysburg, HarperCollins, 2001, ISBN 0-06-019474-X.
  • Tagg, Larry, The Generals of Gettysburg, Savas Publishing, 1998, ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
  • Trudeau, Noah Andre, Gettysburg: A Testing of Courage, HarperCollins, 2002, ISBN 0-06-019363-8.
  • Tucker, Glenn, High Tide at Gettysburg, Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1958 (reprinted by Morningside House, 1983), ISBN 0-89029-715-4.
  • Wert, Jeffry D., Gettysburg: Day Three, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-85914-9.

Shelby Dade Foote, Jr. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Busey and Martin, p. 125. "Engaged strength" at the battle was 93,921.
  2. ^ a b c Busey and Martin, p. 260. "Engaged strength" at the battle was 71,699. McPherson, p. 648, lists the strength at the start of the campaign as 75,000.
  3. ^ The Battle of Antietam, the culmination of Lee's first invasion of the North, had the largest number of casualties in a single day. In comparison, Antietam had about 23,000 casualties in fighting that lasted from dawn until late afternoon, but the second day of Gettysburg had roughly 20,000 casualties in fighting that lasted only a few hours, from around 4 p.m. until shortly after dark. The casualty rate at the peak of the fighting on the second day in the areas of the Wheatfield, Little Round Top, and Devil's Den has been estimated to be faster than one casualty per second.
  4. ^ Rawley, p. 147. Sauers, p. 827. McPherson, p. 665; McPherson cites the combination of Gettysburg and Vicksburg as the turning point.
  5. ^ Coddington, pp. 8-9. Eicher, p. 490.
  6. ^ Eicher, p. 491.
  7. ^ Symonds, p. 36.
  8. ^ Trudeau, pp. 45, 66.
  9. ^ Symonds, pp. 49-54.
  10. ^ Nye, pp. 272-78.
  11. ^ Symonds, pp. 41-43. Sears, pp. 103-06. Esposito, text for Map 94 (Map 34b in the online version). Eicher, pp. 504-07. McPherson, p. 649.
  12. ^ Sears, p. 123. Trudeau, p. 128.
  13. ^ Coddington, pp. 181, 189.
  14. ^ Eicher, pp. 508-09, discounts Heth's claim because the previous visit by Early to Gettysburg would have made the lack of shoe factories or stores obvious. However, many mainstream historians accept Heth's account: Sears, p. 136; Foote, p. 465; Clark, p. 35; Tucker, pp. 97-98.
  15. ^ Eicher, p. 508. Tucker, pp. 99-102.
  16. ^ Sears, p. 155.
  17. ^ Martin, pp. 80-81. The troopers carried single-shot, breechloading carbines manufactured by Sharps, Burnside, and others. It is a modern myth that they were armed with multi-shot repeating carbines. Nevertheless, they were able to fire two or three times faster than a muzzle-loaded carbine or rifle.
  18. ^ Symonds, p. 71. Coddington, p. 266. Eicher, pp. 510-11.
  19. ^ Tucker, pp. 112-17.
  20. ^ Coddington, p. 269. Other sources, such as Sears, p. 170, quote Reynolds's orderly, Charles Veil, that a "Minnie [sic] ball struck him in the back of the neck."
  21. ^ Tucker, p. 184. Symonds, p. 74. Pfanz, First Day, pp. 269-75.
  22. ^ Busey and Martin, pp. 298, 501.
  23. ^ Pfanz, First Day, pp. 275-93.
  24. ^ Clark, p. 53.
  25. ^ Pfanz, First Day, p. 158.
  26. ^ Pfanz, First Day, p. 230.
  27. ^ Pfanz, First Day, p. 156-238.
  28. ^ Pfanz, First Day, p. 294.
  29. ^ Pfanz, First Day, pp. 337-38. Sears, pp. 223-25.
  30. ^ Martin, pp. 482-88.
  31. ^ Pfanz, First Day, p. 344. Eicher, p. 517. Sears, p. 228. Trudeau, p. 253. Both Sears and Trudeau record "if possible."
  32. ^ Martin, p. 9, citing Thomas L. Livermore's Numbers & Losses in the Civil War in America (Houghton Mifflin, 1900).
  33. ^ Coddington, p. 333. Tucker, p. 327.
  34. ^ Clark, p. 74. Eicher, p 521.
  35. ^ Sears, p. 255. Clark, p. 69.
  36. ^ Pfanz, Second Day, pp. 93-97. Eicher, pp. 523-24.
  37. ^ Pfanz, Second Day, pp. 119-23.
  38. ^ Harman, p. 59.
  39. ^ Harman, p. 57.
  40. ^ Sears, pp. 833-35. Eicher, pp. 530-35. Coddington, p. 423.
  41. ^ Eicher, pp. 527-30. Clark, pp. 81-85.
  42. ^ Eicher, pp. 537-38. Sauers, p. 835. Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 205-34. Clark, pp. 115-16.
  43. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 235-83. Clark, pp. 116-18. Eicher, pp. 538-39.
  44. ^ Sears, p. 257. Longacre, pp. 198-99.
  45. ^ Harman, p. 63.
  46. ^ Pfanz, Culp's Hill, pp. 284-352. Eicher, pp. 540-41. Coddington, pp. 465-75.
  47. ^ Eicher, p. 542. Coddington, pp. 485-86.
  48. ^ See discussion of varying gun estimates in Pickett's Charge article footnote.
  49. ^ McPherson, pp. 661-63. Clark, pp. 133-44. Symonds, pp. 214-41. Eicher, pp. 543-49.
  50. ^ Eicher, pp. 549-50. Longacre, pp. 226-31, 240-44. Sauers, p. 836. Wert, pp. 272-80.
  51. ^ Eicher, p. 550. Coddington, pp. 539-44. Clark, pp. 146-47. Wert, p. 300.
  52. ^ Clark, pp. 147-57. Longacre, pp. 268-69.
  53. ^ Coddington, p. 564.
  54. ^ Coddington, pp. 535-74.
  55. ^ McPherson, p. 664.
  56. ^ McPherson, pp. 650, 664.
  57. ^ Busey and Martin, p. 125.
  58. ^ Busey and Martin, p. 260.
  59. ^ Sears, p. 513.
  60. ^ Sears, p. 391.
  61. ^ Sears, p. 511.
  62. ^ Trudeau, p. 530.
  63. ^ Tucker, pp. 389-94.

Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company was formed in Hartford, Connecticut. ... Map of Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863. ...

Further reading

  • Gottfried, Bradley M., The Maps of Gettysburg: An Atlas of the Gettysburg Campaign, June 3 – June 13, 1863, Savas Beatie, 2007, ISBN 978-1-932714-30-2.
  • Huntington, Tom, Pennsylvania Civil War Trails: The Guide to Battle Sites, Monuments, Museums and Towns, Stackpole books, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8117-3379-3.
  • Shaara, Michael, The Killer Angels: A Novel, David McKay Co., 1974, (reprinted by Ballantine Books, 2001), ISBN 978-0345444127.
  • Stackpole, Gen. Edward J., "They Met at Gettysburg", Stackpole Books, 1956, ISBN 0-8117-2089-6.

Michael Shaara Michael Shaara (June 23, 1928 - May 5, 1988) was a writer of science fiction, sports fiction, and historical fiction. ...

External links

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  • Gettysburg National Military Park (National Park Service)
  • Gettysburg Photographs.com (NPS Tour Map of Gettysburg with links to photogalleries)
  • Interactive Battle Of Gettysburg with Narratives
  • Military History Online: The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Explanation of Buford's Defense at Gettysburg
  • The Brothers War: The Battle of Gettysburg
  • Gettysburg Discussion Group archives
  • List of 53 Confederate generals at Gettysburg
  • List of 67 US generals at Gettysburg
  • Camp Letterman General Hospital
  • Maps and aerial photos for 39°49′05″N 77°13′57″W / 39.818056, -77.2325Coordinates: 39°49′05″N 77°13′57″W / 39.818056, -77.2325
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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Friends of the National Parks at Gettysburg: The Battle (682 words)
Gettysburg is in south-central Pennsylvania, 30 miles south of Harrisburg (the state capital) and nine miles north of the Maryland border (the Mason-Dixon line, historically known as the dividing line between north and south).
At Gettysburg, the north’s Army of the Potomac fought the south’s Army of Northern Virginia.
Friends of Gettysburg is committed—on behalf of all generations of Americans—to honoring, supporting, protecting and enhancing the resources associated with the Gettysburg National Military Park, the Battle of Gettysburg and the Eisenhower National Historic Site.
Battle of Gettysburg (725 words)
On July 1st, 1863, one of the largest and most crucial battles of the war was waged for 2 days in the hills around Gettysburg.
In a battle of considerable movement, Lee tested first the Union right on July 1st and then, in an assault led by General James Longstreet, the left on July 2nd.
The impact of Gettysburg was heavy on either side, and spurred the famous Gettysburg address.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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